Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "Selected water resources abstracts"

See other formats


BOOKSTACKS- 

DOCUMENTS 






! 






HLKDfUID 

WATER 
RESOURCES 



DEC 21 1972 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 




VOLUME 5, NUMBER 13 

JULY 1, 1972 



W72-07279 - W72-07888 



^' 






SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS is published semimonthly for the 
Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) by the National Tech- 
nical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. Department of Commerce. NTIS was 
established September 2, 1970, as a new primary operating unit under the 
Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Science and Technology to improve public 
access to the many products and services of the Department. Information 
services for Federal scientific and technical report literature previously pro- 
vided by the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information 
are now provided by NTIS. 

SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS is available to Federal agencies, 
contractors, or grantees in water resources upon request to: Manager, Water 
Resources Scientific Information Center, Office of Water Resources Research, 
U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington. D. C. 20240. 

SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS is also available on subscription 
from the National Technical Information Service. Annual subscription is $22 
(domestic), $27.50 (foreign), single copy price $3. Certain documents ab- 
stracted in this journal can be purchased from the NTIS at prices indicated in 
the entry. Prepayment is required. 



sEmcim® 

WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS 



A Semimonthly Publication of the Water Resources Scientific Information Center, 
Office of Water Resources Research, U.S. Department of the Interior 




VOLUME 5, NUMBER 13 

JULY 1, 1972 



W72-07279 -- W72-07888 



Use of funds for printing this publication approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, September 4, 1968. 



As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the 
Interior has basic responsibilities for water, fish, wildlife, mineral, land, 
park, and recreational resources. Indian and Territorial affairs are other 
major concerns of America's "Department of Natural Resources." 

The Department works to assure the wisest choice in managing all our 
resources so each will make its full contribution to a better United 
States-now and in the future. 



JJa- 



FOREWORD 



Selected Water Resources Abstracts, a semimonthly journal, includes abstracts 
of current and earlier pertinent monographs, journal articles, reports, and 
other publication formats. The contents of these documents cover the water- 
related aspects of the life, physical, and social sciences as well as related 
engineering and legal aspects of the characteristics, conservation, control, use, 
or management of water. Each abstract includes a full bibliographical citation 
and a set of descriptors or identifiers which are listed in the Water Resources 
Thesaurus. Each abstract entry is classified into ten fields and sixty groups 
similar to the water resources research categories established by the Com- 
mittee on Water Resources Research of the Federal Council for Science and 
Technology. 

WRSIC IS NOT PRESENTLY IN A POSITION TO PROVIDE COPIES OF DOCU- 
MENTS ABSTRACTED IN THIS JOURNAL. Sufficient bibliographic information 
is given to enable readers to order the desired documents from local libraries 
or other sources. 

Selected Water Resources Abstracts is designed to serve the scientific and 
technical information needs of scientists, engineers, and managers as one 
of several planned services of the Water Resources Scientific Information 
Center (WRSIC). The Center was established by the Secretary of the Interior 
and has been designated by the Federal Council for Science and Technology 
to serve the water resources community by improving the communication of 
water-related research results. The Center is pursuing this objective by co- 
ordinating and supplementing the existing scientific and technical information 
activities associated with active research and investigation program in water 
resources. 

To provide WRSIC with input, selected organizations with active water resources 
research programs are supported as "centers of competence" responsible for 
selecting, abstracting, and indexing from the current and earlier pertinent 
literature in specified subject areas. 

Additional "centers of competence" have been established in cooperation with 
the Environmental Protection Agency. A directory of the Centers appears on 
inside back cover. 

Supplementary documentation is being secured from established discipline- 
oriented abstracting and indexing services. Currently an arrangement is in 
effect whereby the BioScience Information Service of Biological Abstracts 
supplies WRSIC with relevant references from the several subject areas of 
interest to our users. In addition to Biological Abstracts, references are acquired 
from Bioresearch Index which are without abstracts and therefore also appear 
abstractless in SWRA. Similar arrangements with other producers of abstracts 
are contemplated as planned augmentation of the information base. 

The input from these Centers, and from the 51 Water Resources Research 
Institutes administered under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964, as 
well as input from the grantees and contractors of the Office of Water Re- 
sources Research and other Federal water resources agencies with which the 






in 



Center has agreements becomes the information base from which this journal 
is, and other information services will be, derived; these services include 
bibliographies, specialized indexes, literature searches, and state-of-the-art 
reviews. 

Comments and suggestions concerning the contents and arrangements of this 
bulletin are welcome. 

Water Resources Scientific Information Center 
Office of Water Resources Research 
U.S. Department of the Interior 
Washington, D. C. 20240 



IV 



M 



CONTENTS 

FOREWORD iii 

SUBJECT FIELDS AND GROUPS 

(Use Edge Index on back cover to Locate Subject Fields and 
Indexes in the journal.) 



01 NATURE OF WATER 

Includes the following Groups: Properties; Aqueous Solutions and 
Suspensions 

02 WATER CYCLE 

Includes the following Groups: General; Precipitation; Snow, Ice, 
and Frost; Evaporation and Transpiration; Streamflow and Runoff; 
Groundwater; Water in Soils; Lakes; Water in Plants; Erosion and 
Sedimentation; Chemical Processes; Estuaries. 

03 WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION 

Includes the following Groups: Saline Water Conversion; Water 
Yield Improvement; Use of Water of Impaired Quality; Conservation 
in Domestic and Municipal Use; Conservation in Industry; Con- 
servation in Agriculture. 

04 WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 

Includes the following Groups: Control of Water on the Surface; 
Groundwater Management; Effects on Water of Man's Non-Water 
Activities; Watershed Protection. 

05 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 

Includes the following Groups: Identification of Pollutants; Sources 
of Pollution; Effects of Pollution; Waste Treatment Processes; 
Ultimate Disposal of Wastes; Water Treatment and Quality Altera- 
tion; Water Quality Control. 



06 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 

Includes the following Groups: Techniques of Planning; Evalua- 
tion Process; Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, Pricing/Repayment; 
Water Demand; Water Law and Institutions; Nonstructural Alter- 
natives; Ecologic Impact of Water Development. 

07 RESOURCES DATA 

Includes the following Groups: Network Design; Data Acquisi- 
tion; Evaluation, Processing and Publication. 

08 ENGINEERING WORKS 

Includes the following Groups: Structures; Hydraulics; Hydraulic 
Machinery; Soil Mechanics; Rock Mechanics and Geology; Con- 
crete; Materials; Rapid Excavation; Fisheries Engineering. 

09 MANPOWER, GRANTS AND FACILITIES 

Includes the following Groups: Education— Extramural; Educa- 
tion— In-House; Research Facilities; Grants, Contracts, and 
Research Act Allotments. 

10 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION 

Includes the following Groups: Acquisition and Processing; 
Reference and Retrieval; Secondary Publication and Distribution; 
Specialized Information Center Services; Translations; Prepara- 
tion of Reviews. 



SUBJECT INDEX 
AUTHOR INDEX 
ORGANIZATIONAL INDEX 
ACCESSION NUMBER INDEX 
ABSTRACT SOURCES 



SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS 



01. NATURE OF WATER 

IB. Aqueous Solutions and 
Suspensions 



COMPRESSIBILITY AND MOLAL VOLUME 
STUDIES, 

Miami Univ., Fla. 

Waiter Drost-Hansen, Frank J. Millero, and 

Harold A. Scheraga. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 

D.C. 20402, Price $0.45. Office of Saline Water 

Research and Development Progress Report no. 

350, 65 p, 120 ref , Aug 1968. 14-01-0001-602. 

Descriptors: *Saline water systems, *Aqueous 
solutions, 'Density, "Compressibility, Elec- 
trolytes. 

Identifiers: *Molal volume, "Densitometers, 
•Water solute interactions. 

A high-precision densitometer has been developed 
and used to study the densities of a number of 
dilute aqueous electrolyte solutions containing 
LiCl, NaCI, KC1, RbCl, NaF, KBr, KI, KN03, 
NH4C1, Me4Cl, Et4NCl, Pr4NCl and Bu4NCl, at 
one degree intervals from 20 to 40 deg C. From 
these data apparent molal volumes (and, in some 
cases, partial molal volumes) have been deter- 
mined. Furthermore, expansibilities have been 
determined from these data and analyzed in terms 
of the individual ionic contributions. All of these 
findings are discussed in terms of water-solute in- 
teractions. Alleged anamalous properties of aque- 
ous sodium sulfate solutions (near the transition 
temperature of the decahydrate) have been studied 
and found to be nonexistent. An apparatus has 
been constructed for relatively precise measure- 
ments of the isothermal compressibility of liquids. 
Using this instrumentation, the compressibility of 
water has been determined from 2 to 55 deg C. The 
results obtained agree satisfactorily with those re- 
ported by other authors. (OSW) 
W72-07647 

02. WATER CYCLE 
2A. General 



MACHINE PROCESSING OF 

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL DATA. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07283 



A MODIFIED SIGMA EQUATIONS' AP- 
PROACH TO THE NUMERICAL MODELING 
OF GREAT LAKES HYDRODYNAMICS, 

Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02H. 

W72-07292 



HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF 
FORESTED WATERSHEDS IN ARIZONA, AUG- 
MENTATION OF HYDROLOGIC RECORDS BY 
DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Lab. of Tree-Ring 

Research. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07359 



APPLICATION OF THE CONVOLUTION 
EQUATION TO STREAM-AQUIFER RELA- 
TIONSHIPS, 

New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Inst, of Natural 

and Environmental Resources. 

F. R. Hall, and A. F. Moench. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 487- 

493, April 1972. 9 fig, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: "Hydrologic equation, "Surface- 
groundwater relationships, "Mathematical studies. 



Equations, Base flow. Recession curves, Trans- 
missivity, Infiltration, Recharge, Hydrogeology, 
Water level fluctuations. Discharge (Water), Dif- 
fusivity. 

Flow and head variations in stationary linear 
stream-aquifer systems may be obtained through 
application of the convolution equation. Four 
highly idealized cases involving finite and semi- 
finite aquifers, with and without semipervious 
stream banks, are considered. Equations for the 
instantaneous unit impulse response function, the 
unit step response function, and the derivative of 
the unit step response function are given for each 
case. Head fluctuations in the aquifer due to an ar- 
bitrarily varying flood pulse are obtained for the 
cases involving a finite aquifer with and without a 
semipervious stream bank. Flow in and out of the 
aquifer at the stream bank is determined for the 
same cases and demonstrates the value of the con- 
volution equation in evaluating the base flow. 
Head variations, and to a lesser extent flow varia- 
tions, are apparently relatively insensitive to varia- 
tions in aquifer diffusivity. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07475 



RUNOFF VOLUMES FROM SMALL URBAN 
WATERSHEDS, 

Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Water Resources 

Research Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 

W72-07479 



ERRORS IN OUTPUT OF HYDROLOGIC 
MODELS DUE TO ERRORS IN INPUT POTEN- 
TIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, 

Agricultural Research Service, University Park, 

Pa. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02D. 

W72-07484 



MODELING URBAN RUNOFF AS A DETER- 
MINISTIC PROCESS, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

J. C. Schaake, Jr. 

In: Treatise on Urban Water Systems, Colorado 

State University, Fort Collins, p 343-349, July 

1971. 2 ref. 

Descriptors: "Mathematical models, "Storm ru- 
noff, "Cities, "Urbanization, Linear pro- 
gramming, Systems analysis, Dynamic pro- 
gramming. Unsteady flow, Rainfall-runoff rela- 
tionships. 
Identifiers: "Urban hydrology. 

A model of a hydrologic system is an abstraction, 
a simplified representation of the system, and not 
a complete or exact duplication of it. Natural 
hydrologic systems are complex, so any model 
must neglect at least some aspects of the natural 
systems. One of the most promising approaches to 
nonlinear modeling of hydrologic systems is to use 
the differential equations that describe hydrologic 
phenomena. Much progress has been made in ap- 
plying the equations for unsteady flow in open 
channels to describe surface runoff and stream- 
flow. Flow in streams and sewers may be 
described by the unsteady flow equations. If the 
kernel of a linear system is known, calculation of 
the system response is simply evaluating the cor- 
relation integral. The calculations are inherently 
stable and no numerical difficulties are encoun- 
tered. The response of the system to many dif- 
ferent inputs may be obtained in fractions of a 
second of computer time, even for distributed 
parameter models. In comparison, nonlinear 
models based on the kinematic wave equations 
may require computer time one or more orders of 
magnitude longer than a linear model. (See also 
W72-07485) (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07486 



A GENERAL RATIONALE FOR MODELING 
URBAN RUNOFF, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

J. C. Schaake, Jr. 

In: Treatise on Urban Water Systems, Colorado 

State University, Fort Collins, p 350-356, July 

1971. 4ref. 

Descriptors: "Mathematical models, "Storm ru- 
noff, "Cities, "Urbanization, Linear pro- 
gramming, Systems analysis, Dynamic pro- 
gramming, Unsteady flow, Rainfall-runoff rela- 
tionships. 
Identifiers: "Urban hydrology. 

A general rationale for modeling urban runoff is 
proposed. Fundamentally, there are seven basic 
steps that should be followed in any modeling 
procedure. These are: 1) carefully identify and 
evaluate the objectives; 2) select criteria for meet- 
ing these objectives; 3) seek the best of all possible 
models that satisfy these criteria; 4) estimate 
model parameters; 5) establish the adequacy of the 
model; 6) design appropriate input and output 
systems for the model; and 7) use the model ac- 
cording to the objectives. (See also W72-07485) 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07487 



DETERMINISTIC URBAN RUNOFF MODEL, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

J. C. Schaake, Jr. 

In: Treatise on Urban Water Systems, Colorado 

State University, Fort Collins, p 357-383, July 

1971. 1 1 fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: "Mathematical models, "Computer 
programs, "Storm runoff, "Cities, "Rainfall-ru- 
noff relationships, Model studies, Hydrographs, 
Urbanization, Routing. 

Identifiers: "Urban hydrology, Kinematic wave 
theory. 

A deterministic model is described for computing 
storm runoff from rainfall in urban areas. It is 
based on theoretical motion of kinematic waves in 
uniform channels with both lateral and upstream 
inflows. Kinematic wave theory is applied to 
urban catchments by decomposing the catchment 
into segments. The resulting model is a conceptual 
or hypothetical model of the real catchment. It is a 
deterministic model because all of the input data 
are given functions of time or are related uniquely 
to the physical properties of the catchment. The 
general system for creating deterministic models 
of any urban catchment is given as a FORTRAN 
program. This program requires data input which 
describes the physical features of the catchment 
and which describes the occurrence of a storm as 
it is distributed both temporally and spatially over 
the catchment. The program prints out the outflow 
hydrographs at selected points throughout the 
catchment. Runoff data are not required to use this 
model. All parameters can be estimated on the 
basis of physical features alone. However, if ru- 
noff data are available, they can be used to adjust 
parameter values to improve the fit of the model to 
the catchment. (See also W72-07485) (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07488 



URBAN WATER DATA NEEDS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Water 

Resources Div. 

R. W. Carter. 

In: Treatise on Urban Water Systems, Colorado 

State University, Fort Collins, p 480-498, July 

1971. 4 fig, Href. 

Descriptors: "Data collections, "Storm drains, 
"Flood control, "Water pollution control, 
"Hydrologic data, Networks, Instrumentation, 
Planning, Water management (Applied), Model 
studies, Storm runoff, Urbanization. 
Identifiers: "Data requirements, "Urban hydrolo- 
gy- 






Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2A — General 



From a hydrologic viewpoint urbanization raises 
several problems: namely, (1) an increased de- 
mand for water for municipal, industrial, and 
recreational purposes, (2) a change in the physical 
environment that changes the natural water 
regime, and (3) the disposal of wastes that may 
contaminate streams or aquifers. The hydrologic 
impact of an urban area may extend far beyond its 
own borders. Urbanization creates a special de- 
mand for hydrologic data, but there is no need to 
redefine the water regime in quality or quantity in 
the urban environment. Data are needed for the 
design of water-supply facilities and the protection 
of raw water supplies, for planning the disposal of 
waste, for determining the optimum pattern of 
land use, and for the design of storm-drainage 
facilities. Data may also be needed for the real- 
time management of water use for use to reduce 
floodflows, and to insure optimum dilution of 
waste. Hydrologic problems of urban areas are 
reviewed and deficiencies in present data pro- 
grams are identified. (See also W72-07485) (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07489 



DATA COLLECTION FOR REAL-TIME 
SYSTEMS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

G. F. Smoot. 

In: Treatise on Urban Water Systems, Colorado 

State University, Fort Collins, p 499-508, July 

1971. 1 tab,6ref. 

Descriptors: 'Data collections, *Storm runoff, 
•Cities, 'Urbanization, Network design, Instru- 
mentation, Telemetry, Automation, Data 
processing, Rainfall-runoff relationships, Rain 
gages. Flowmeters, Water quality. 
Identifiers: 'Urban hydrology. 

Existing devices and methods which might be used 
in data collection systems for metropolitan areas 
are reviewed and evaluated. The discussion in- 
cludes devices for measurement of precipitation, 
surface runoff, sewers, open channels, water 
quality, and systems for transmitting and logging 
of data. A data collection system for a 
metropolitan area must collect data from the net- 
work on a common time base. The use of a mixed 
time base would result in chaos, confusion, and 
loss of records. A computer-based control and 
data-logging system would provide not only the 
required precise time correlation, but also the real- 
time data required for the urban operational and 
management service. Such a system would permit 
programming to record only storm events, thus 
avoiding an excessive quantity of data that would 
otherwise result. Real-time data collection also 
provides a means for effective surveillance of the 
operating condition of instrumentation. (See also 
W72-07485) (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07490 



CONTROL OF SEDIMENT IN THE URBAN EN- 
VIRONMENT, 

Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colo. 

H. P. Guy. 

In: Treatise on Urban Water Systems, Colorado 

State University, Fort Collins, p 509-517, July 

1971. 1 tab, 15ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Urbanization, 
•Sediment yield, 'Cities, 'Erosion control, Water 
pollution control, Soil erosion, Construction. 
Identifiers: 'Urban hydrology, *Urban sedimenta- 
tion. 

Many urban water handling systems fail to some 
degree because of sediment. Such failures or 
damages are not limited to filling by sediment of a 
water-supply reservoir; they may also include: 
plugged storm drains; erosion and deposition in 
natural or artificial channels; degrading or failure 
of recreation facilities; damage to streams by the 
transportation and concentration of toxic chemi- 
cals and radioactive materials; sheet and gully ero- 
sion in construction areas; a reduction in ground- 
water recharge, whether natural or artificial; in- 



crease in dissolved solids in stream systems; and 
channel bank and bed erosion downstream from 
new urban areas. The most serious urban-sediment 
problem is the general deterioration of the total en- 
vironment, a condition not usually recognized by 
the general public, or one they feel incapable of 
doing anything about. Many sediment problems 
often can be alleviated by careful planning. Urban 
development should be avoided on flood plains 
and the steepest slopes along streams. Size of con- 
struction areas should be small, thus reducing the 
chance of eroded sediment reaching the stream. 
Construction can be planned for the time of year 
having a minimum erosive potential. (See also 
W72-07485) (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07491 



CASE STUDY ON DESIGN OF URBAN WATER 
DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS, 

Watermation, Inc., Saint Paul, Minn. 

J. J. Anderson. 

In: Treatise on Urban Water Systems, Colorado 

State University, Fort Collins, p 557-596, July 

1971. 7 fig, 4 map, 3 illus, 3 tab, 65 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Data collections, 'Storm drains, 
•Flood control, *Water pollution control, 
•Hydrologic data. Networks, Instrumentation, 
Planning, Water management (Applied), Model 
studies, Storm runoff, Urbanization. 
Identifiers: 'Data requirements, 'Urban hydrolo- 
gy- 

This case study provides an introduction to the 
design of urban water data acquisition systems. A 
great deal of judgment is required concerning all 
aspects of urban water resources management and 
a certain amount of trial and error is necessary. 
Fortunately, a computer-based data acquisition 
system is extremely flexible and can be easily 
revised. A trial design is outlined for acquiring 
data for major revisions to the wastewater and sur- 
face water collection systems. The revisions might 
include lumped or distributed storage, relief or ex- 
press sewers, transfer of flow between basins, and 
multiple facilities. The kinds of data needed con- 
cern surface water, rainfall, runoff, and waste- 
water. Surface water information should include 
flow or current as well as quality measurements. 
Measurements should show the conditions before 
and after the addition of pollutants. Runoff data 
include flow and quality in both combined and 
separate storm sewer systems. Measurements 
should be taken at key junctions and major out- 
lets, and treatment facilities. An attempt should be 
made to provide correlations with parameters 
measured on-line. (See also wW72-07485) (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07492 



COMPUTER PROGRAMS IN HYDROLOGY, 

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Water Resources 

Research Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02E. 

W72-07520 



USDAHL-70 MODEL OF WATERSHED 
HYDROLOGY, 

Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Md. 

Hydrograph Lab. 

H. N. Holtan, and N. C. Lopez. 

Available from GPO, Washington DC 20402, Price 

$0.75, Technical Bulletin No 1435, November 

1971. 84 p, 25 fig, 10 tab, 21 ref, append. 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall-runoff relationships, •Com- 
puter programs, *Mathematical models, *Routing, 
Hydrographs, Infiltration, Water balance, 
Evapotranspiration, Hydrogeology. 

The mathematical model of watershed hydrology 
under study in the USDA Hydrograph Laboratory 
is designed for use in agricultural watershed en- 
gineering. Input to the model consists of a continu- 
ous record of rainfall weighted to represent the 
watershed. Soils on each watershed are grouped 



by land capability clazses to form hydrologic 
response zones for computing infiltration, 
evapotranspiration, and overland flow. Zones 
used for each watershed typify the elevation 
sequence of uplands, hillsides, and bottom lands. 
Evapotranspiration potentials are estimated by use 
of published pan-evaporation data. Infiltration 
capacity is expressed as an exhaustion 
phenomenon convergent upon some constant rate. 
Rainfall in excess of infiltration is routed across 
each soil zone and cascaded across subsequent 
soil zones en route to the channel. Overland flow 
is computed by an adaptation of the continuity 
equation from runoff recessions on rectangular 
plots. Channel flows and subsurface return flows 
are routed by simultaneous solutions of the con- 
tinuity equation and a storage function. The 
mathematical model is programmed in FORTRAN 
and is listed in the Appendix. Generally, the 
parameters affecting water yield are soil depths, 
root depths, evapotranspiration, and the annual 
distribution of rainfall. Flood peaks and recession 
flows are most sensitive to rainfall intensities and 
the storage coefficients used in routing surface 
and subsurface flows. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07578 



SIMULATION OF RUNOFF FROM DEPRES- 
SION CHARACTERIZED WATERSHEDS, 

South Dakota State Univ., Brookings. Dept. of 
Agricultural Engineering. 
D. W. DeBoer, and H. P. Johnson. 
American Society of Agricultural Engineers 
Transactions, Vol 14, No 4, p 615-620, July-Au- 
gust 1971. 14 fig, 15 ref. 

Descriptors: *Mathematical models, •Rainfall-ru- 
noff relationships, 'Routing, Simulation analysis, 
Peak discharge, Drainage, Hydrograph analysis, 
Iowa, Drainage practices, Drainage systems. 

A mathematical watershed model was developed 
for the most recently glaciated region of Iowa. The 
region is characterized by a flat topography, nu- 
merous shallow depressional areas commonly 
called 'potholes' and surf ace-and-subsurf ace- 
drainage facilities. The model uses precipitation as 
input and simulates the hydrologic watershed 
processes of infiltration, surface runoff to depres- 
sional areas, soil moisture profile storage, 
evapotranspiration, and percolation of water to 
the water table. The basic approach used for the 
simulation of a watershed was to conceptually di- 
vide the watershed into several independent units 
called elemental watersheds. The hydrology of 
each elemental watershed is simulated for a storm 
period. Elemental watershed hydrographs are 
routed and combined to yield the watershed 
discharge hydrograph. The model contains four 
elemental watershed drainage options: (a) no 
drains, (b) subsurface drains only, (c) surface-inlet 
drains only and (d) a combination of surface-inlet 
and subsurface drains. The model was used to 
simulate five individual hydrologic events for the 
24-sq-mile East Fork Hardin Creek Watershed, 
Greene County, Iowa. The deviation of simulated 
peak discharges from actual peak discharges was 
from -8 to 29% of the actual discharge, with a 
mean deviation of 8%. The simulated hydrographs 
tended to have steeper rise curves that the actual 
hydrographs; however, in general, the simulated 
hydrographs approximated the field hydrograph 
shape and size for the simulated time interval. Wet 
antecedent moisture conditions were common for 
all simulated storm events. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07732 



AN OPERATIONAL WATERSHED MODEL: 
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS, PURPOSES, 
AND PROGRESS, 

Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Dis- 
trict, West Palm Beach. 
L. K. Sinha, and L. E. Lindahl. 
American Society of Agricultural Engineers 
Transactions, Vol 14, No 4, p 688-691, July-Au- 
gust 1971. 7 fig, 16 ref. 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Snow, Ice, and Frost — Group 2C 



Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, 'Systems 
analysis, 'Rainfallarunoff relationships, 'Water 
management (Applied), Water balance, Florida, 
Simulation analysis, Water storage. Lakes, 
Streamflow forecasting. 
Identifiers: Kissimmee River Basin (Florida). 

The Centra] and Southern Florida Flood Control 
District has an operational watershed model of the 
Kissimmee River basin. The four principal com- 
ponents that make up the district's operational 
watershed model are rainfall input model, physical 
system model, economic model for water alloca- 
tion, and some constraints. The model is used to 
determine the runoff entering into the system from 
an occurrence of rainfall, to determine available 
storage in the zone of aeration or release of water 
from soil reservoir into the stream, to determine 
the water surface elevations (particularly at the 
head and tail sides of the control structures within 
the system) corresponding to a set of gate opera- 
tions and runoff entering into the system, and to 
determine optimum allocation of water to different 
uses within the system. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07734 



THE EFFECT OF A CYCLONIC STORM ON 
THE ENERGY FLUXES AT THE URBAN IN- 
TERFACE--A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT, 

California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Geog- 
raphy. 

W. H.Terjung. 

Archiv Meteorologie, Geophysik, und Biokli- 
matologie, Series B, No 19, p 367-416, 1971. 37 fig, 
4 tab, 33 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Climatology, 'Cities, 'Fronts (At- 
mospheric), 'Heat budget, 'Boundaries (Sur- 
faces), Meteorology, Storms, California, Urban 
hydrology, Albedo, Evaporation, Seasonal, Tem- 
perature, Heat balance. 

Identifiers: 'Urban climatology, 'Los Angeles 
(Calif). 

The spatial and temporal variations of the energy 
and moisture budgets of a megalopolis (Los An- 
geles basin) were examined during a frontal 
passage in February and during an extremely clear 
day in March in order to determine the possible 
seasonal extremes. A series of empirical and 
physical-theoretical models were tested and 
proved to be realistic in comparison with actual 
observations in the field. Such models were less 
successful during the storm when the city surface 
received extremely low amounts of energy. The 
frontal passage caused a reduction of 92% of the 
absorbed solar radiation as compared to the clear 
day. Infrared components of the budget were 
much less affected. An increase of 18% was ob- 
served in atmospheric counterradiation, while net 
radiation declined by 93%. An inverse spatial rela- 
tionship existed between incoming solar radiation 
and precipitation. The albedo of the urban surface 
changed temporally and spatially with the respec- 
tive position of the cold front. Wet impermeable 
surfaces have a mirror effect in reflecting propor- 
tionally greater amounts of radiation. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07742 



2B. Precipitation 



OF 



MACHINE PROCESSING 

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL DATA. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 
W72-07283 



ATMOSPHERIC ICE NUCLEI FROM DECOM- 
POSING VEGETATION, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Atmospheric 

Resources. 

R. C. Schnell, and G. Vali. 

Nature, Vol 236, No 5343, p 163-165, March 24, 

1972. 3 fig, 6 ref. 



Descriptors: 'Nucleation, 'Ice, 'Decomposing or- 
ganic matter, 'Cloud seeding, 'Atmosphere, 
Vegetation, Leaves, Soils, Temperature, In- 
vestigations, Analytical techniques, Artificial 
precipitation. 
Identifiers: 'Ice nuclei. 

Tests with derivatives of decaying vegetation sug- 
gest that a large source of active atmospheric ice 
nulcei for use in cloud seeding might have been 
discovered. Soils having higher contents of or- 
ganic matter are better nucleators than pure clays 
or sands. Soil samples from near the surface con- 
tain more ice nuclei than samples from a few feet 
below the surface. The evolution of decomposed 
vegetation was traced with respect to nucleating 
ability. Samples were collected from different 
parts of trees and shrubs at different times of the 
year. The nuclei found in decomposing leaves 
were termed 'leaf-derived nuclei' (LDN). The 
clearest demonstration that LDN result from ac- 
tive decomposition emerged from experiments in 
which nucleus contents were examined at various 
times during the decay process. LDN could be 
substituted for silver iodide in artificial cloud seed- 
ing. The use of such natural substances for cloud 
seeding would be preferred to the use of mildly 
toxic heavy metals. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07293 



ERROR EVALUATION IN DETERMINING 
CONCENTRATION AND SIZE OF FOG DROPS 
WITH THE AELITA INSTRUMENT, 

L. G. Akul'shina, V. N. Aref 'yev, N. K. 
Nikiforova, and G. I. Shchelchkov. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va 22151 as 
AD-733 504, Price $3.00 paper copy; $0.95 in 
microfiche. Army Materiel Command Foreign 
Science and Technology Center Technical Trans- 
lation Report FSTC-HT-23- 109-71, October 1971. 
lip, 6 fig, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Fog, 'Aerosols, 'Particle size, 'In- 
strumentation, 'Distribution patterns, Calibra- 
tions, Sampling. 
Identifiers: Aelita fog counter (USSR). 

The Aelita photoelectric counter (USSR) can mea- 
sure the drop size spectrum of fogs from 2 to 15 
microns. Error in measuring the smallest drops is 
17.5%. As the drop concentration increases, the 
error in counting increases. However the error 
contributed by the statistics of the recording can 
be compensated by a correction factor. When such 
correction is employed, the error does not exceed 
7% at a concentration of not more than 2,000 drops 
per cubic centimeter. Errors caused by aspiration 
and diffusional precipitation of drops in the coun- 
ter's collection device can be ignored. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07466 



GENERATION OF SERIALLY CORRELATED 
NONNORMALLY DISTRIBUTED RAINFALL 
DURATIONS, 

Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). 

A. J. Raudkivi, and N. Lawgun. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 398- 

409, 12 fig, 7 tab, 9 ref, April 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Rainfall disposition, 'Simulated 
rainfall, 'Simulation analysis, 'Synthetic hydrolo- 
gy, 'Time series analysis, Variability, Stochastic 
processes, Markov processes, Depth-area-dura- 
tion analysis, Statistical models, Mathematical 
models. Duration curves. 

Identifiers: 'Rainfall duration, 'Auckland (New 
Zealand). 

A practical and simple technique may be used to 
generate a long series of serially correlated non- 
normally distributed rainfall duration events. Rain- 
fall durations are defined as the length of a con- 
tinuous spell of nonzero 10-minute interval rainfall 
depths. The serial correlation of the historical data 
is modeled by the autoregression scheme, and the 
skewness is described by the Pearson type 3 dis- 



tribution functions. The model was tested with 
rainfall data from Auckland, New Zealand. The 
results were reproduced. Preliminary results are 
also given for rainfall data generated by the model 
for two other locations with differing climatic con- 
ditions. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07480 



REVIEW OF THE INFLUENCES OF THE 
GREAT LAKES ON WEATHER, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 
S. A. Changnon, Jr., and D. M. A. Jones. 
Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 360- 
371, 11 fig, 1 tab, 36 ref, April 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Great Lakes, 'Meteorology, Synop- 
tic analysis, Weather data, Climatology, Precipita- 
tion (Atmospheric), Weather patterns, Lake 
breezes, Heat transfer. 
Identifiers: 'Lake effect (Weather). 

The considerable influence of the masses of water 
in the Great Lakes on the weather over and around 
the Lakes and the average lake-related weather al- 
terations are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on 
delineating both the known facts and those that are 
inadequately known. The lack of extensive con- 
tinuous weather measurements, particularly over 
the lakes, makes definitive areal assessments of 
lake influences on the weather around them dif- 
ficult. Whether the lakes act as the energy sources 
or sinks on a daily seasonal basis depends on the 
relative temperature of the waters and the overly- 
ing air. Over the lakes and their downwind shore 
areas, the lake-caused average changes in cloud 
and precipitation amounts represent 5-15% reduc- 
tions in summer and 5-45% increases in winter in 
comparison with upwind values. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07483 



CLIMATIC IMPLICATION OF A LATE 
PLEISTOCENE OSTRACODE ASSEMBLAGE 
FROM SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07591 



A SYSTEM FOR CORRELATIONG TRITIUM 
OXIDE TRANSPORT IN VEGETATION WITH 
MICROMETEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES, 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Radiation 

Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07843 



2C. Snow, Ice, and Frost 



ATMOSPHERIC ICE NUCLEI FROM DECOM- 
POSING VEGETATION, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Atmospheric 

Resources. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02B. 

W72-07293 



AIR PHOTO ANALYSIS OF BLOCKFIELD 
FABRICS IN TALUS VALLEY, TASMANIA, 

Colorado Univ., Boulder. Inst, of Arctic and Al- 
pine Research. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W72-07313 



SNOW COVER OF THE CRIMEAN HIGHLAND 
AND WAYS OF REGULATING IT, 

Y. K. Teleshek. 

Lesovod Agrolesomelior Respub Mezhvedom 

Temat Nauch Sb. 15. 53-64. 1968. 

Identifiers: Beech-D, Conservation, Cover, 

Crimean, Forest, Highland, Pastures, Percolation, 

Pine-G, Regulating, Snow, USSR. 

Snow measurement surveys were carried out 
along two transects-the field transect (2,400 m 









Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2C — Snow, Ice, and Frost 



long) and forest transect (400 m) within a mature 
beech forest. Thickness of the snow cover during 
the entire observation period was highest in Feb.; 
density was highest at the end of March. 
Thickness of snow cover and the water reserves 
were higher in the forest than in the yaila (highland 
pasture). Snow cover was thicker on the leeward 
(southeastern) slope than on the windward slopes. 
In the snow drift of the karst sinkholes, the water 
reserves often reach 600-850 mm on the leeward 
slopes and the snow persists until the middle of 
May. Forest plantings in the yaila accumulate and 
conserve snow and create favorable conditions for 
a slow, deep percolation of thaw water into karst 
limestone. Even young forest cultures are condu- 
cive in this case to snow accumulation: in 3-yr-old 
pure Scotch pine stands at the bottom and the 
slopes of karst valleys, the snow thickness was 20- 
100% greater at the end of Feb. 1962 than in the ad- 
joining meadow plots, and in the same pine stands 
with a 50% admixture of shrubs, the average snow 
thickness exceeded 52 cm. Strip plantations of 
pine were distinguished by a particularly high ac- 
cumulation of snow. On the areas near the yaila 
borders it is recommended to create a net of snow- 
retaining forest strips, whereas on the slopes and 
along the karst depressions it is suggested to 
establish forest outlier groups or forest stands for 
water conservation.-Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07401 



PALEOGEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS 
AND ABSOLUTE AGE OF THE VALDAY GLA- 
CIAL MAXIMUM NEAR LAKE KUBENSKOYE 
(PALEOGEOGRAFICHESKIYE OSOBENNOSTI 
I ABSOLYUTNYY VOZRAST MAKSIMAL'NOY 
STADII VALDAYSKOGO OLEDENENIYA V 
RAYONE KUBENSKOGO OZERA), 
Leningrad State Univ. (USSR). 
Kh. A. Arslanov, V. G. Auslender, L. I. Gromova, 
A. I. Zubkov, and V. I. Khomutova. 
Akademiya Nauk SSSR Doklady, Vol 195, No 6, p 
1395-1398, 1970. 1 fig, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: *Paleolimnology, "Lake sediments, 
•Glacial sediments, *Glaciation, *Age, Radioac- 
tive dating, Dendrochronology, Palynology, Pol- 
len, Spores, Glacial drift, Lake beds, Peat. 
Identifiers: *USSR, "Vologda Oblast, "Lake Ku- 
benskoye, "Paleogeography, Paleobotany, Car- 
pology. 

Investigations were conducted in the summer of 
1967 at key points along the Puchka River near 
Pokrovskoye village and along the Shchepinka 
River near Irkhino village in the Vologda Oblast to 
study lacustrine sediments exposed along these 
rivers and to collect material for radiocarbon, 
spore-pollen, carpologic, and lithologic analyses. 
Radiocarbon dates for the lacustrine interglacial 
formation along the Puchka River directly under- 
lying the Valday glacial maximum suggest that this 
stage is, at most, 20-21 thousand years old. These 
data from the Lake Kubenskoye area are the first 
obtained for the Russian Plain on the age of the 
Valday glacial maximum and its peripheral zone, 
and agree with data on the Brndenburg glacial 
maximum in East Germany. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07453 



AGE OF THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM IN 
THE VICINITY OF GRODNO (O VOZRASTE 
MAKSIMAL'NOY STADH POSLEDNEGO 
OLEDENENIYA V RAYONE GRODNO), 

Leningrad State Univ. (USSR); and Geografo- 
Ekonomicheskii Nauchno-Issledovateskii Institut, 
Leningrad (USSR). 

Kh. A. Arslanov, L. N. Voznyachuk, F. Yu. 
Velichkevich, A. I. Zubkov, and Ye. G. Kalechits. 
Akademiya Nauk SSSR Doklady, Vol 202, No 1 , p 
155-158, 1972. 1 fig, 1 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: "Glaciation, *Age, 'Radioactive dat- 
ing, Carbon, Palynology, Dendrochronology, 
Vegetation, Root systems, Silts, Terraces 
(Geologic), Glacial drift, Detritus, Humic acids, 
Sampling, Laboratory tests. 



Identifiers: *USSR, *Belorussia, Grodno Oblast, 
Neman River, Glacial maximum, Paleogeography, 
Paleocarpology. 

Investigations begun in 1955 in a region north of 
Grodno near Gozha on the right bank of the 
Neman River (Belorussian SSR) were continued in 
1968-69 to study the absolute age of plant remains 
from subglacial silts of the area. Age of the sam- 
ples was determined by C-14 in the Laboratory of 
Geochronology of the Institute of Economic 
Geography, Leningrad State University. Particular 
care was given to the problem of sample con- 
tamination by foreign carbon during sampling and 
laboratory analysis. Humic acids (introduced with 
groundwater) and Recent plant roots were the 
principal source of contamination of the organic 
residue. It may be concluded that (1) the upper 
part of the silt horizon included plant detritus 
formed 23,000-25,000 years ago and (2) the flu- 
vioglacial sandy-gravel-pebble deposits and sands 
on silts beneath moraines of the Valday glacial 
maximum are less than 23,000 years old. The 
results obtained agree with the last glacial max- 
imum in Western Europe, Siberia, and North 
America. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07454 



SNOWMELT ENERGY EXCHANGE IN THE 
LAKE SUPERIOR REGION, 

Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton. Dept. 
of Civil Engineering. 

H. S. Santeford, Jr., G. R. Alger, and J. G. Meier. 
Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 390- 
397, 8 fig, 2 tab, 8 ref, April 1972. 

Descriptors: *Snowmelt, *Heat budget, 
"Michigan, Great Lakes Region, Heat transfer, 
Thawing, Geothermal studies, Melting, Base flow, 
Runoff, Snow cover, Water yield, Climatology, 
Air temperature, Hydrogeology. 

Snowmelt was studied for 2 years in the Upper 
Peninsula of Michigan. Although the ground was 
frozen in early winter, it thawed and remained un- 
frozen as snow accumulated. The unfrozen ground 
allowed the production and infiltration of ground 
melt, which gave rise to a winter base flow twice 
that of summer. A standard equation for predicting 
air-snowpack moisture exchange was inadequate, 
especially when condensation occurred. This dis- 
crepancy is due to the occurrence of condensation 
just above, rather than at, the snow surface, so 
that the latent heat is released largely to the air 
rather than to the snowpack. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07481 



SURFACE WATER TEMPERATURE AND ICE 
REGIMES OF GEORGIAN BAY, 

Atmospheric Environment Service, Toronto (On- 
tario). 

M. S. Webb. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 372- 
389, 17 fig, 1 tab, 16 ref, April 1972. 

Descriptors: "Lake ice, "Lake Huron, "Water 
temperature. Great Lakes, Surveys, Water circu- 
lation, Freezing, Thawing, Heat budget. 
Identifiers: "Georgian Bay (Lake Huron). 

Data from 38 airborne radiation thermometer sur- 
veys of Georgian Bay (a part of the Laurentian 
Great Lakes system) were used to determine the 
areal patterns of surface water temperature and 
their seasonal variation. Although the limited ob- 
servational period makes the resulting maps tenta- 
tive, nevertheless definitive patterns have 
emerged. Of particular interest are the marked 
control of surface water temperature by water 
depth and the influx of cool surface water from 
Lake Huron during July and August. Ice is found 
on Georgian Bay from about mid-December 
through to late April; the areal extent showed wide 
year to year variation with the maximum area 
ranging from 40 to 90% of the whole. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07482 



EFFECTS OF SNOW ON SOLE WATER MEA- 
SUREMENT BY NEUTRON MODERATION, 

Agricultural Research Service, Mandan, N. Dak. 
Northern Great Plains Research Center. 
R. T. Vredenburg, and W. O. Willis. 
Can J Soil Sci. 50 (3): 463-464. 1970. Illus. 
Identifiers: Measurement, Moderation, Neutron, 
Snow, Soil. 

Field experimentation was conducted on Grail silt 
loam and Parshall fine sandy loam. The snow was 
first removed to desired depths and diameters. 
Depth of snow cover was 69 cm with a water con- 
tent of 9.7 cm. Neutron moisture readings were 
taken with the neutron source at 5, 10, 15 and 20 
cm below the soil surface. Readings from the Grail 
silt loam site and those taken in the Parshall fine 
sandy loam showed similar results. Soil water 
decreased as the snow cover decreased. The snow 
cover on both soil types influenced the readings to 
a source depth of at least 15 cm. When soil water 
measurements under winter conditions are taken 
by neutron moderation from in-place access tubes, 
the removal of the snow cover prior to taking 
readings is necessary .-Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07485 



GLACIAL PROCESSES AND THEIR RELA- 
TIONSHIP TO STREAMFLOW - FLUTE GLA- 
CIER, ALASKA, 

Alaska Univ., College. Inst, of Water Resources. 
W. E. Long. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 694, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Alaska Institute of Water 
Resources, College, Publication No. IWR-18, 
January, 1972. 22 p, 3 fig, 2 tab, 2 ref, 6 append. 
OWRRA-021-ALAS(1). 

Descriptors: "Glaciers, "Ablation, Snowmelt, 
Precipitation, Melting, "Water supply, Alaska, 
Water sources, Watersheds, Model studies. 
Identifiers: "Anchorage (Alas), "Flute glacier 
(Alas). 

An attempt was made to determine the mass 
balance of a small north-facing glacier near 
Anchorage, Alaska. The model proposed was that 
discharge from the Flute Glacier drainage system 
should come from (1) snowmelt of the previous 
winter's snow, (2) precipitation during the melt 
season, and (3) ablation of glacier ice. Mass blance 
studies showed a net loss to the glacier of 
120,973,000 cubic feet of water during the 1968-69 
season. Indications are that at this rate of loss, 
Flute Glacier would disappear in approximately 85 
years. Flute Glacier was determined to be the 
dominant source of water for the uppermost part 
of the South Fork of the Eagle River, which is in- 
cluded in the water supply plan for Anchorage, 
Alaska. (Hartman-AJaska) 
W72-07522 



ON HYDRAULIC ROUGHNESS OF ICE 
COVERS, 

Lund Inst, of Tech. (Sweden). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 

W72-07543 



ICE FORMATION - A REVIEW OF THE 
LITERATURE AND BUREAU OF RECLAMA- 
TION EXPERIENCE, 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. 

P. H. Burgi, and P. L. Johnson. 

Report REC-ERC-71-8, Sept 1971. 27 p, 18 fig, 3 

tab, 51 ref. 

Descriptors: "Reviews, "Ice cover, "Ice jams, 
"Frazil ice, "Ice-water interfaces, Ice, Stability, 
Flow, Slush, Roughness coefficient, Forecasting, 
Flow rates, Lake ice, Hydraulic models, Reservoir 
operation, Hydraulic structures. Model studies, 
River flow, Reservoirs, Canals, Bibliographies, 
Remedies. 

Identifiers: Ice control, Ice sheet, Ice-crystal 
process, "Ice breakup, "Ice formation, Ice preven- 
tion. 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Streamflow and Runoff — Group 2E 



This state of the art review covers published infor- 
mation concerning the effect of ice on rivers, 
reservoirs, and the operation of hydraulic struc- 
tures. Major icing conditions that have occurred 
on Bureau of Reclamation projects are reviewed. 
Formation of frazil ice, border ice, and ice cover is 
explained. The stability of ice cover is reviewed 
and equations developed relating to thickness of 
the upstream edge of the ice cover to a modified 
Froude number. Roughness coefficients for the 
under surface of an ice cover are discussed. 
Generally, the coefficients gradually decrease dur- 
ing the winter. The maximum coefficient is ob- 
served during the first 3 days of freezeup. An 
equation for determining the coefficient of 
roughness is given. As the cover of ice jams form 
in a natural river, the ice products added head loss 
and the upstream water levels rise, causing flood- 
ing. Frazil ice in reservoirs can clog trashracks of 
water intakes, wicket gates, and turbine propeller 
blades. Several solutions for coping with ice 
problems are given. (USBR) 
W72-07545 



DEPTH-TIME-TEMPERATURE RELATION- 
SHIPS OF ICE CRYSTAL GROWTH IN POLAR 
GLACIERS, 

Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., 

Hanover, N.H. 

A.J.Gow. 

Research Report 300, October 1971. 18 p, 9 fig, 2 

tab, 12 ref, append. NSF Grants GA-2, GA-66, 

GA-156. 

Descriptors: 'Crystal growth, 'Glaciers, Firn, 
•Ice, 'Cryology, Freezing, Antarctic, Glaciology, 
Rheology, Temperatures. 
Identifiers: Greenland. 

The growth of ice crystals as a function of depth 
and time in polar firn and glacier ice was in- 
vestigated at a number of locations in Antarctica 
and Greenland. Crystal size increases essentially 
linearly with the age of samples. Crystal growth 
rates are strongly temperature dependent, with 
growth very much retarded at lower temperatures. 
At Camp Century, Greenland, where the firn tem- 
perature is -25 deg C (constant below 10 m depth) 
crystals grow approximately 23 times faster than 
at Plateau Station, Antarctica, where the in situ 
temperature is -57 deg C. The temperature depen- 
dence of the crystal growth rate is an exponential 
function of temperature. Crystal growth rates in 
polar firn and ice can be expected to vary by about 
two orders of magnitude over the temperature 
range -60 deg C to -15 deg C. Examination of the 
changes in the pore-crystal structure relationships 
to a depth of 100 m at Camp Century shows that 
these changes closely resemble those occurring in 
the full-scale isothermal sintering of powder com- 
pacts. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07760 



2D. Evaporation and Transpiration 



THE EFFECT OF ANTITRANSPIRANT CHEMI- 
CALS ON THE TRANSPIRATION AND 
PHYSIOLOGY OF TAMARISK, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Watershed 

Management. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03B. 

W72-07358 



EFFECT OF USING AVERAGED DATA ON 
THE COMPUTED EVAPORATION, 

Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colo. 

H. E. Jobson. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 513- 

518, April 1972. 1 fig, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Evaporation, 'Data processing, 
'Water loss, Equations, Mass transfer, Humidity, 
Winds, Statistics, Meteorological data, Oklahoma. 
Identifiers: 'Lake Hefner (Okla). 



Because it is seldom necessary to determine the 
total evaporation from a body of water for short 
periods of time, meteorologic data that have been 
averaged over long intervals of time and the 
semiempirical mass transfer equation are often 
used to determine the total evaporation. The effect 
of averaging wind speeds and temperatures on the 
computed evaporation is discussed. Data collected 
during a 15-month interval at Lake Hefner near 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, were analyzed. Each 
set of data represents the average meteorologic 
conditions during a 30-minute time interval. From 
these data the effect of averaging for periods of 3 
hours, 1 day, and 1 month was determined. The 
value of the coefficient in the semiempirical mass 
transfer formula is independent of the averaging 
time when this time is less than 1 day in length. 
The frequency distribution of the averaging error 
was determined for each averaging period. An 
averaging error larger than plus or minus 5% oc- 
curred about 3% of the time for 3-hour averages 
and about 20% of the time for daily averages. 
Averaging periods should be shorter than 1 month 
in situations similar to those at Lake Hefner. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07472 



ERRORS IN OUTPUT OF HYDROLOGIC 
MODELS DUE TO ERRORS IN INPUT POTEN- 
TIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, 

Agricultural Research Service, University Park, 

Pa. 

L. H. Parmele. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 348- 

359, April 1972. 10 fig, 1 tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, 'Evapotrans- 
piration, 'Water balance, 'Simulation analysis, 
Synthetic hydrology, Systems analysis, Rainfall- 
runoff relationships. 

Identifiers: Error analysis (Model studies), Stan- 
ford Watershed Model. 

To give some perspective to the importance of ac- 
curate evapotranspiration (ET) input data to 
hydrologic models, computed output from three 
hydrologic models was considered as the true 
watershed response. Variations in the form of ran- 
dom fluctuations and fixed biases were introduced 
into the potential evapotranspiration (Pet) input 
data of the test models. By leaving the other inputs 
and parameters unchanged, the effect of 
evapotranspiration on streamflow under the regu- 
lation of the other components in the model is 
shown. A constant bias of 20% in the Pet input 
data has a cumulative effect and results in con- 
siderable error in the computed hydrograph peaks 
and recession characteristics, whereas the in- 
fluence of the random error on estimated stream- 
flow was generally not measurable for the 
watersheds and models studied. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07484 



AN EXPERIMENTALLY DERIVED MODEL 
FOR ACTUAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, 

Kansas Univ., Lawrence. Dept. of Geography and 
Meteorology. 
J. R. Eagleman. 

Agric Meteorol. 8 (4/5): 385-394. 1971. DJus. 
Identifiers: Model, Moisture, Plant, Soil, Trans- 
piration. 

Experimental data from several different climatic 
regions were used to develop a statistical model 
for actual water loss rates from land surfaces. The 
actual evapotranspiration rate was considered to 
be influenced by the amount of available water in 
the soil and by meteorological and plant conditions 
which determine the potential evapotranspiration 
rate. Experimental measurements of these 3 varia- 
bles from various environmental conditions were 
combined into a single model expressing the com- 
posite relationship. Actual evapotranspiration 
rates were calculated from this relationship using 
the variables soil moisture and potential 
evapotranspiration. Initial testing showed that the 
model gave satisfactory results when used for esti- 



mating moisture changes in the soil. -Copyright 

1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 

W72-07612 



2E. Streamflow and Runoff 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 7. LOWER MIS- 
SISSD7PI RIVER BASIN. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07281 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 6.--MISSOURI 
RIVER BASIN. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07282 



USE OF WEHtS AND FLUMES IN STREAM 
GAUGING. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 
W72-07284 



A SUMMARY OF METHODS FOR THE COL- 
LECTION AND ANALYSIS OF BASIC 
HYDROLOGIC DATA FOR ARID REGIONS, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07A. 

W72-07286 



GEOHYDROLOGIC SUMMARY OF THE 
PEARL RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI AND 
LOUISIANA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W72-07321 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
IDAHO, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07390 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
COLORADO, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07391 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
GEORGIA, 1969. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07392 



APPLICATION OF THE CONVOLUTION 
EQUATION TO STREAM-AQUIFER RELA- 
TIONSHIPS, 

New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Inst, of Natural 

and Environmental Resources. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07475 



RECURRENCE INTERVALS BETWEEN EX- 
CEEDANCES OF SELECTED RIVER LEVELS: 
4. SEASONAL STREAMS, 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research 

Organization, Canberra (Australia). Div. of Land 

Research. 

K. D. Woodyer, C. A. McGilchrist, and T. G. 

Chapman. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 435- 

443, April 1972. 7 tab, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Streamflow forecasting, 'Time se- 
ries analysis, 'Frequency analysis, 'Flood recur- 






Field 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2E — Streamflow and Runoff 



rence interval, Seasonal, Regimen, Probability, 
Variability, Statistical methods. 

Seasonality in stream behavior, as expressed by 
the frequency of exceedance of selected river 
levels, may be determined by a simple test. The 
nonseasonal point and interval estimates for the 
mean recurrence interval between exceedances 
were found to be robust for all 70 seasonal streams 
tested. The estimates are not improved by the ad- 
ditional information in a multiplicative model 
based on relative constancy of the seasonal pat- 
tern over the range of upper river levels. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07478 



COMPUTER PROGRAMS IN HYDROLOGY, 

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Water Resources 
Research Center. 

C. E. Bowers, A. F. Pabst, and S. P. Larson. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 692, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Minnesota Water Resources 
Research Center, Minneapolis Bull. 44, January 
1972, 172 p, 214 ref. OWRR A-020-MINN (4). 

Descriptors: 'Computer programs, 'Hydrology, 
•Mathematical models, Digital computers, Sur- 
face water, Groundwater, Water data, Hydro- 
graphs, River forecast, Watersheds, 'Computers. 
Identifiers: 'Pearson Type III Method, 
'Backwater programs. 

Many computer programs in the field of hydrology 
are developed each year and are playing an in- 
creasingly important part in both research and 
design activities in hydrology. Many of these pro- 
grams are available for use by other agencies, or- 
ganizations, and individuals. A study was un- 
dertaken to review available programs in hydrolo- 
gy and to provide information on representative 
programs. Information ranging from the title only 
of the program to listings, source decks, and docu- 
mentation was reviewed for about 200 programs. 
Of these, 25 were selected for operation on a CDC 
6600 computer and/or preparation of an abstract. 
The report discusses problems associated with 
adapting programs to a given computer and with 
understanding the technical procedure on which 
the program was based. (Walton-Minnesota) 
W72-07520 



GLACIAL PROCESSES AND THEIR RELA- 
TIONSHIP TO STREAMFLOW - FLUTE GLA- 
CIER, ALASKA, 

Alaska Univ. , College. Inst, of Water Resources. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W72-07522 



RESONANCE OF UNBOUNDED WATER 
BODIES, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Mathematics. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 
W72-07524 



WATER-QUALITY RECORDS FOR THE HUB- 
BARD CREEK WATERSHED, TEXAS, OC- 
TOBER 1967-SEPTEMBER 1969, 

Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07577 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
ARIZONA, 1969. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07579 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
ALASKA, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07580 



GEOLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES OF THE 
BITTERROOT VALLEY, SOUTHWESTERN 
MONTANA, 

Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1889, 
1972. 80 p, 32 fig, 1 plate, 13 tab, 31 ref. 
R. G. McMurtrey, R. L. Konizeski, M. V. 
Johnson, J. H. Bartells, and H. A. Swenson. 
Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402 Price 
$1.00 (paper cover). Geological Survey Water- 
Supply Paper 1889, 1972. 80 p, 32 fig, 1 plate, 13 
tab, 31 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water resources, 'Geology, 
'Hydrologic data, 'Basic data collections, 'Mon- 
tana, River basins, Groundwater, Surface waters, 
Hydrogeology, Aquifers, Water wells, Water 
yield, Water utilization, Groundwater recharge, 
Water quality, Chemical analysis, Streamflow, 
Runoff. 
Identifiers: 'Bitterroot Valley (Mont). 

The Bitterroot Valley in southwestern Montana is 
a Late Cretaceous structural basin partly filled at 
its deepest point by more than 1 ,640 feet of Tertia- 
ry sediments. Beneath the flood plain and low ter- 
races of the present Bitterroot River, about 40 feet 
of Quaternary alluvium overlies the Tertiary sedi- 
ments. Each spring and summer, at rates greatly 
exceeding discharge, water infiltrates to the 
groundwater reservoir in the Tertiary and Quater- 
nary rocks. During the fall and winter, water is 
released from storage. New recharge in the spring 
of 1958 and 1959 was about 90,000 and 82,000 acre- 
feet, respectively. New discharge during the rest 
of each year was about 90,000 and 76,000 acre- 
feet, respectively. Some surface water available 
for recharge during high runoff each spring is re- 
jected. During the 1958 and 1959 water years, total 
surface-water inflow was about 1 .7 million and 2.0 
million acre-feet, respectively. Consumptive use 
during these water years was about 450,000 and 
400,000 acre-feet, respectively. Water in Bitter- 
root Valley is of satisfactory chemical quality for 
domestic, stock, municipal, and most industrial 
uses. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07584 



WATER TEMPERATURES OF CALIFORNIA 
STREAMS, DELTA-CENTRAL SIERRA SUBRE- 
GION, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. 

J. C. Blodgett. 

Geological Survey Open-file Report, January 24, 

1972. 49 p, 4 fig, 1 tab, 24 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water temperature, 'Streams, 
'California, 'Data collections, Reviews, Stream- 
flow, Average flow, Thermometers, Hydrologic 
data, Water properties. 

Identifiers: 'Delta-Central Sierra (Calif), Average 
water temperatures. Maximum water tempera- 
tures, Minimum water temperatures. 

Water-temperature records collected through Sep- 
tember 1968 are summarized for 85 stream sites in 
the Delta-Central Sierra Subregion of California. 
This is one of a series of reports covering the 1 1 
hydrologic subregions of the State. Temperature 
records were compiled for stations operated by the 
Geological Survey and also for many sites where 
data were collected by other Federal and State 
agencies. Temperature data were obtained syste- 
matically either once or twice per day or by con- 
tinuous thermographs. The summary data may be 
used to provide guidelines for the establishment of 
thermal standards used in water-quality manage- 
ment. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07586 



ANNUAL COMPILATION AND ANALYSIS OF 
HYDROLOGIC DATA FOR GREEN CREEK, 
BRAZOS RIVER BASIN, TEXAS, 1970, 

Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07595 



ANNUAL COMPILATION AND ANALYSIS OF 
HYDROLOGIC DATA FOR PIN OAK CREEK, 
TRINITY RIVER BASIN, TEXAS, 1970, 

Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07596 



YORK RIVER BASIN COMPREHENSIVE 
WATER RESOURCES PLAN: VOLUME IV. 
WATER RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS AND 
PROBLEMS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 
W72-07598 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 4.--ST. 
LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07603 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 9.--COLORADO 
RIVER BASIN. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07604 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 8.-WESTERN 
GULF OF MEXICO BASINS. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07605 



SIMULATION OF RUNOFF FROM DEPRES- 
SION CHARACTERIZED WATERSHEDS, 

South Dakota State Univ., Brookings. Dept. of 

Agricultural Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07732 



HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF WATER CON- 
TROL AND MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHEAST- 
ERN FLORIDA, 

Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Fla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 

W72-07735 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
ALABAMA, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07736 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
DELAWARE, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07737 



FLOOD OF JANUARY 1969 NEAR CUCAMON- 
GA, CALIFORNIA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

J. A. Singer, and M. Price. 

Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations 

Atlas HA-425, 1971. 1 sheet, 6 fig, 1 map, 1 tab, 2 

ref. 

Descriptors: 'Floods, 'Storms, 'Flood damage, 
'Flood profiles, 'California, Rainfall, Runoff, 
Flood data, Landslides, Mudflows, Hydrologic 
data, Maps, Flood peak, Erosion, Sediment trans- 
port, Flood frequency. 
Identifiers: 'Cucamonga area (Calif). 

Severe flooding and debris flow occurred in the 
Cucamonga area in southern California in January 
1969 as a result of heavy storms. The approximate 
areas inundated by overflows from Cucamonga, 






Deer, Day, and Etiwanda Creeks and adjacent 
streams are described in this 37x50 in atlas. The in- 
undation map and graphs show results of the 
flood. The Cucamonga area lies in the foothills of 
the San Gabriel Mountains about 17 miles west of 
San Bernardino. Streams in the area drain the 
south-facing slopes of the mountains and are tribu- 
tary to the Santa Ana River. Severe storms Janua- 
ry 18-26 brought heavy rain to the area. Total 
precipitation at Etiwanda was 15.45 inches of 
which 8.07 inches occurred January 24-25. 
Precipitation was heavier in the adjacent mountain 
areas; a storm total of 42.27 inches occurred at 
Lytle Creek Ranger Station, elevation, 2,730 feet, 
7.5 miles north-northeast of Etiwanda. The result- 
ing floodflows washed out bridges, roads, and cul- 
verts, and caused many mudslides. (Woodard- 
USGS) 
W72-07738 



HYDROLOGY OF THE SAN LUIS VALLEY, 
SOUTH-CENTRAL COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W72-07739 



WATER RESOURCES DATA FOR THE TRUST 
TERRITORY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS-19- 
68-1970 SURFACE-WATER RECORDS, 

Geological Survey, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

O. Van derBrug. 

Geological Survey Report, 1971. 92 p, 7 fig. 

Descriptors: *Streamflow, *Flow measurement, 
'Hydrologic data, *Basic data collections, 
•Islands, Pacific Ocean, Surface waters. Gaging 
stations, Flow rates, Average flow, Low flow, 
Peak discharge. 

Identifiers: 'Caroline Islands, *Mariana Islands, 
•Marshall Islands, 'Palau Islands. 

Surface-water data collected by the U.S. Geologi- 
cal Survey and local cooperators in the Trust Ter- 
ritory of the Pacific Islands (Caroline, Mariana, 
Marshall, and Palau Islands) are summarized for 
the 1968-70 water years. The tables of data include 
a description of the gaging station, and daily, 
monthly, and yearly discharges of the stream. The 
description of the station gives the location, 
drainage area, records available, type and history 
of gage, average discharge, extremes of discharge, 
and general remarks. Discharge measurements 
made at low-flow partial-record stations and at 
miscellaneous sites are included. (Woodard- 
USGS) 
W72-07741 



USE OF AIR-WATER RELATIONSHIPS FOR 
PREDICTING WATER TEMPERATURE, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07743 



AN EVALUATION OF WATER-QUALITY 
RECORDS FOR TEXAS STREAMS, 

Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07744 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 16. HAWAII AND 
OTHER PACIFIC AREAS. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

Available free on application to US Geol. Survey 
Wash, DC 20242. Geological Survey Circular 666, 
1971. 27 p, 1 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Hydrologic data, 'Data collections, 
'Surface waters, 'Hawaii, 'Documentation, 
Drainage area, Streamflow, Gaging stations. Flow 
measurement. Frequency, Reservoirs, Sites, Peak 
discharge, Low flow, Water levels. 
Identifiers: Data-collection periods. 



Streamflow and reservoir stations are listed for 
Hawaii and other Pacific areas (territories) for 
which records have been or are to be published in 
reports of the Geological Survey for periods 
through September 30, 1970. This index includes 
drainage areas and periods of data collections at 
continuous-record gaging stations, crest-stage par- 
tial-record stations, and low-flow partial-record 
stations. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07759 

2F. Groundwater 



WATER-LEVEL RECORDS FOR THE 
NORTHERN HIGH PLAINS OF COLORADO, 

1968-72, 

Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07288 



MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF GROUND- 
WATER TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES 
AT HANFORD (WASHINGTON), 

Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, Wash. Pacific 

Northwest Labs. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07289 



HYDROLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ED- 
WARDS AND ASSOCIATED LIMESTONES IN 
THE SAN ANTONIO AREA, TEXAS, 
PROGRESS REPORT, 1970-71, 

Geological Survey, San Antonio, Tex. 

R. W. Maclay, and P. L. Rettman. 

Edwards Underground Water District Report, 

March 1972. 24 p, 1 fig, 1 tab, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydrogeology, 'Groundwater 
movement, 'Logging (Recording), 'Water proper- 
ties, 'Texas, Aquifers, Limestones, Aquifer 
characteristics, Tracers, Water wells, Ground- 
water recharge. Storage capacity, Water chemis- 
try, Groundwater. 
Identifiers: 'San Antonio Area (Tex). 

During fiscal year 1971, hydrologic studies of the 
aquifer system formed by the Edwards and as- 
sociated limestones in the San Antonio area, Tex- 
as, were directed toward applications of 
hydrochemical data, evaluation of geophysical- 
logging methods, and the use of tracer studies. 
Hydrochemical data, such as the tritium content 
and the ratios of different isotopes of carbon and 
sulfur, are useful in determining the general 
direction of groundwater movement and the age of 
the water in storage. The evaluation of geophysi- 
cal-logging methods indicate that electrical, 
neutron, temperature, gamma, gamma gamma, 
and caliper logs are useful in determining the 
physical characteristics of the aquifer. Tracer 
methods, including point-dilution tests, single-well 
pulse tests, and transit-time tests, and transit-time 
tests indicate that tracer studies may provide data 
on interstitial velocity and porosity of the aquifer. 
The average annual recharge to the aquifer system 
is estimated to be 517,000 acre-feet for 1934-69. 
Estimates of the storage capacity in the upper part 
of the Edwards system range from 39,000 to 
56,000 acre-feet per foot. (Woodward-USGS) 
W72-07290 



GEOHYDROLOGIC SUMMARY OF THE 
PEARL RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI AND 
LOUISIANA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

J. W. Lang. 

Available from GPO, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

Price $1.00 (paper cover). Geological Survey 

Water-Supply Paper 1899-M, 1972. 44 p, 9 fig, 2 

plate, 4 tab, 48 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water resources, 'Surface-ground- 
water relationships, 'Geohydrologic units, 
'Streamflow, Gulf Coastal Plain, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Aquifers, Appraisals, Rainfall disposi- 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Groundwater — Group 2F 



tion, Water quality, Water users, Planning, Saline 
water, Low flow, Estuaries, Storage capacity, 
River basins. 

Identifiers: Pearl River basin (Miss-La), Potential 
water sources, Low-flow yields. 

The geologic and hydrologic framework and its 
relationship to the availability, quantity, and quali- 
ty of water in the 8,760 sq mi Pearl River basin of 
the Gulf Coast region are described. Appraisals 
are given by basin segments both in aquifer units 
and streamflow, with discussions of use of the 
aquifers and surface waters. Hydrogeologic units 
and the relationships of groundwater to stream- 
flow are described. Potential sources of supply, in- 
cluding saline water as a resource are summarized. 
Low-flow variations in the different parts of the 
river basin relate closely to geologic terrane and 
the occurrence and movement of groundwater. 
The upland terrace belt in the south-central part is 
underlain by permeable sand and gravel deposits 
and yields 0.20 cu ft/sec per sq mi of drainage area, 
whereas the northern part is underlain by clay, 
marl, and fine sands and yields less than 0.05 cu 
ft/sec per sq mi of drainage area. Fresh ground- 
water occurs from the surface to depths ranging 
from sea level in the upper basin segment to 3,000 
ft below sea level in the lower segment. A total of 3 
billion ac ft of water is in aquifer storage. Wells 
with pumping rates of 500 to 1000 gpm are com- 
mon basinwide. Some deep wells in the lowlands 
of the central and southern basin segments flow at 
rates up to 3,500 gpm. Water in the six or more 
major aquifers is mostly good to excellent quality, 
and streamflow is even less mineralized (median 
dissolved solids is 50 ppm or less at 10 sampling 
sites). Estuary waters of less than 1,000 ppm to 
3,000 ppm, or more, are potential sources of 
supply. These will need special planning and 
management for many uses. (See W69-08264) 
(Lang-USGS) 
W72-07321 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
IDAHO, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07390 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
COLORADO, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07391 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
GEORGIA, 1969. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07392 



THE AMMONIUM ION AS AN INDICATOR OF 
OIL AND GAS (AMMONIY KAK ODIN IZ 
POKAZATELEY NEFTEGAZONOSNOSTI), 

Akademiya Nauk BSSR, Minsk. Laboratoriya 

Geokhimicheskikh Problem. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W72-07451 



ON THE TENSOR CONCEPT OF UNSATU- 
RATED ANISOTROPIC HYDRAULIC CONDUC- 
TIVITY, 

Technical Univ. of Prague (Czechoslovakia). Lab. 

of Soil Science. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02G. 

W72-07469 



USE OF NATURALLY OCCURRING 
PHENOMENA TO STUDY HYDRAULIC DIF- 
FUSIVITIES OF AQUITARDS, 

Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of 

Geology. 

R. W. Davis. 












Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2F — Groundwater 



Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 500- 
507, April 1972. 4 fig, 2 tab, 15ref. 

Descriptors: 'Barometric efficiency, *Artesian 
aquifers, *Aquitards, *Water level fluctuations, 
'Aquifer testing, Aquifer systems, Hydrogeology, 
Drawdown, Permeability, Porosity, Confined 
water, Florida. 
Identifiers: 'Pasco County (Fla). 

Measurement of the response of an artesian 
aquifer system to naturally occurring stress fields 
can be used to determine aquitard properties. The 
response of an artesian aquifer to a short-term rise 
of water levels can be estimated by approximating 
a step function in the unconfined aquifer above it. 
An analysis of the corresponding change in arte- 
sian water levels gives a value for the aquitard 
hydraulic diffusivity divided by the square of the 
aquitard thickness. This method is demonstrated 
by using data from a well field in Pasco County, 
Florida. A second method uses the response of an 
artesian system to barometric or tidal stresses, 
which is frequency dependent. It is necessary to 
restrict Jacob's definition of barometric and tidal 
efficiencies to instantaneous stress changes. The 
methods described are easily applied and serve to 
check the values of a boundary condition that is 
assumed to be homogeneous in other analytical ap- 
proaches. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07473 



RADIAL FLOW IN AN INFINITE AQUIFER UN- 
DERGOING CONVERSION FROM ARTESIAN 
TO WATER TABLE CONDITIONS, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

A. F. Moench, and T. A. Prickett. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 494- 

499, April 1972. 4 fig, 1 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater movement, 'Artesian 
aquifers, 'Withdrawal, 'Water table, 'Drawdown, 
Water yield, Artesian heads. Aquifer systems. 
Confined water, Pressure, Diffusion, Transmis- 
sivity, Dupuit-Forchheimer theory, Mathematical 
studies, Water storage. 
Identifiers: Heat-flow equations. 

A closed form mathematical solution is given for 
water level conversion from artesian to water table 
conditions due to a well discharging at a constant 
rate. The solution is obtained from the analogous 
case of heat flow in cylindrical symmetry in which 
freezing or melting takes place. A single nonleaky 
artesian aquifer that is homogeneous, isotropic, 
and infinite in areal extent is considered. The well 
fully penetrates the aquifer and is infinitesimal in 
diameter. Dimensionless curves are given, and 
suggestions are made to aid in the analysis and in- 
terpretation of the aquifer test data. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07474 



APPLICATION OF THE CONVOLUTION 
EQUATION TO STREAM-AQUIFER RELA- 
TIONSHIPS, 

New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Inst, of Natural 

and Environmental Resources. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02 A. 

W72-07475 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
ARIZONA, 1969. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07579 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
ALASKA, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07580 



DEFINITIONS OF SELECTED GROUND- 
WATER TERMS-REVISIONS AND CONCEP- 
TUAL REFINEMENTS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

S. W. Lohman. 

Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402-Price 

25 cents (paper cover) Stock No 2401-2043. 

Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1988, 

1972. 21 p, 4 tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydrogeology, 'Groundwater 
movement, 'Equations, 'Documentation, 
'Technical writing, Hydrology, Scientific person- 
nel. 

Identifiers: 'Groundwater terminology, Defini- 
tions. 

This report by an ad hoc Committee on Redefini- 
tion of Groundwater Terms contains recommenda- 
tions for certain changes in terms and concepts 
and for the use of consistent units in groundwater 
flow equations. The report comes at an ap- 
propriate time as communication between 
hydrologists throughout the world is increasing 
greatly. The terms defined and recommendations 
in the report shall be standard for reports of the 
U.S. Geological Survey. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07585 



WATER-LEVEL CHANGES 1964-71, 

NORTHERN HIGH PLAINS OF COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W72-07589 



SOME CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING PER- 
COLATION WATERS IN THE CHALK OF 
NORTH BERKSHIRE, 

K. Paterson. 

Cave Research Group of Great Britain Transac- 
tions, Vol 13, No 4, p 277-282, November 1971. 1 
fig, 4 tab, 23 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater movement, 

'Limestones, 'Percolation, 'Springs, Aquifer 
characteristics, Karst hydrology. 
Identifiers: 'Chalk, 'Berkshire (England). 

The contribution of percolation water to the 
overall outflow of any spring or resurgence is of 
prime importance in the study of limestone 
hydrology. The relative significance of the per- 
colation component will vary considerably accord- 
ing to several factors including the degree of trans- 
missibility of the limestone, geological structure, 
relief, and climate. Percolation waters flow from 
springs at the foot of a Chalk escarpment in South- 
Central England; unlike many areas of massive 
limestones where swallet feeders make a major 
contribution to the total discharge of a karst resur- 
gence, the percolation waters in the area represent 
100% of the outflow from the springs. Other in- 
vestigations concerned with the physicochemical 
characteristics of the spring waters are also 
discussed. They lend support to the view that there 
is a slow movement of ground water in the chalk. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07593 



A STUDY OF LIMESTONE SOLUTION UNDER 
TROPICAL CONDITIONS IN NORTH EAST 
TANZANIA, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07594 



THE SHALLOW-AQUIFER SYSTEM IN DUVAL 
COUNTY, FLORIDA, 

Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Fla. 

R. W. Fairchild. 

Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau 

of Geology Report of Investigations No 59, 1972. 

50p, 15 fig. lOtab, 16ref. 



Descriptors: 'Groundwater, 'Water supply, 
'Shallow wells, 'Florida, Water wells, 
Hydrogeology, Water yield, Water quality, 
Withdrawal, Groundwater recharge, Chemical 
analysis, Geology, Hydrologic data. Data collec- 
tions, Aquifer characteristics, Water users. 
Identifiers: 'Duval County (Fla). 

The deep artesian wells that penetrate the Floridan 
aquifer constitute the major source of fresh water 
in Duval County, Florida. However, a substantial 
quantity of water is also obtained from shallow 
wells (20 to 200 feet deep) that penetrate the shal- 
low-aquifer system. Because of increased growth 
in population and industry in the Jacksonville area, 
the demands for fresh water have increased. As a 
result, the shallow aquifer is becoming more and 
more important as an additional source of potable 
water. The shallow-aquifer system consists of 
permeable beds of sand, shell, and limestone 
within the following stratigraphic units: the upper 
part of the Hawthorn Formation (middle Miocene 
age), the upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits, and 
the Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. From 
40,000 to 50,000 wells penetrate the shallow 
aquifer in Duval County and discharge 10 to 25 
million gallons per day. With only a few excep- 
tions, wells that penetrate the shallow-aquifer 
system yield water of good quality. The hardness 
of the water averages 185 milligrams per liter and 
ranges from 10 to 1,900 milligrams per liter. The 
iron content ranges from to 2.8 milligrams per 
liter. Water from the shallow-aquifer system is 
used primarily for domestic purposes. (Woodard- 
USGS) 
W72-07599 



CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF GROUNDWATER 
IN THE BIGHORN BASIN, NORTHWESTERN 
WYOMING, 

Geological Survey, Cheyenne, Wyo. Water 

Resources Div. 

M. E. Lowry, and G. C. Lines. 

Wyoming Department of Economic Planning and 

Development Basic-Data Report, 1972. 16 p, 1 fig, 

2 tab, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Chemical analysis, 'Water analysis, 
'Groundwater, 'Basic data collections, 'Wyom- 
ing, Water properties, Water quality, Water 
utilization, Domestic water. Municipal water, In- 
dustrial water, Livestock, Irrigation water. 
Identifiers: 'Bighorn Basin (Northwestern Wyo). 

A table of chemical analyses of groundwater in the 
Bighorn Basin in Wyoming contains the results of 
257 analyses of water from wells and springs. The 
analyses are tabulated by county, aquifer, and well 
number. A map shows the locations of wells and 
springs sampled. Of the analyses, 87 are for 
groundwater samples collected during the Bighorn 
Basin investigation during 1969-70. Many of the 
analyses are from the files of the Water Resources 
Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, and have been published 
previously. The sodium-adsorption ratio for 
waters listed is an index of the sodium hazard of 
the waters and expresses the relative activity of 
sodium ions in exchange reactions with soil. In- 
cluded is a table of major constituents in water and 
their effects upon usability. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07601 



COST OF DOMESTIC WELLS AND WATER 
TREATMENT IN ILLINOIS, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06C. 

W72-076U 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
ALABAMA, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07736 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Water in Soils — Group 2G 



WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATIONS IN 
DELAWARE, 1968. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07737 



HYDROLOGY OF THE SAN LUIS VALLEY, 
SOUTH-CENTRAL COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

P. A. Emery, A. J. Boettcher, R. J. Snipes, and H. 

J. Mclntyre, Jr. 

Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations 

Atlas HA-381, 1971. 2 sheets, 8 fig, 3 map, 1 tab, 

12ref. 

Descriptors: 'Basic data collections, 'Ground- 
water. 'Surface waters, 'Colorado, 'Hydrogeolo- 
gy, River basins, Valleys, Water wells, Aquifers, 
Water yield, Water table, Water balance, 
Withdrawal, Water utilization, Hydrologic budget, 
Watershed management, Hydrologic data, Water 
supply, Surveys. 
Identifiers: 'San Luis Valley (Colo). 

An investigation of the water resources of the 
Colorado part of the San Luis Valley was begun in 
1966 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in coopera- 
tion with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. 
The purpose of the investigation is to provide in- 
formation for planning and implementing im- 
proved water-development and management prac- 
tices. The major water problems in the San Luis 
Valley include (1) waterlogging, (2) waste of water 
by nonbeneficial evapotranspiration, (3) deteriora- 
tion of groundwater chemical quailty, and (4) 
failure of Colorado to deliver water to New Mex- 
ico and Texas in accordance with the Rio Grande 
Compact. This atlas describes the hydrologic en- 
vironment, extent of water-resource development, 
and some of the problems related to that develop- 
ment. Information presented is based on data col- 
lected from 1966 to 1968 and on previous studies. 
The surface-water supply averages 1 ,500,000 acre- 
feet per year, and groundwater withdrawals have 
averaged 750,000 acre-feet per year (1962-67). 
(Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07739 



AVAILABILITY AND QUALITY OF GROUND 
WATER IN THE MEDFORD AREA, JACKSON 
COUNTY, OREGON, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

J. H. Robison. 

Available from USGS, Washington, DC, 20402, 

Price $1.25 per set. Geological Survey Hydrologic 

Investigations Atlas HA-392, 1971. 2 sheets, 4 fig, 

2 map, 3 tab, 8 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Groundwater availability, 'Water 
wells, 'Water yield, 'Water quality, 'Oregon, 
Hydrogeology, Aquifers, Water analysis, Water 
properties, Chemical analysis, Water supply, 
Water utilization. 
Identifiers: 'Jackson County (Oregon). 

The hydrologic atlas presents information on 
geology and existing water wells in a form that will 
enable water users, potential water users, and 
planners to estimate the prospects of obtaining 
adequate and suitable groundwater supplies at 
desired locations in the Medford area in 
southwestern Oregon. The area is dominated by 
the lower Bear Creek valley, including the broad 
area where the creek enters the Rogue River. More 
than 40,000 people live in communities served by 
the Medford municipal water system whose 
source is Big Butte Springs. In most of the valley, 
irrigation water is supplied from the Rogue River 
basin. Because groundwater is pumped mostly for 
domestic use, the volume withdrawn is not large; 
however, it is important, as there are several 
thousand wells in the valley, both within and 
beyond areas supplied by surface water. Principal 
groundwater quality problems include excessive 
hardness, fluoride, and boron. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07740 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GROUND- 
WATERS OF TROPICAL COUNTRIES AS IL- 
LUSTRATED BY FRENCH GUINEA (K- 
HEMCHESKIY SOSTAV GRUNTOVYKH VOD 
TROPICHESKIKH STRAN (NA PRIMERE 
GVINEI)), 

Tomsk Polytechnic Inst. (USSR). 
S. L. Shvartsev. 

Geokhimiya, No 1, p 100-109, January 1972. 2 fig, 
6 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Geochemistry, 'Water chemistry, 
'Groundwater, 'Tropical regions, 'Africa, 
Precipitation (Atmospheric), Soils, Laterites, 
Hydrogen ion concentration, Iron, Aluminum, 
Migration, Ions, Equilibrium, Sandstones, 
Granites, Shales, Weathering, Mineralogy, 
Kaolinite. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, French Guinea, Gibbsite, 
Syenites, Gneisses, Silicon, Mineralization. 

Investigations were conducted in 1967-68 in 
French Guinea (West Africa) to study the chemi- 
cal composition of groundwaters. The chemical 
composition and pH of groundwaters of tropical 
countries are largely determined by the composi- 
tion of soils infiltrated by atmospheric precipita- 
tion. Laterites are the source of many elements in 
the water, especially iron and aluminum. The 
direction and character of laterite weathering and, 
specifically, the origin of kaolinite and gibbsite can 
be determined from the chemical composition of 
groundwaters. Iron, aluminum, and a number of 
other elements in groundwater can only be con- 
centrated when the elements migrate in the form 
of complex, presumably organomineral com- 
pounds. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07746 



GROUND-WATER LEVELS IN THE UNITED 
STATES, 1966-70: NORTHWESTERN STATES. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

Available from GPO, Washington, D.C. 20402 
Price $1.00 (Paper cover) Stock No. 2401-2069. 
1 Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1980, 
1972. 228 p, 9 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water levels, 'Observation wells, 
Networks, Water wells, Basic data collections, 
Hydrologic data, Aquifers. 
Identifiers: Northwestern U.S. 

Data from the basic network of observation^ wells 
in the Northwestern States, 1966-70 are tabulated. 
Each record includes well location, well number, 
owner, type and construction, aquifer, diameter, 
depth, casing type, gage type and history, record 
high and low water levels, and a table of periodic 
observations. (Myers-USGS) 
W72-07756 



GROUND-WATER LEVELS IN THE UNITED 
STATES, 1965-69: SOUTH-CENTRAL STATES, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402 Price 
- $1 .00 paper cover; Stock No. 2405-1 176) Geologi- 
cal Survey Water-Supply Paper 1979, 1971. 158 p, 
5 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water levels, 'Observation wells. 
Networks, Water wells, Bsic data collections, 
Hydrologic data. Aquifers. 
Identifiers: South-central U.S. 

Data from the basic network of observation wells 
in the South-Central States, 1965-69 are tabulated. 
Each record includes well location, well number, 
owner, type and construction, aquifer, diameter, 
depth, casing type, gage type and history, record 
high and low water levels, and a table of periodic 
observations. (Myers-USGS) 
W72-07757 



GROUND-WATER LEVELS IN THE UNITED 
STATES, 1964-1968: SOUTHEASTERN STATES. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402 Price 
- $1 .00 (paper cover, Stock No. 2401-1 168) Geolog- 
ical Survey Water-Supply Paper 1978, 1971. 258 p, 
12 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water levels, 'Observation wells, 
Networks, Water wells, Basic data collections, 
Hydrologic data, Aquifers. 
Identifiers: Southeastern U.S. 

Data from the basic network of observation wells 
in the Southeastern States, 1964-68 are tabulated. 
Each record includes well location, well number, 
owner, type and construction, aquifer, diameter, 
depth, casing type, gage type and history, record 
high and low water levels, and a table of periodic 
observations. (Myers-USGS) 
W72-07758 



2G. Water in Soils 



SPRINKLER APPLICATION OF ANAEROBI- 
CALLY TREATED SWINE WASTES AS 
LIMITED BY NITROGEN CONCENTRATION, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Agricultural En- 
gineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W72-07364 



EFFECT OF PERIODIC DESICCATION AND 
MOISTENING OF SOILS ON THE MOBILITY 
OF POTASSIUM, (IN UKRAINIAN), 

A. I. Siryi, and Nabil'Ali Bayumi. 
Visn Sil's'kohospod Nauk. 1. 55-57. 1970. 
Identifiers: Desiccation, Fertilizer, Heat, Mobili- 
ty, Moistening, Periodic, Potassium, Soils. 

Periodic desiccation and moistening of soils in- 
fluences the mobility of K (both natural and fertil- 
izers), diminishing in deep chernozem but increas- 
ing on dark chestnut solonetzous soil. The content 
of K is dignificantly diminished by exposure of 
soil to high temperatures (in an autoclave under 2 
atm.), almost irrespective of the exposure time.- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07395 



HYDROLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL PRO- 
PERTIES OF ERODED LANDSCAPES 
(GIDROLOGICHESKIYE I GEOK- 

HIMICHESKIYE SVOYSTVA ERODIROVAN- 
NYKH LANDSHAFTOV). 

Akademiya Nauk Litovskoi SSR, Vilnius, Otdel 
Geografii. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W72-07455 



ON THE TENSOR CONCEPT OF UNSATU- 
RATED ANISOTROPIC HYDRAULIC CONDUC- 
TIVITY, 

Technical Univ. of Prague (Czechoslovakia). Lab. 

of Soil Science. 

J. Cisler. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 525- 

528, April 1972. 1 fig, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydraulic conductivity, 'Soil water 
movement, 'Anisotropy, 'Mathematical studies, 
Seepage, Groundwater movement, Physical pro- 
perties, Darcys law. 
Identifiers: Hydraulic conductivity tensor. 

Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be re- 
garded as a second order tensor, the coefficients 
of which depend on soil moisture suction or soil 
moisture content. General equations for the three- 
dimensional anisotropic unsaturated flow of water 
in porous media must involve nine coefficients of 
the hydraulic conductivity tensor, all of which are, 
in general, nonzero. Equations for horizontal 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2G — Water in Soils 



anisotropic unsaturated flow can be reduced to an 
orthotropic form with principal hydraulic conduc- 
tivities, provided the principal axes of the conduc- 
tivity tensor do not rotate when the moisture con- 
tent or the soil moisture suction changes. This con- 
dition is fulfilled only for a constant ratio of 
hydraulic conductivities in different directions 
that is independent of the soil moisture suction or 
soil moisture content. In this case the flow velocity 
is given by the simple Darcy type equation without 
the cross coefficients of hydraulic conductivity. A 
simple experimental method is proposed to deter- 
mine the diagonal and cross coefficients of the 
hydraulic conductivity as functions of the soil 
moisture suction for horizontal unsaturated steady 
flow in anisotropic porous media. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07469 



EFFECTS OF SNOW ON SOIL WATER MEA- 
SUREMENT BY NEUTRON MODERATION, 

Agricultural Research Service, Mandan, N. Dak. 

Northern Great Plains Research Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W72-07485 



THE EFFECT OF SAMPLING ON THE UN- 
DRAINED SOIL PROPERTIES OF A LEDA 
SOIL, 

Queen's Univ., Kingston (Ontario); and Golder 
(H. Q.) and Associates, Toronto (Ontario); and 
Department of Transportation and Communica- 
tions, Downsview (Ontario). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08D. 
W72-07532 



REMOTE SOIL-WATER SAMPLING 

TECHNIQUE, 

Connecticut Univ., Storrs. Dept. of Agronomv. 
R. W. Wengel, and G. F. Griffin. 
Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, Vol 
35, No 4, p 661-664, July-August 1971. 3 fig, 1 tab, 
2 ref. OWRR-A-029-CONN (1). 

Descriptors: Sampling, Instrumentation, "Soil 
water, Lysimeters, Soil water movement, On-site 
data collections, Equipment, Remote control. 
Identifiers: 'Suction samplers. Inter-sample con- 
tamination, *Soil samplers. 

Commercial soil-water samplers have been 
modified by using small diameter nylon tubing and 
toggle valves to achieve remote sampling. Particu- 
lar benefits of this technique are: (1) elimination of 
traffic at the sampler site, thus preventing exces- 
sive soil compaction and plant damage at the site 
which could alter the experimental results, (2) 
facilitation of multiple sampling and/or frequent 
sampling, and (3) reduction of inter-sample con- 
tamination caused by residual solution in long 
lines. Field equipment is shown and discussed. 
W72-07552 



AVAILABLE WATER STORAGE IN A RANGE 
OF SOILS IN NORTHEASTERN QUEENSLAND, 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research 
Organization, Townsville (Australia). Div. of 
Tropical Pastures. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03B. 

W72-07554 



THE ACETYLENE REDUCTION ASSAY FOR 
MEASURING NITROGEN FIXATION IN 
WATERLOGGED SOIL, 

Department of Agriculture, Beaverlodge (Al- 
berta). Research Station. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07557 



THE INFLUENCE OF SOIL MOISTURE TEN- 
SION ON THE FUNGAL POPULATION OF A 
PINEWOOD SOIL, 

Karachi Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Biochemistry. 
M. Shameemullah, D. Parkinson, and A. Burges. 
Can J Microbiol. 17(7): 975-986. 1971. Illus. 



Identifiers: Fungal, Moisture, Pine, Population, 
Soil, Suction, Tension, Wood. 

In both laboratory and field experiments fungi 
were isolated from an H layer, Al and C horizon 
soil samples, the samples having been held at 
known pF (water-holding index) values. For all 
soils samples, the pF RANGE +. ( TO <.: (0.08 to 
0.2 bar) is optimal for all fungal species; below pF 
1.9 (0.08 bar) and above pF 3.8 (6.2 bar) there is a 
marked reduction in frequency of many species. 
Trichoderma virde and Penicillium spp. appear 
capable of growing under a wide range of soil 
moisture conditions.— Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07558 



DETERMINATION OF SOIL MOISTURE CON- 
TENT USING MICROWAVE RADIOMETRY, 

Aerojet-General Corp., El Monte, Calif. 
Microwave Div. 

G. Poe, A. Stogryn, and A. T. Edgerton. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as COM-71-01075, $3.00 in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. Summary Report 
1684R-2, June 1971. 18 p, 8 fig, 5 tab, 9 ref. NOAA 
Contract No 0-35239. 

Descriptors: *Soil moisture, *Soil moisture me- 
ters, 'Analytical techniques, 'Microwaves, 
•Radio waves. Radiation, Wavelengths, Soils, Soil 
water movement, Volume. 

A series of brightness temperature measurements 
were performed at observational wavelengths of 
0.81, 2.2, 6.0 and 21.4 cm on a soil plot free of 
vegetation having a variety of moisture conditions 
in Tempe, Arizona. Numerous measurements of 
moisture content and thermal temperature profiles 
were taken in conjunction with the radiometric 
measurements. Dielectric constant measurements 
of representative soil samples were performed at 
0.81 cm and 2.2 cm over a range of moisture condi- 
tions using an ellipsometer. Comparisons of mea- 
sured brightness temperatures with those com- 
puted from the recent theory of vertically struc- 
tured media indicate that a partial understanding 
of the microwave emission properties of soils has 
been achieved. Further computations were per- 
formed which indicate that measurements using a 
suitably arranged sensor configuration (e.g., ob- 
servational wavelengths, polarizations and angles 
of observation) will allow a quantitative estimate 
of the distribution of total volume of water per unit 
area lying between the soil's surface and a calcu- 
lated skin depth. Excellent agreement of measured 
and calculated total volumes of water per unit area 
was obtained for saturated and moderately moist 
soil conditions. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07581 



ON THE MUTUAL RELATION BETWEEN 
BEARING CAPACITY BY CONE PENETROME- 
TER, MOISTURE CONTENT AND DENSITY OF 
SOIL ON THE FIELD, (IN JAPANESE), 

Saga Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Land Melioration. 
Yoshio Ikushima, and Akira Nakajima. 
Agr Bull Saga Univ. 29: 59-67. 1970. English sum- 
mary. 

Identifiers: Capacity, Cone, Density, Depth, 
Drainage, Field, Moisture, Penetrometer, Porosi- 
ty, Relation, Soil. 

The porosity of the soil other than surface soil was 
nearly constant during both the non-irrigation 
period and mid-summer drainage. The moisture 
content and density affect the bearing capacity of 
the surface soil. There are probably other factors 
besides porosity, density and moisture content af- 
fecting the bearing capacity of surface soil. The 
moisture content of the subsoil under the plowsole 
is in the plastic zone of Atterberg limits. The curve 
of mutual relation between bearing capacity and 
moisture content sharply changes direction in the 
condition close to the liquid limit. The shape of the 
curve varies with the depth of the subsoil. -Copy- 
right 1971, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07718 



SOD1 ERODD3ILITY AS AFFECTED BY SOIL 
SURFACE PROPERTIES, 

Agricultural Research Service, Orono, Maine. Soil 

and Water Conservation Research Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07728 



MOUNDS (HUMPrES) IN THE PEACE RIVER 
AREA OF ALBERTA, 

Research Council of Alberta, Edmonton. Soils 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07778 



INFILTRATION BEHAVIOUR OF STRUC- 
TURALLY UNSTABLE SOILS UNDER PONDED 
AND NON-PONDED CONDITIONS, 

Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Soil Science. 
N. Collis-George, and K. B. Laryea. 
Aust J Soil Res. 9 (1): 7-20. 1971. Illus. 
Identifiers: Behavior, Conductivity, Hydraulic, 
Infiltration, Irrigation, Management, Moisture, 
Movement, Non-Ponded, Ponded, Soils, Struc- 
turally, Unstable. 

The infiltration behavior of unstable soils under 
ponded and non-ponded conditions are compared 
with a stable soil and a sand. When an unstable soil 
is ponded and the surface layers are at a moisture 
potential of or near 0, the soil structure collap- 
ses. Thus, the infiltration rate and the rate of 
movement of wetting front are lower than those of 
stable porous materials. The moisture content and 
pore water pressure changes with time indicate 
three main zones during infiltration into unstable 
soils, viz: a saturated zone where the original ag- 
gregate structure has been destroyed and hydrau- 
lic conductivity is low; a transmission zone where 
moisture content is not quite constant and where 
both moisture potential gradient and gravitational 
potential contribute to the movement of water; 
and a wetting front. In stable soils the saturated 
zone retains its original structure to a large extent, 
and the transmission zone is saturated (or is near 
saturation after allowing for air entrapment), and 
transmission of water in this zone is by gravita- 
tional potential alone. By contrast, the infiltration 
behavior of unstable soils with restricted supply 
rates, which do not develop surface ponding, is 
similar to that of structurally stable materials 
under the same restricted supply rate, in that the 
structure is not destroyed. If the unstable soils 
were wetted slowly, the aggregates retained their 
identity when subsequently ponded. This system 
provided a maximum value of hydraulic conduc- 
tivity to compare with the restricted supply rates. 
If the restricted supply rates for the most unstable 
soil were larger than 1/20 of maximum hydraulic 
conductivity ponding still occurred, but the in- 
cidence of ponding was delayed the smaller the 
restricted supply rate. In addition, structural 
deterioration was reduced, and in some circum- 
stances this resulted in greater water storage and 
greater depth of wetting than with immediate 
ponding.-Copyright 1971, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07802 



DETERMINING THE ACCUMULATED 

DEPOSIT OF RADIONUCLIDES BY SOIL SAM- 
PLING AND ANALYSIS, 

New York Operations Office (AEC), N. Y. Health 

and Safety Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07835 



SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF SOILS FOR 
PLUTONIUM, 

Eastern Environmental Radiation Lab., Mont- 
gomery, Ala. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07837 



10 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Lakes — Group 2H 



PLUTONIUM IN SURFACE SOILS IN THE 
HANFORD PLANT ENVIRONS, 

Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, Wash. Pacific 

Northwest Labs. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07839 



MEASUREMENT OF PLUTONIUM IN SOIL 
AROUND THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 

Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, 
Nev. Western Environmental Research Lab. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07840 



2H. Lakes 



AN EXPERIMENT ON THE CULTURE OF 
TILAPIA ESCULENTA (GRAHAM) AND 
TILAPIA ZILLII (GERVAIS) (CICHLIDAE) IN 
FISH PONDS, 

Fourah Bay Coll., Freetown (Sierra Leone). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07280 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 7. LOWER MIS- 
SISSIPPI RIVER BASIN. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07281 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 6.-MISSOURI 
RIVER BASIN. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07282 



A MODIFIED SIGMA EQUATIONS' AP- 
PROACH TO THE NUMERICAL MODELING 
OF GREAT LAKES HYDRODYNAMICS, 

Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). 
N. G. Freeman, A. M. Hale, and M. B. Danard. 
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 77, No 6, p 
1050-1060, February 20, 1972, 10 fig, 15ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydrodynamics, 'Great Lakes, 
'Model studies, 'Waves (Water), , 'Seiches, Cur- 
rents (water). Density, Fluid mechanics, Lake Hu- 
ron, Air-Water interfaces, Topography, Dynam- 
ics, Wind velocity, Wind tides, Hypolimnion, 
Mathematical studies. 

Identifiers: Baroclinic modeling, Bottom topog- 
raphy. 

Two numerical experiments that test the feasibility 
of a modified sigma equations' approach to 
resolve large-scale topographical and baroclinic 
effects are described for Lake Huron. The applica- 
tion of a realistic bottom topography (and zero 
stratification) produces significant flow modifica- 
tion only where the depth change is large (at least 
for the grid resolution employed) a co-oscillation 
of Saginaw Bay with the remainder of the Lake 
Huron basin is observed. The inclusion of 
baroclinity (and constant depth) permits internal 
waves to form with density oscillations of about a 
17-hour period. The mean inertial period of Lake 
Huron is approximately 17.2 hours. A third case, 
in which baroclinicity and variable depth are in- 
cluded together, showed some evidence of numer- 
ical instability and is therefore not discussed. 
(Lang-USGS) 
W72-07292 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WATERS OF 
SOME LAKES OF DAGESTAN (K- 
HIMICHESKIY SOSTAV VODY NEKOTORYKH 
OZER DAGESTANA), 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 

(USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07296 



RUBDDHJM AND CESRIM CONCENTRATIONS 
IN WATERS OF SOME WEAKLY SALINE 
LAKES OF NORTHWEST USSR AND 
KAMCHATKA (SODERZHANTYE RUBDDIYA I 
TSEZIYA V VODE NEKOTORYKH 
SLABOMINERALIZOVANNYKH OZER 

SEVERO-ZAPADA SSR I KAMCHATKI), 
Akademiya Nauk SSR, Leningrad. Institut 
Evolyutsionnoi Fiziologii i Biokhimii. 
Yu. P. Kanevskiy, and D. G. Fleyshman. 
In: Formirovaniye khimicheskogo sostava, 
zagryazneniye i samoochishcheniye poverkhost- 
nykh vod. Metody analiza prirodnykh vod; 
Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy, Vol 55, Leningrad, 
p 28-31, 1971. 2 fig, 1 tab, 6ref. 

Descriptors: 'Lakes, 'Water chemistry, 'Water 
analysis, 'Alkali metals, 'Cesium, Sodium, Potas- 
sium, Salinity, Sampling, Rivers, United States, 
Correlation analysis, Regression analysis. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Kamchatka, 'Rubidium, 
Water samples. 

Water samples were collected in July-August 1968 
from 8 lakes in the Northwest USSR and from 2 
lakes in Kamchatka to measure the concentrations 
of rubidium, cesium, sodium, and potassium in the 
weakly saline lake waters. Rubidium and cesium 
were determined by the mass spectrometric 
method of isotopic dilution, and sodium and potas- 
sium by flame photometry. A positive correlation 
was obtained between the concentrations of ru- 
bidium, cesium, and potassium in the lake waters 
examined. The coefficient of correlation between 
the cesium and potassium content in water for all 
10 lakes was +0.71 and for lakes of the Northwest 
USSR +0.83. An even closer correlation (+0.96) 
was observed in comparing rubidium and potassi- 
um concentrations. No reliable correlation was 
established between the rubidium and sodium or 
the cesium and sodium contents, the coefficients 
of correlation being +0.22 and +0.32, respective- 
ly. Comparison of rubidium/potassium and cesi- 
um/potassium relations in lake waters of the 
USSR with data obtained by other authors for 
western rivers of the United States reveal a 
similarity in rubidium and cesium concentrations 
in the widely scattered bodies of water whenever 
the potassium concentrations are similar. (See also 
W72-07295) (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07297 



COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC ACIDS DIS- 
SOLVED IN SURFACE WATERS (O SOSTAVE 
ORGANICHESKIKH KISLOT, RAST- 

VORENNYKH V POVERKHNOSTNYKH 
VODAKH), 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 
(USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07298 



CONCENTRATION AND DYNAMICS OF OR- 
GANIC ACIDS IN MINERAL WATERS OF THE 
LAKE BAIKAL REGION (SODERZHANIYE I 
DINAMIKA ORGANICHESKIKH KISLOT V 
MINERAL'NYKH VODAKH PRIBAYKAL'YA), 
Irkutskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet (USSR). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07299 



EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL HEATING ON THE 
CALCIUM CARBONATE BALANCE OF A 
COOLING RESERVOIR OF A LITHUANIAN 
HYDROELECTRIC POWERPLANT (O 

VLIYANU ISKUSSTVENNOGO PODOGREVA 
NA KARBONATNO-KAL'TSIYEVOYE RAV- 
NOVESIYE VODOKHRANILISHCHA-O- 

KHLADITELYA LITOVSKOY CRES), 
Akademiya Nauk Litovskoi SSR, Vilnius. Institut 
Khimii i Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07301 



DISTRIBUTION, COMPOSITION AND 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURFICIAL 
SEDIMENTS OF LAKE ONTARIO, 

Department of the Environment, Burlington (On- 
tario). Canada Centre for Inland Waters. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W72-07316 



COMPARATIVE ANGLER SUCCESS AT LAKE 
MEAD (ARIZONA-NEVADA), 

Nevada Southern Univ., Las Vegas. Dept. of 
Biological Sciences. 

F. A. Espinosa, Jr., and James E. Deacon. 
Progr Fish Cult. 33(3): 170-174. 1971. JJlus. Map. 
Identifiers: Angler, Arizona, Comparative, Lake, 
Mead, Nevada. 

Creel census data compiled on the Lake Mead 
fishery from 1964 to 1967 by the Arizona and 
Nevada Fish and Game Departments were 
segregated into catch-per-unit effort data for 2 an- 
gling methods, live bait and artificial lure, and 
reduced to useable statistics for analysis of com- 
parative angler success. Catch-per-hour data were 
transformed according to the expression-log ( 
(catch-per-hour x 100) x 1) and processed accord- 
ing to an analysis of variance program defined as a 
mixed model with 2 random factors, years and 
geographical strata, and 1 fixed factor, angling 
method. Analysis of variance revealed that the 
main effects of strata and angling method are 
statistically significant. The difference in catch- 
per-hour between anglers fishing with live bait and 
those using artificial lures is highly significant (F = 
23.92, P<0.01). Anglers using artificial lures enjoy 
a significantly higher catch rate at Lake Mead than 
do anglers using live bait. There was no significant 
effect of years on catch-per-unit effort; however, 
the interactive effect of years and strata was sig- 
nificant. Catch rates did differ significantly 
between the 3 geographical strata during the 
period from 1965 to 1967. Anglers using artificial 
lures at Lake Mead enjoy higher catch rates 
because they are probably a more skillful group 
than the live bait anglers. -Copyright 1972, Biolog- 
ical Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07320 



FATE OF DIQUAT IN THE AQUATIC EN- 
VIRONMENT, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Water Resources Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07355 



CRASPEDACUSTA SOWERBYI LANKESTER 
(COELENTERATA: LIMNOMEDUSAE) IN NEW 
ZEALAND LAKES, 

Marine Dept., Rotorua (New Zealand). 

G. R. Fish. 

N Z J Mar Freshwater Res. 5(1): 66-69. 1971. Illus. 

Identifiers: Coelenterata, Craspedacusta-Sower- 

byi, Lakes, Limnomedusae, New-Zealand. 

A sudden infestation of medusae, identified as C. 
sowerbyi, occurred in Lake Maraetai North 
Island, New Zealand, during the last week of Jan. 
1970. Previous records of immature medusae in 
North Island lakes and of hydroids in a Dunedin 
aquarium probably refer to the same species. High 
water temperatures favored development of the 
medusae, but their effect on the ecology of the 
lake was probably negligible. -Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07398 



HYDROCHEMISTRY OF THE WATER COOL- 
ING THE KURAKHOVKA POWER PLANT, 

Akademiya Nauk URSR, Kiev. Instytut 

Hidrobiologii. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07457 



11 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2H — Lakes 



EFFECT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESSES 
ON THE OXYGEN BEHAVIOR IN LAKES OF 
THE AMU-DAR'YA DELTA, 

Interdisciplinary Inst, of Natural Sciences, Nukus 

(USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07458 



TRANSFORMATION OF IRON DURING BAC- 
TERIAL DECOMPOSITION OF PLANKTONIC 
ORGANIC MATTER, 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Oke- 

anologii. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07459 



EFFECT OF USING AVERAGED DATA ON 
THE COMPUTED EVAPORATION, 

Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02D. 

W72-07472 



SNOWMELT ENERGY EXCHANGE IN THE 
LAKE SUPERIOR REGION, 

Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton. Dept. 

of Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 

W72-07481 



SURFACE WATER TEMPERATURE AND ICE 
REGIMES OF GEORGIAN BAY, 

Atmospheric Environment Service, Toronto (On- 
tario). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W72-07482 



REVIEW OF THE INFLUENCES OF THE 
GREAT LAKES ON WEATHER, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02B. 

W72-07483 



LIMITING NUTRIENT ELEMENTS IN FIL- 
TERED LAKE ERIE WATER, 

Cincinnati Univ., Ohio. Tanners' Council Lab. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07504 



MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON NITROGEN 
FIXATION IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS--I. 
ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN FIX- 
ING BACTERIA IN FRESH WATER REGIONS, 

Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst, for Food 

Science; and Mie Prefectural Univ., Tsu (Japan). 

Faculty of Fisheries. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07513 



NUTRIENT LIMITING FACTORS IN AN ARC- 
TIC TUNDRA POND, 

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). Dept. of Biolo- 
gy- 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-075I6 



MICRO-HABITAT PH DIFFERENCES FROM 
THOSE OF THE SURROUNDING WATER, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst.. Blacksburg. Center for 
Environmental Studies. 
W. H. Youngue, Jr., and J. Cairns, Jr. 
Hydrobiologia, Vol 38, No 3-4, p 453-461, 1971. 1 
fig, 6 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: "Hydrogen ion concentration, "En- 
vironment, "Habitats, Protozoa, Water quality. 
Photosynthesis, Temperature. Bogs, Algae, 
Ponds. 

Identifiers: Micro-habitats, Substrates, Mecklen- 
burg County (NO, Cheboygan County (Mich), 
Montgomery County (Va). 



Evidence indicates that the micro-environmental 
conditions under which substrate associated 
microorganisms live differ from those of the sur- 
rounding fluid. This possibility was tested during a 
study of long term fluctuations in the number of 
species associated with polyurethane sponges 
suspended in the surface waters of a Mecklenburg 
County, North Carolina, pond; a Cheboygan 
County, Michigan, 'acid' bog pond and an 'al- 
kaline' gravel-pit pond; and a Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Virginia, farm pond. A laboratory experiment 
to test for possible buffering by polyurethane 
sponge material was conducted and showed no 
evidence that the sponge material had any effect 
on the pH, although the pH of the sponge water 
was often substantially different from that of the 
surrounding water (sponge water pH 6.8, pond 
water pH 10.5). The evidence suggests that the 
microbial communities inhabiting the sponges 
strongly influence the pH of the water in that 
micro-habitat and presumably other water quality 
characteristics as well. If this is generally true for 
microbial growths associated with substrates, the 
relationship of these species to the quality of the 
surrounding water should be re-examined. (Jones- 
Wisconsin) 
W72-07519 



THE EFFECT OF A POWER PLANT ON THE 
DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF 
ZOOPLANKTON NEAR THE PLANT'S THER- 
MAL OUTFALL, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Water Resources 

Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07523 



PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON OF 
SOME LAKES IN NORTHEASTERN NORWAY, 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Winnipeg 

(Manitoba). Freshwater Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07556 



PERIPHYTON OF SEVERAL LAKES OF THE 
MAZURIAN LAKELAND, 

Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. Inst, of 
Ecology; and Polish Academy of Sciences, War- 
saw. Dept. of Applied Limnology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07559 



THE SUMMER BIOCENOTIC PLANKTON OF 
THE ABANT LAKE (ASIATIC TURKEY) RE- 
GION OF THE BLACK SEA, 

Rome Univ. (Italy). 

Fiorenza G. Margaritora, and Vezio Cottarelli. 

1ST Lombardo Accad Sci Lett Rend Sci Biol Med 

B. 104(1): 170-190. 1970. Illus. Map. 

Identifiers: Abant, Biocenotic, Lake, Plankton, 

Sea, Summer, Turkey. 

A study was made of summer plankton collected 
in the Abant Lake during a field trip in May and 
June, 1969. The plankton composition is related to 
seasonal characteristics (on the bank with or 
without vegetation, in the center of lake). The 
dominant species were examined from a 
morphological and biogeographical viewpoint. -- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07562 



SEASONAL CHANGES OF NITROGEN-FIXING 
AND NITRIFYING AND DENITRIFYING BAC- 
TERIA IN THE BOTTOM DEPOSITS OF THE 
ILAWA LAKES, 

Wyzsza Szkola Rolnicza, Olsztyn-Kortowa (Po- 
land). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W72-07563 



CLAY MINERALOGY AT THE BRINE-SED- 
IMENT INTERFACE IN THE SOUTH ARM OF 
GREAT SALT LAKE, UTAH, 

Sun Oil Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07583 



THE FISHES OF LAKE OKEECHOBEE, 
FLORIDA, 

Florida State Board of Conservation, St. Peter- 
sburg. Marine Lab. 
Lothian A. Ager. 

Quart J Fla Acad Sci. 34(1): 53-62. 1971. 
Identifiers: Fishes, Florida, Fresh, Lake, 
Okeechobee, Salt, Species. 

With the recent flood control project for the Kis- 
simmee River and the Lake Okeechobee area en- 
compassing water control structures and addi- 
tional drainage canals, need for documentation of 
the species of fish present at this time was ap- 
parent. Also, with the rapidly spreading exotic 
fishes in Florida, it seemed advisable to take in- 
ventory of this important body of water. During 
the 2 yr period from Oct., 1967, to Dec, 1969, a 
survey was made to determine the composition 
and relative abundance of the fishes of Lake 
Okeechobee. Forty-three spp. of fish were col- 
lected during the study. Thirty-six spp. were fresh 
water fishes while 7 spp. were salt water fishes 
which invade adjacent fresh-water areas. Notes 
made at the time of collections furnish some in- 
sight of the utilization of the lake habitat by these 
species of fish and their life histories. -Copyright 
1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07602 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 4.--ST. 
LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07603 



INDEX OF SURFACE-WATER RECORDS TO 
SEPTEMBER 30, 1970: PART 8.-WESTERN 
GULF OF MEXICO BASINS. 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07605 



STUDIES ON THE EFFECTIVE STOCKING OF 

SALMONID FISH: I. SURVIVAL OF 

HIMEMASU (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA) 

RELEASED IN LAKE YUNOKO, (IN 

JAPANESE), 

Minora Tanaka, and Yoshikazu Shiraishi. 

Bull Freshwater Fish Res Lab Tokyo. 20 (2): 83- 

91. 1971. Illus. English summary. 

Identifiers: Dynamics, Fish, Himemasu, Japan, 

Lake, Oncorhynchus-Nerka, Population, 

Released, Salmonid, Stocking, Survival, Yunoko. 

During the first year, 100,000 fry were assumed to 
decrease to 9022 or about 9% of the released fish. 
The number of fish that survived in the second and 
third yr were calculated as 1258 and 65, respective- 
ly. Thus the surviving number of fish decreased 
linearly with their age, which indicates that the 
survival rate was constant in this case. By compar- 
ing the decrease with the amount of catch, the 
decrease of 0-yr-old fish was calculated to be 
about 90% of released fish, which was due mainly 
to natural mortality, but that of 1- and 2-yr-old fish 
was mainly due to angling. The fish migrating out 
of the lake were checked by small fyke net. The 
characteristic value of the population dynamics 
for each year class was calculated. -Copyright 
1971, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07621 



CARBON, NITROGEN, AND PHOSPHORUS 
AND THE EUTROPHICATION OF FRESH- 
WATER LAKES, 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Winnipeg 

(Manitoba). Freshwater Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07648 



12 






WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Water in Plants — Group 21 



STUDIES ON THE VARIABILITY OF THE 

LANDLOCKED AYU-FISH, PLECOGLOSSUS 

ALTIVELIS T, AT S., IN LAKE BIWA: I. ON 

THE MODE OF DISTRIBUTION AND SOME 

BODY FORM VARIATION AT EARLY PHASES 

OF DEVELOPMENT (IN JAPANESE), 

Okayama Prefecture Fisheries Experiment Station 

(Japan). 

Mikio Azuma. 

Jap J Ecol. 20 (2): 63-76. 1970. IUus. Map. English 

summary. 

Identifiers: Ayu-fish, Biwa, Body, Development, 

Distribution, Early, Form, Japan, Lake, 

Landlocked, Mode, Phases, Plecoglossus-al- 

tivelis. Variability. 

The morphological development, growth and 
change in distribution pattern of the Auy-fish in 
Lake Biwa were studied. In the earlier phases 
when the body form variation is not so clear, the 
distribution of the larvae is passively determined 
by water current. The differentiation in the body 
form starts with the more developed larvae. As the 
differentiation becomes clearer, the fish can be 
classified into 2 groups by their body form, i.e., 
the running water type and the standing water 
type. The former migrates toward the littoral area 
while the latter remains in the deeper part. The 
relation between morphological development and 
growth reverses itself at about this phase; the fish 
of the running water type which have been 'more 
developed but less grown' in the preceding phases 
become 'less developed but more grown' in the 
subsequent phases, and vice versa with the fish of 
the standing water type. --Copyright 1971, Biologi- 
cal Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07717 



POTENTIAL POLLUTION OF OGALLALA BY 
RECHARGING PLAYA LAKE WATER - PESTI- 
CIDES, 

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Water Resources 

Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07761 



21. Water in Plants 



CHARACTERISTICS OF PRE-SPAWNING 
AMERICAN BROOK LAMPREYS FROM BIG 
CREEK, ONTARIO, 

Waterloo Lutheran Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of 
Biology. 
E. Kott. 

Can Field Nat. 85 (3): 235-240. 1971. IUus. 
Identifiers: American, Brook, Canada, Creek, 
Fecundity, Lampetra-Lamottei, Lampreys, On- 
tario, Spawning. 

Mature adults of the American brook lamprey, 
Lampetra lamottei were collected in the spring 
from Big Creek, at Delhi, Ontario. The sex ratio 
was 2 males: 1 female. The average length of 100 
individuals was 179 mm, showing no difference in 
the lengths of males and females. A significant dif- 
ference in weight did exist, the average of 57 males 
being 9.7 g and 28 females, 10.9 g. Livers of 
females were significantly larger than those of 
males. The mean number of trunk myomeres for 
15 specimens was 68.8. Mean fecundity and mean 
relative fecundity of 16 females were 3787 eggs per 
female and 357 eggs per gram body weight. The 
results were compared with data on Quebec popu- 
lations of this species, which were composed of 
smaller individuals with a much higher relative 
fecundity— Copyright 1972. Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07287 



A METHOD FOR MEASURING DIGESTIBILI- 
TY AND METABOLIZABLE ENERGY OF FISH 
FEEDS, 

Western Fish Nutrition Lab., Hagerman, Idaho. 

R.R.Smith. 

Progr Fish Cult. 33(3): 132-134. 1971. IUus. 

Identifiers: Digestibility, Energy, Feeds. Fish. 

Metabolizable, Rainbow trout. 



Metabolism chambers were used to collect 
separately feces, urine, and gill excretions from 
rainbow trout weighing 250 to 500 g. The fish were 
force fed measured quantities of feed daily and 
waste products were collected for 5 days. Ap- 
parent digestibility, metabolizable energy, and 
nitrogen balance were calculated. Some problems 
were encountered, but the method had value in 
measuring availability and utilization of fish 
feeds.-Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07393 



FALL SPAWNING OF CHANNEL CATFISH, 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Columbia, 

Mo. Fish-Pesticide Research Lab. 

James L. Brauhn. 

Progr Fish Cult. 33(3): 150-152. 1971. 

Identifiers: Catfish, Channel, Fall, Ictalurus-Punc- 

tatus, Pituitary, Spawning. 

Age class II channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) 
were spawned under laboratory conditions in Aug. 
and Nov. The spawning technique included long- 
term holding at 17.2 deg C, feeding a high-protein 
diet, gradual elevation of water temperature to 
25.9 deg C, and ovulation induction by injecting 
macerated carp pituitary. The technique is useful 
in providing fingerling channel catfish for mid- 
winter research or spring stocking of ponds.— 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07394 



CONTRIBUTION TO THE GROWTH OF 
THYMALIUS ARCTICUS (PALLAS, 1776) 
FROM THE UPPER YENISEI RIVER OF MON- 
GOLIA (IN CZECH), 

Karlova Universita, Prague (Czechoslovakia). 
Lab. of Ichthylogy. 
Karthigesu Chitravadivelu. 
Vestn Cesk Spol Zool. 35(3): 168-174. 1971. IUus. 
Identifiers: Growth, Mongolia, ThymaUus-Arc- 
ticus, Upper Yenisei River. 

Age and growth determinations were made from 
scales of 163 specimens of T. arcticus from the 
upper Yenisei river of Mongolia. Computations of 
growth histories were made by the method of Lee, 
(1920). Growth is compared with the data of 
Svetovidov (1936). The conversion factors for 
standard, fork (Smith's standard length) and total 
lengths were studied. -Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07397 



INTERNAL WATER STATUS AND WATER 
TRANSPORT IN SEED ONION PLANTS, 

Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. of Soils. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03F. 
W72-07493 



ON THE NOCTURNAL FEEDING ACTIVITY 
OF RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) 
IN STREAMS, (IN JAPANESE), 

Hikaru Tanaka. 

Bull Freshwater Fish Res Lab Tokyo. 20 (2): 73- 
82. 1971. IUus. English summary. 
Identifiers: Factor, Feeding, Food, Insect, Inten- 
sity, Light. Nocturnal, Rainbow, Salmo-Gaird- 
neri. Streams, Trout. 

The feeding rate of drifting food such as insects 
depends upon light intensity. The fish rarely 
caught food at light intensities below .030. -.035 
lux.— Copyright 1971 . Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07503 



PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND DISTRIBUTION OF 
ASSIMILATE OF SCOTCH PINE SEEDLINGS 
IN RELATION TO SOIL MOISTURE AND 
PROVENANCE, 

Richard C. Schultz, and Gordon E. Gatherum. 
BotGaz. 132 (2): 91-96. 1971. IUus. 
Identifiers: Assimilate, Distribution, Light, 
Moisture. Mutual, Photosynthesis, Pine-G, Pinus- 
Sylvestris-G. Provenance, Rate, Relation. 
Respiration, Seedlings, Shading. SoU, Stress. 



A controUed-environment study was conducted 
with seedlings of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). 
Photosynthetic capacity (photosynthesis/seedling) 
and efficiency (photosynthesis/unit of needle 
weight) of 3-yr-old seedlings increased with in- 
creasing soU moisture. The effect of moisture on 
photosynthetic capacity was primarily related to 
seedling size, while the effect of moisture on 
photosynthetic efficiency was related to dif- 
ferences in proportion of photosynthetic and 
nonphotosynthetic tissue in needles and to dif- 
ferences in mutual shading of the needles. Respira- 
tion rates increased with increasing soil moisture 
because of a reduction of water stress on metabol- 
ism. From the northern to southern provenances, 
photosynthesis increased. Compared with 
southern sources, northern provenances had a 
greater proportion of assimilate in roots than in 
shoots. The southern sources had a greater propor- 
tion of assimilate in the stem. -Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07505 



FOOD HABITS OF THE WHITE AMUR 
STOCKED IN PONDS ALONE AND IN COM- 
BINATION WITH OTHER SPECDZS, 

Nicholls State Univ., Thibodaux, La. Dept. of 
Biological Sciences. 

Ronald H. Kilgen, and R. Oneal Smitherman. 
Progr Fish Cult. 33 (3): 123-127. 1971. 
Identifiers: Algae, Alligatorweed-D, Amur. Bass, 
Carp, Catfish, Centipede, Chara, Combination, 
Ctenopharyngodon-IdeUus, Food, Grass-M, 
Habits, Insects, Minnows, Ponds, Potamogeton- 
M, Species, Stocked, Water-Hyacinth-M. 

White amur (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), also 
known as grass carp, were stocked alone in ponds 
at rates of 20. 40, 80, and 160 per acre to determine 
efficient stocking rates for controlling undesirable 
aquatic plants. Several aquatic plants were 
stocked in the ponds, including waterhyacinth, al- 
ligatorweed, Eurasian milfoil, Potamogeton sp.. 
and Chara spp. Stocking rates of 40 or more fin- 
gerlings per acre eliminated milfoil, Potamogeton, 
and Chara, and caused a decrease in water- 
hyacinth. AUigatorweed was not affected by any 
stocking rate. The diet of white amur, determined 
by stomach analyses, consisted mainly of 
macrophytes and algae (75% to 95% by volume), 
and relatively few insects (0% to 18%). White 
amur were also stocked at a rate of 50 per acre in 
combination with channel catfish, largemouth 
bass, redeye bass, spotted bass, Israeli carp, and 
fathead minnows, to evaluate competition and 
growth of these species when stocked together. In 
general, it seems that the food habits of white 
amur are not at all similar to the other fish species 
in this experiment. The food of white amur con- 
sisted mainly of macrophytes (84%), which were 
probably roots and stolons of centipedegrass from 
the edge of the pond. White amur were observed 
nibbling centipedegrass with their heads out of 
water. Insects (chironomid larvae) comprised only 
9% of the food. Other fish species were mainly in- 
sectivorous: Israeli carp (75%), largemouth and 
spotted bass (77%), redeye bass (85%), and chan- 
nel catfish (62%). White amur resort to eating in- 
sects only when plants are scarce or unavailable. - 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07510 



TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDIES 
ON SOME SPECIES OF HYDROPSYCHE PICT. 
(INSECTA, TRICHOPTERA), (IN GERMAN), 

Heidelberg Univ. (West Germany). Zoologisches 

Institut und Museum. 

Helmut Schuhmacher. 

Int Rev Gesmaten Hydrobiol. 55 (4): 51 1-557. 1970. 

Engl. summ.. 

Identifiers: Adaptation, Algae, Ecological, Food, 

Hydropsyche, Hydropsy che-InstabUis, 

Hydropsyche-Saxonica, Hydropsyche-Siltalai, In- 

secta. Physiology, Species, Taxonomic, Trichop- 

tera. 

Larvae of the trichopteran genus Hydropsyche 
were coUected from the Steinach, a small stream 



13 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 21— Water in Plants 



in the Oldenwald Mountains. Upon rearing them to 
the imago stage they were identified to be of 3 spe- 
cies: H. saxonica, H. instabilis and H. siltalai. All 
of these are adapted as conformers to the high 02 
content of the water of the stream. In contrast, the 
larvae of the same genus living in the Neckar 
River, into which the Steinach flows, are adapted 
to the changable 02 content of their environment. 
Hence, although the larvae of the 2 locations are 
indistinguishable structurally, they can be distin- 
guished by their physiological features. As a rule 
the life history of the Steinach species is 
completed in 1 yr, but in lower temperatures it 
may last for 2 yr. The stream drift of the larvae 
was studied. Drift was inhibited by light, even 
being reduced by moonlight. In general females 
exceed males in numbers in the genus 
Hydropsyche. The larvae are omnivorous, but 
their most important food is algae and detritus oc- 
curring on the substrate. Nets can be built to cap- 
ture drifting diatoms and other algae. The stimulus 
for the production of a net is a rise of temperature 
to 10-12 deg C or more, and a current velocity of at 
least 10-20 cm/sec. The larvae are positively 
rheotactic, and in this way they compensate for 
their downstream drifting. The imagos fly from the 
point of their emergence either upstream or 
downstream. Hence the adults do not compensate 
for the larval drifting. -Copy right 1971, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07539 



RELATION BETWEEN PHYTOPLANKTON- 
-HIGHER AQUATIC PLANTS AND 

ZOOPLANKTON IN CRAPINA-JIJILA MARSH 
COMPLEX, (IN RUMANIAN), 

Institutul de Stiinte Pedagogice, Bucharest (Ru- 
mania). 

Lucian Gavrila. 

Commun Bot. 12: 389-399. Illus. 1971. (English 
summary). 

Identifiers: Aquatic, Complex, Crapina-Jijila, 
Higher, Marsh, Phyto, Plankton, Plants, Relation, 
Romania, Zooplankton. 

The interrelationships existing between 
phytoplankton, zooplankton and higher aquatic 
plants in a marsh biotope are analyzed. -Copyright 
1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07569 



FRESHWATER LARVAL TREMATODES: XX- 
VIII. THREE NEW SPECIES OF CERCARIAE, 

Universidad de Oriente, Cumana (Venezuela). 

Escuela de Ciencias. 

Pir Nasir. 

Proc Helminthol Soc Wash. 38 (2): 206-210. 1972. 

Illus. 

Descriptors: Cercaria-Barceloica, Cercaria-Farak- 
hanweri, Cercaria-Paracumanensis, Cercariae, 
Larval, Marisa-Cornuarietis, Pomacea-Glauca, 
Pomacea-Urceus, Species, Trematodes, 

Venezuella. 

Cercaria barceloica, of gymnocephalic group, C. 
farakhanweri and C. paracumanensis, xiphidiocer- 
cariae of microcotylous group, from the snails, 
Pomacea glauca, P. urceus and Marisa Cor- 
nuarietis, in different regions of Venezuela are 
described. A comparison is made with related spe- 
cies. -Copyright 1971, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07627 



CONTINUOUS CULTURES AS A METHOD FOR 
THE DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY 
PRODUCTION OF ALGAE, 

Orange Free State Univ., Bloemfontein (South 

Africa). Dept. of Botany. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07651 



STUDIES ON THE VARIATION OF GROWTH 
IN RAINBOW TROUT, SALMO GIARDNERI: II. 
REGRESSION LINE OF SATIATION AMOUNT 



ON BODY WEIGHT AS AN INDICATOR OF 
FOOD AMOUNT (IN JAPANESE), 

Teiichi Kato. 

Bull Freshwater Fish Res Lab Tokyo. 20 (2) 101- 

107. 1971. Illus. English summary. 

Identifiers: Body, Food, Growth, Indicator, Line, 

Mathematical, Model, Rainbow, Regression, 

Salmo-Gairdneri, Satiation, Trout, Weight. 

A regression equation of amounts of food con- 
sumed versus weights of fish was obtained from 
the amount of foods consumed by 8 groups with a 
total of 985 fish having different sizes. -Copyright 
1971, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07672 



FLORA AND VEGETATION OF THE SALT- 
-MARSHES IN THE EASTERN LORRAINE 
(FRANCE, DEP. MOSSELLE), 

Ministere de l'Agriculture, Brussels (Belgium). 
J. Duvigneaud. 

Mem Soc R Bot Belg. 3: 7-122. 1967. Illus. (English 
summary). 

Identifiers: Alliances, Associations, Flora, 
France, Lorraine, Marshes, Mosselle, Salt, Spe- 
cies, Vegetation. 

A list of the halophilous plants (species or sub- 
specific taxa) is given. The phanerogamic salt- 
marsh communities are classified into 18 associa- 
tions and 15 alliances.— Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07724 



VARIATIONS IN WOOD DENSITY OF THE 
MAHOGANIES OF MEXICO AND CENTRAL 
AMERICA, 

Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto 

Rico. 

R. S. Boone, and M. Chudnoff. 

Turrialba. 20 (3): 369-371. 1970. Map. (Span. 

summ.). 

Identifiers: Central America, Density, Mahoga- 

nies-D, Mexico, Rainfall, Sap, Swietenia-Humilis- 

D, Swietenia-Macrophylla-D, Variations, Wood. 

Densities of Swietenia macrophylla sapwood vary 
from 0.57 to 0.68, averaging 0.62 for all sites com- 
bined. Average sapwood density is slightly higher 
than that of heartwood. Between location varia- 
tion is small throughout the northern range of S. 
macrophylla. Some heavy material, however, was 
collected in southern Mexico and Nicaragua. For 
the limited sampling of this species there does not 
appear to be a meaningful relationship between 
wood density and rainfall. An average of 0.62 for 
the dry site (1250 mm rainfall) in northern Mexico 
is almost identical in weight to wood collected 
from very wet sites in Nicaragua and Panama. The 
Pacific Coast S. humilis sapwood density ranges 
from 0.67 to 0.89, averaging 0.76. This is not sig- 
nificantly different from the adjacent heartwood 
material; but is significantly heavier (1%) than the 
S. macrophylla collection. Particularly dense 
wood, reaching about 0.9, was collected from 
southern Mexico and Nicaragua. Comparatively 
low density sources, averaging about 0.7, are 
found in Guatemala and Costa Rica. Again rela- 
tionships with rainfall are indeterminate. The low 
rainfall 7.9 dry-month locations yield an average 
density of 0.75. The higher rainfall 5-6 dry month 
locations produce similar wood density. -Copy- 
right 1971 , Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07729 

2J. Erosion and Sedimentation 



MIGRATION OF TIDAL SAND WAVES IN 
CHESAPEAKE BAY ENTRANCE, 

Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. Inst, of 

Oceanography. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W72-07285 



THERMOLUMINESCENCE: A TOOL FOR THE 
ENVmONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RECENT 
SEDIMENT CORES, 

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. Coastal Stu- 
dies Inst. 

H. H. Roberts, and W. E. Graves. 
Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 
146-149, March 1972. 1 fig, 8 ref. ONR Contract 
N0O014-69-A-02 11-0003 AEC Contract No. AT- 
(40-D-3018. 

Descriptors: *Sedimentology, 'Instrumentation, 
'Analytical techniques, 'Gamma rays, Radioac- 
tivity techniques, Fluorescence, Neutron activa- 
tion analysis, Sediments. 
Identifiers: 'Thermoluminescence. 

To determine the presence and spatial distribution 
of minerals in Recent sediment core samples, au- 
toluminographs may be produced of core slabs 
chilled to 77 deg K in liquid nitrogen, activated by 
a strong gamma radiation source, and then heated 
rapidly to slightly above ambient temperature. 
Contrasts between core constituents are seen in 
difference in characteristic spectra and variations 
in light intensity which are recorded on color film. 
Thermoluminescence of sedimentary materials of- 
fers an extension of such valuable techniques as 
X-ray radiography for assessing diagenetic and en- 
vironmental characteristics of recent cores. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07294 



PARTICLE SIZE AND MINERALOGICAL 
COMPOSITION OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS 
IN SOME RIVERS OF THE USSR (O MEK- 
HANICHESKOM IN MINERALOGICHESKOM 
SOSTAVE VZVESHENNYKH VESHCHESTV 
NEKOTORYKH REK SOVETSKOGO SOYUZA), 
Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 
(USSR). 
A. A. Ivanova, and G. S. Konovalov. 

Descriptors: 'Sediments, 'Suspended solids, 
'Particle size, 'Mineralogy, 'Rivers, Streamflow, 
Sediment transport, Sediment load, Suspended 
load, Clay minerals, Quartz, Silts, Topography, 
Orography, Sampling, Seasonal. 
Identifiers. 'USSR, 'Pelite, Psammite. 

Investigations were conducted on 14 rivers of the 
USSR to study particle size and mineralogical 
composition of suspended-sediment samples. For 
most rivers of the USSR there is a close relation of 
both particle size and mineralogical composition 
of suspended sediments to total suspended load in 
rivers. The higher the content of suspended 
material in river water, the higher the percentage 
of the pelite fraction, which is an active sorbent of 
many trace elements. Maximum concentration of 
suspended sediments and relative increase in the 
pelite fraction to 70%-80% were noted during 
periods of high water. Content of the pelite frac- 
tion of suspended loads dropped to 40%-30% dur- 
ing low flow when there was a decrease in amount 
of suspended sediments in the rivers. Seasonal 
changes in mineralogical composition of 
suspended sediments were negligible. Content of 
the pelite fraction increased in downstream 
reaches of mountain rivers, with a relative in- 
crease in the clay-mineral concentration and a 
decrease in the concentration of quartz. These 
changes were not observed for lowland rivers. 
(See also W72-07295) (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07302 



SOUTHERN BRITISH HONDURAS: 

LAGOONAL COCCOLITH OOZE, 

Cities Service Oil Co., Tulsa, Okla. Exploration 

and Production Research. 

P. A. Scholle, and S. A. Kling. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1, p 

195-204. March 1972. 5 fig, 1 tab, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Bottom sediments, 
'Coral, 'Limestones, 'Calcium carbonate, 
Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, Lagoons, Chemical 



14 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Erosion and Sedimentation — Group 2J 



precipitation, Deposition (Sediments), Microor- 
ganisms. 
Identifiers: 'British Honduras, 'Coccoliths. 

The British Honduras carbonate depositions! 
province contains a relatively narrow, deep, back- 
reef lagoon in which Recent fine-grained car- 
bonate sediments are accumulating. A large pro- 
portion of the sediment (as much as 20 percent) is 
composed of coccoliths and coccolith fragments. 
Eight nannoplankton species are described. The 
lagoonal, coccolith-rich carbonate muds of British 
Honduras which surround coralgal pinnacle reefs 
provide an excellent Recent analog for a number 
of ancient carbonates, including the Solnhofen 
Limestone. They also indicate that coccolith-rich 
sediments need not indicate deep-water deposition 
or unrestricted circulation far from land masses or 
major hydrographic barriers. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07305 



EXPERIMENTAL VADOSE AND PHREATIC 
CEMENTATION OF SKELETAL CARBONATE 
SAND, 

Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, Tex. Dept. of 

Geological Sciences. 

D. C. Thorstenson, F. T. Mackenzie, and B. L. 

Ristvet. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1, p 

162-167, March 1972. 5 fig, 2 tab, 9 ref. NSF 

Grants GA-13540 and 18083. 

Descriptors: 'Diagenesis, *Sands, 'Carbonate 
rocks, 'Dolomite, Leaching, Laboratory tests, 
Hydraulic models, Sedimentology, Water chemis- 
try, Carbon dioxide, Calcite, Solubility, Soil 
water, Groundwater, Lithification. 
Identifiers: 'Carbonate sands. 

Some processes of vadose and phreatic diagenesis 
in carbonate rocks were simulated in the laborato- 
ry, using C02-charged water to leach carbonate 
sand. Precipitation of calcite cement in a second 
sand body, above and below an artificial water ta- 
ble, was induced by C02 evasion. Magnesian 
calcite was preferentially leached from the source 
bed, and calcite was precipitated as cement in the 
second sand unit. More cement was produced in 
the vadose zone than in the phreatic zone. Cement 
formed in the vadose zone is composed of micron- 
sized crystals and occurs as abundant rim cement 
and grain contact cement. Crystal size increases 
with distance from grain boundaries. Rounding of 
intergranular void spaces is common. Cement 
formed in the phreatic zone is more coarsely 
crystalline (50 microns) than in the vadose and 
abuts directly against original skeletal grain boun- 
daries. The texture of the vadose cement closely 
resembles textures observed in vadose cementa- 
tion of skeletal calcarenites in Bermuda. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07306 



CALCITE AND ARAGONITE PHENOMENA 
PRECIPITATED BY ORGANIC DECAY IN 
HIGH LIME CONCENTRATE BRINES, 

Penzoil United, Inc., Houston, Tex. 

H.J.McCunn. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 

150-154, March 1972. 8 fig, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Chemical precipitation, 'Decom- 
posing organic matter, 'Brines, 'Calcium car- 
bonate, 'Sea water, Carbonates, Bottom sedi- 
ments. Laboratory tests, Water chemistry, Car- 
bonate rocks, Calcite. 
Identifiers: Aragonite. 

Putrefaction of organic materials in a lime-rich 
solution creates carbon dioxide and ammonia. The 
carbon dioxide causes the lime to be dissolved 
which forms ammonium carbonate in solution. 
The ammonium carbonate breaks down by 
evaporation or is broken down by the organic ac- 
tion of molds, bacteria, and algae to form a car- 
bonate precipitate of sparry, amorphous, and 
crystalline calcite and aragonite. Several simple 



experiments were conducted to observe the ef- 
fects of organic decay in a brine solution rich in 
calcium carbonate. A period (several weeks) of 
rapid decay and putrefaction of the organic matter 
was followed by months of reduced activity. The 
plant remains seemed to be the most active. After 
a period of approximately three months a cloud of 
sparry calcite developed on the surface of the 
fluid. By the end of four months the cloud 
developed into a solid raft of sparry calcite. The 
rafts would grow heavy and sink to the bottom 
where they remained. New spar would form in the 
areas evacuated by the sinking portions. A mosaic 
pattern was developed as a result. The general ap- 
pearance resembled some of the features at- 
tributed to burrowing organisms by modern 
stratigraphers. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07307 



MINERALOGY AND SEDIMENTATION HISTO- 
RY, SANTA BARBARA BASIN, CALIFORNIA, 

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. 

Dept. of Geology. 

P. Fleischer. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1. p 

49-58, March 1972, 9 fig, 3 tab, 18 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Continental shelf, 
'California, 'Provenance, 'Mineralogy, Deposi- 
tion (Sediments), Sediment distribution, Sediment 
sorting, Facies (Sedimentary), Fluvial sediments, 
Sedimentation rates, Stratigraphy. 
Identifiers: Santa Barbara Basin (Calif). 

Holocene sediments in Santa Barbara Basin, 
California, consist primarily of laminated olive 
gray lutite intercalated with abundant layers of 
gray lutite. On the basis of detailed sedimentologic 
and mineralogic analyses of representative river 
sediments and a 7 m core from the center of the 
basin, the gray layers are suspended-load deposits 
derived mainly from the Santa Clara River during 
large floods. Average periodicity of the gray layers 
is 120 years. The Santa Clara River is also the 
major source of laminated lutite. Predominance of 
Santa Clara River sediments is suggested by 
drainage area calculations, and supported by a 
comparison of <62 micron mineral suites and 
chlorite content of basin sediments and sediments 
of peripheral rivers. An origin as flood deposits is 
postulated for the gray layers on the basis of their 
smaller mean diameter, better sorting, smaller 
sand fractions, lower carbonate content, and 
greater mineralogic similarity to the Santa Clara 
River than the laminated lutite. Mineralogic varia- 
tions within the core occur mainly in the silt size- 
range, and are caused by source variations. The 
modern Santa Clara River suite becomes less 
dominant in the lower half of the core, probably as 
a result of more abundant shelf sediment that was 
available during lowered sea level. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07308 



THE ACCURACY OF PARTICLE-SIZE 
ANALYSES UTILIZING SETTLING TUBES, 

Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. Dept. of 

Geological Sciences. 

R.J.Gibbs. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1, p 

141-145, March 1972. 5 fig, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Settling velocity, 'Particle size, 
'Analytical techniques, 'Instrumentation, 
Calibrations, Sedimentology. 
Identifiers: Particle size analysis (Settling tubes). 

In order to evaluate the accuracy of various set- 
tling tubes in use, experiments were conducted 
using settling tubes having 5, 7.6, 12.8, and 30.5 cm 
diameters, 80 and 140 cm. settling lengths, sphere 
sizes of 0.02 to 0.03, 0.295 to 0.35, and 0.83 to 0.99 
mm. diameter, and sample sizes from 0.05 to 4 
gms. Tubes of 7.6 cm. diameter produced inaccu- 
racies up to 34%, 12.8 cm diameter tubes produced 
inaccuracies less than 8%, and 3.05 cm diameter 
tubes produced inaccuracies less than 3%. Settling 
tubes 13 to 16 cm. in diameter, having a settling 



length of 140 cm., and utilizing coarse sediment (.3 
to 2 mm) weighing 1 to 2 gms or fine sediment (.02 
to .5 mm) weighing 0.6 gm. are recommended for 
particle-size analyses. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07309 



GRAIN ACCRETION AND RELATED 
PHENOMENA IN UNCONSOLIDATED SUR- 
FACE SEDIMENTS OF THE FLORIDA REEF 
TRACT, 

Texas Univ., Austin. Dept. of Geology. 

B. W. Boyer. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 

205-210, March 1972. 4 fig, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Florida, 'Reefs, 
'Carbonate rocks, Coral, Limestones, Sedimen- 
tology, Lithification, Diagenesis, Chemical 
precipitation, Deposition (Sediments). 

Accretionary features (grain coatings, intragranu- 
lar void fillings, internal and external cements) of 
Florida reef tract calcarenites are morphologically 
diverse, but are all products of non-skeletal sub- 
marine carbonate precipitation and lithification. 
Such features are most abundant in sands along 
the platform edge near the outer margin of the reef 
tract where flushing of sediment by ocean water is 
most intense and generally become less abundant 
on the back reef toward the Keys. Accretionary 
features and lithified micritic aggregates (mostly 
fecal pellets) common in clean sands are rare in 
muddy calcarenites of the inner back reef. 
Presumably, even piecemeal cementation is in- 
hibited in muddy environments, for two possible 
reasons: (1) The flux of dissolved carbonate to and 
within impermeable muddy sediments is relatively 
small, and (2) the muddy sediments are generally 
poorly aerated and relatively rich in organic 
matter; failure of oxidative decomposition of or- 
ganic films on carbonate particles may prevent 
welding of groups of particles or the formation of 
overgrowths on particles. Well-developed superfi- 
cial voids and clear microcrystalline cements es- 
sentially free of entrapped detrital micrite are 
found only near the platform edge, where water 
turbidity is low. A systematic change in abundance 
and type of accretionary phenomena, like that ob- 
served on the present Florida reef tract, may be a 
useful paleogeographic indicator. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07310 



SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS IN POLYMODAL 
SEDIMENTS FROM THE IRISH SEA, 
Institute of Geological Sciences, London (En- 
gland). 
D. S. Cronan. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 
102-106, March 1972. 5 fig, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment sorting, 'Bottom sedi- 
ments, 'Tidal effects, 'Ocean currents, Particle 
size, Sediment transport, Currents (Water), 
Provenance, Statistical methods. 
Identifiers: 'Irish Sea. 

Variations in skewness and kurtosis in sediments 
from the central northeastern Irish Sea can be re- 
lated to the mixing of two or more grain size popu- 
lations in various proportions. Kutosis is high and 
skewness pronounced where one population is 
dominant, but both are low where populations are 
subequal. Such variations occur in a farily regular 
manner from west to east across the basin as a 
result of the deposition of successively finer 
grained sediments with decrease in velocity of the 
transporting tidal currents. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07311 



MARINE DIAGENESIS OF CARBONATE SEDI- 
MENT, BONAIRE, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES, 

Rutgers - The State Univ., New Brunswick, N. J. 

Dept. of Geology. 

D. F. Sibley, and R. C. Murray. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 

168-178, March 1972. 7 fig, 3 tab, 25 ref. 



15 






Field 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2J — Erosion and Sedimentation 



Descriptors: *Diagenesis, "Carbonate rocks, 
•Coral, Sedimentation, Sedimentology, Calcium 
carbonate. Reefs, Limestones, Dolomite, Lithifi- 
cation. Water chemistry. 
Identifiers: *Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles). 

A discontinuous layer of lithified carbonate sand 
underlies a small portion of the Lac, a large lagoon 
on the southestern cost of Bonaire, Netherlands 
Antilles. The layer lies thirty-five centimeters 
below the sediment surface, varies from five to 
twenty centimeters in thickness and is restricted to 
an area beneath a broad intertidal and subtidal flat. 
Beachrock crops out in the high intertidal zone. 
The lithified layer consists of grainstone cemented 
by aricular aragonite. The cementation occurred in 
the marine environment. Carbon 14 dating of the 
rock indicates cementation less than 900 years 
B.P. Four distinct types of micrite are present in 
the beachrock and submarine cemented layer: (1) 
structureless aragonite which fills or partially fills 
intraparticle pore space, (2) aragonite with a pellet- 
like fabric which fills or partially fills interparticle 
pore space, (3) aragonite coatings on single 
skeletal fragments with a gradational boundary 
between the fragment and coating and (4) high- 
and low-magnesium calcite which coats a single 
and multiple skeletal fragments with a sharp con- 
tact between the grain and micrite. The micrite 
results from micritization of encrusting coralline 
algae which consist of high-magnesium calcite. As 
micritization proceeds and the microstructure of 
the algal coating is destroyed the mineralogy 
changes from high- to low-magnesium calcite. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07312 



AIR PHOTO ANALYSIS OF BLOCKFIELD 
FABRICS IN TALUS VALLEY, TASMANIA, 

Colorado Univ., Boulder. Inst, of Arctic and Al- 
pine Research. 
N. Caine. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1, p 
33-48, March 1972. 7 fig, 8 tab, 16 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Aerial photography, 'Photogram- 
metry, *Mass wasting, *Rock glaciers, 
Geomorphology, Degradation (Slope), Erosion, 
Sediment transport. 
Identifiers: Blockfields, 'Talus Valley (Tasmania). 

Surface material in the Talus Valley blockfields of 
Tasmania has the same pattern found elsewhere 
on periglacial blockfields; material tends to be 
aligned parallel to the local slope direction and the 
strength of this alignment increases with 
dow nslope distance. An earlier analysis showed no 
simple arrangement of fabrics. The improvement 
is ascribed to the effects of increased sample size. 
The fabrics are best described by a semi-circular 
normal distribution and, over large areas of the 
blockfields, this is displaced away from the local 
slope direction by up to 20%. This displacement 
may be the effect of impeded movement during 
blockfield emplacement. If this were the case, the 
cessation of block movement need not be contin- 
gent upon climatic change. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07313 



SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF 
THE FINE FRACTION OF RECENT CAR- 
BONATE SEDIMENTS FROM BIMINI, 
BAHAMAS, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Geology. 

R. D. Stieglitz. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 

21 1-226, March 1972. 4 fig, 4 tab, 39 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Electron microscopy, 'Carbonate 
rocks, 'Bottom sediments, Sedimentology, 
Stratigraphy, Microorganisms, Plankton, 

Limestones, Provenance, Deposition (Sediments), 
Sedimentation, Clays, Silts. 
Identifiers: 'Bimini (Bahamas). 

Techniques were developed to study the smaller- 
than-62 microns fraction of Recent carbonate sedi- 
ments with the SEM (scanning electron 



microscope). Samples are prepared by pipetting 
grains suspended in water on to SEM specimen 
stubs covered with double adhesive tape. The 
stubs can then be point counted to obtain quantita- 
tive information about the constituent particles 
present. Samples prepared from crushed frag- 
ments of sediment are studied to establish criteria 
by which naturally produced grains in the sedi- 
ment may be recognized. The identification of 
grains depends on an understanding of skeletal ul- 
trastructures and increased accuracy will be ob- 
tained as more is learned of organic ultrastructure. 
Most of the 15 to 62 micron size material and much 
of the less-than-20-micron material studied can be 
identified. Inorganic precipitation does not con- 
tribute much of the fine-grained material to the 
sediment; the bulk of the fine-grained material is 
the result of disintegration of organic skeletons. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07314 



MINERALOGY, PETROGRAPHY AND 

DERIVATION OF SANDS AND SILTS OF THE 
CONTINENTAL SLOPE, RISE AND ABYSSAL 
PLAIN OF THE GULF OF MEXICO, 

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Geology. 
D. K. Davies. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 
59-65, March 1972. 8 fig, 3 tab, 13 ref. USGS Con- 
tract 14-08-0001-1 1990. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment transport, 'Mineralogy, 
'Provenance, 'Continental slope, 'Gulf of Mex- 
ico, Stratigraphy, Sands, Silts, Facies (Sedimenta- 
ry), Sedimentation, Turbidity currents. Fluvial 
sediments, Mississippi River, Clays, Carbonate 
rocks. 
Identifiers: Continental rise, Abyssal plain. 

Sand and silt beds from the continental slope, rise, 
and abyssal plain of the Gulf of Mexico are com- 
posed of detrital or carbonate sediments. Because 
of the insensitivity of the detrital minerals to trans- 
port distance and environment, the sand and silt 
beds from the deep portions of the Gulf are related 
to specific source areas on the continental shelf. 
These source areas include the Mississippi, the 
Rio Grande, and the rivers of northeast Mexico. 
Vertical variations in mineralogy show no signifi- 
cant trend with increasing depth in any core, in- 
dicating that relative contributions from each 
source remained constant. Carbonate sands and 
silts of the abyssal plain were derived from the 
shallow waters of the Campeche Shelf. Transpor- 
tation along the axis of the Campeche Canyon car- 
ried these shelf carbonates northward into deeper 
water areas, in some instances through the medi- 
um of turbidity currents. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07315 



DISTRIBUTION, COMPOSITION AND 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURFICIAL 
SEDIMENTS OF LAKE ONTARIO, 

Department of the Environment, Burlington (On- 
tario). Canada Centre for Inland Waters. 
R. L. Thomas, A. L. W. Kemp, and C. F. M. 
Lewis. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 
66-84, March 1972. 15 fig, 4 tab, 44 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Bottom sediments, 
'Lake Ontario, 'Provenance, 'Sediment distribu- 
tion. Sediment sorting, Sediment transport. Gla- 
cial drift, Till, Sands, Clays, Facies (Sedimenta- 
ry), Statistical methods. 

Three major sediment units are recognized in the 
surf icial sediments of Lake Ontario on the basis of 
extensive sampling and echo sounding: glacial till 
and bedrock; glaciolacustrine clay; and postglacial 
mud. Sand and silt form minor units. The inshore 
region is composed of glacial till and bedrock. The 
till is overstepped in deeper water by glaciolacus- 
trine clays which are themselves overstepped by 
postglacial muds. Quartz and feldspar contents are 
greatest in the coarser inshore sediments while 
clay minerals and organic carbon are greatest in 



the finer offshore sediments. Mean rates of sedi- 
mentation range from 114 to 309 g/sq m/yr for 
modern mud accumulation. An estimated 55% of 
this material is derived from the drainage basin 
with the remaining 45% being the result of 
shoreline and lake bottom erosional processes. 
The textural characteristics of the modern sedi- 
ments can be interpreted as resulting from the 
varying degrees of mixing between a sand and a 
clay size end member population; the sand occurs 
in the nearshore zone and the clays in the offshore 
basins. Mean grain size and standard deviation 
show trends from nearshore to offshore, with 
decreasing grain size related to increasing water 
depth and hence to decreasing energy from a 
wave-and current-active nearshore region to an 
offshore region of quiet water with sedimentation 
from suspension. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07316 



ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE APPLIED TO MEA- 
SURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND 
DISPERSION IN SEDIMENTS, 

University of South Alabama, Mobile. Dept. of 

Geology. 

W. C. Isphording. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 

107-121 , March 1972. 8 fig, 2 tab, 15 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Statistical methods, 'Particle size, 
'Sedimentology, 'Sieve analysis, Sampling, 
Statistics, Sands, Silts, Variability. 
Identifiers: 'Particle size analysis. 

Two problems of routine sediment analysis are the 
choice of which mathematical technique to use to 
evaluate the size frequency distribution and the 
number of sieves needed to insure sufficient accu- 
racy for the size analysis. To investigate this, sam- 
ples of recent beach and river sediments were col- 
lected and were sieved using a 0.5 and 1 .0 phi sieve 
interval. Mean diameters, standard deviation, 
skewness and kurtosis were calculated using the 
central moment measure equations, Folk and 
Ward's equations, and Inman's equations. No sig- 
nificant differences result when mean diameters 
and standard deviations are calculated by the three 
methods, if a 0.5 phi sieve interval is used. Only 
minor differences are found between the three 
methods if the mean diameter of beach and river 
sediments are derived using 1.0 phi sieve data. 
Noticeable loss of accuracy results if the standard 
deviation of either beach or river sediments is 
computed using 1.0 phi data. Significant dif- 
ferences from the central-moment estimates occur 
if skewness and kurtosis are calculated for well 
sorted sediments using Folk and Ward and In- 
man's equations, especially if 1.0 phi sieve data 
are used. Neither Folk and Ward nor Inman's 
equation can be used to reliably determine kurto- 
sis, regardless of whether 0.5 or 1.0 phi sieve data 
are used. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07317 



DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-MAGNESIUM 
CALCITE IN LIME MUDS OF THE GREAT 
BAHAMA BANK: DIAGENETIC IMPLICA- 
TIONS, 

Brown Univ., Providence, R.I. Dept. of Geological 

Sciences. 

S. I. Husseini, and R. K. Providence. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 

179-182, March 1972. 1 tab, 24 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Diagenesis, 'Limestones, 'Calcium 
carbonate, 'Dolomite, 'Calcite, Bottom sedi- 
ments, Crystallization, Water chemistry, Chemi- 
cal precipitation, Lithification. 
Identifiers: 'Great Bahama Bank. 

In Pleistocene low-magnesium calcite analogs of 
Recent carbonate sediments the initial distribution 
of high-magnesium calcite in aragonitic sediments 
may play a critical role in the preservation of sedi- 
mentary texture and fabric during freshwater 
diagenesis. The distribution of high-magnesium 
calcite in Recent sediments provides a basis for 



16 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Erosion and Sedimentation — Group 2J 



speculation concerning potential diagenetic fabrics 
in analogous materials from older stratigraphic 
sequences. The portion of the Great Bahama Bank 
which lies to the west of Andros Island is an area 
of accumulation of aragonitic sediments. Large 
amounts of high-magnesium calcite are ubiquitous 
in the sediments. The so-called aragonite needle 
lime muds of this area are richer in high-magnesi- 
um calcite than their associated coarse sediment 
fractions. The abundance of calcite nuclei in an- 
cient lime muds is a significant factor leading to 
the preservation of the texture of such sediments. 
It is unlikely that loss of mass or textural oblitera- 
tion in muddy carbonates in the stratigraphic 
record can be ascribed to the absence of original 
calcite nuclei in sediments from environments 
similar to that of the modern Great Bahama Bank. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07318 



CLAY MINERALOGY OF HOLOCENE AND 
PLEISTOCENE SEDIMENTS, GUADALUPE 
DELTA OF TEXAS, 

West Virginia Univ., Morgantown. Dept. of 

Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W72-07319 



AGGLOMERATE SIZE CHANGES IN COAGU- 
LATION, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07345 



SIZE ANALYSIS OF FINE-GRAINED 
SUSPENDED SEDIMENTS: A REVIEW, 

Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, Mayaquez. 
D. J. P. Swift, J. R. Schubel, and R. W. Sheldon. 
Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1 , p 
122-134, March 1972. 5 fig, 62 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Particle size, 'Setting velocity, 
'Suspended load, 'Analytical techniques, 'Instru- 
mentation, Sedimentology, Sedimentation, Varia- 
bility, Statistics, Statistical methods, Reviews, 
Clays, Suspension, Microscopy. 
Identifiers: Particle-size analysis (Optical), 
Coulter counter. 

Particle size analysis is a powerful tool for the in- 
terpretation of any population of sedimentary par- 
ticles. The size distribution characterizes the parti- 
cles, providing information on the actual particle 
sizes, and also is a prerequisite to understanding 
their roles in sedimentary processes. Fine-grained 
suspended sediments are the least amenable to 
size analysis because of the difficulty of preserv- 
ing the natural state of aggregation throughout 
sampling and analysis. The projected areas, 
volumes, and diameters of the particles are highly 
variable as are their electrical and optical proper- 
ties. The various methods of size analysis measure 
very different properties of the particle popula- 
tion. The basic methods of sizing fine suspended 
sediments are microscopic analysis, optical-sedi- 
mentation analysis, direct optical analysis, and 
electronic (Coulter Counter) analysis. The micro- 
scopic method yields a number frequency distribu- 
tion rather than a weight or volume-size distribu- 
tion. Optical-sedimentation methods permit analy- 
sis of the hydraulic behavior of the sediment in its 
natural medium, but at present are limited by con- 
centration and size range. The Coulter Counter 
method is in some respects the most versatile 
method, but it yields a volume distribution which 
can not be directly related to settling velocity. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07389 



EVOLUTION OF RIVER VALLEYS IN THE 
SOUTHERN PART OF CENTRAL ASIA IN THE 
ANTHROPOGENE (ZAKONOMERNOSTI RAZ- 



VITIYA RECHNYKH DOLIN YUGA SREDNEY 
AZII V ANTROPOGENE), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Fiziki 

Zemli. 

A. A. Nikonov. 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR Doklady, Vol 195, No 1 , p 

166-169, 1970. 1 fig, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Sediments, 
'Geomorphology, 'Valleys, 'Rivers, Streams, 
Channels, Terraces (Geologic), Mountains, Gla- 
cial drift, Aggradation, Erosion, Stream erosion. 
Degradation (Stream), Dating, Geologic time, 
Quaternary period. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Central Asia, *Amu-Dar'ya 
River, Tectonics, Corrosion, Diastrophism. 

Investigations were conducted in the Upper Amu- 
Dar'ya River basin, which includes the Gissar- 
Alay, Darvaz, Pamir, and Hindu Kush mountain 
systems and the Afghan-Tadzhik depression 
between them, to study the structure and evolu- 
tion of valleys in the Middle Quaternary period 
and the sediments preserved in them. Valleys of 
both the mountains and plains expose sediments 
which are not directly associated with their 
present terraces. These relatively old sediments 
occur (1) on slopes of present valleys; (2) in or 
under present river beds; and (3) near buried val- 
leys or channels, preserved at the sides of present 
valleys behind bedrock remnants or ridges. Prima- 
ry downcutting of river valleys to the level of the 
now-buried bedrock occurred in the Middle 
Quaternary period before the deposition of old 
sediments. It may be concluded that (1) the bot- 
toms of Middle Quaternary valleys are several 
scores of meters below those of present valleys, 
and (2) the depth of Middle Quaternary 
downcutting is several hundred meters greater 
than previously assumed. Further refinement of 
the distribution patterns, structure and evolution 
of old valleys and of their relationships to present 
valleys will have a direct bearing on placer 
prospecting, hydraulic and other engineering sur- 
veys, and on evaluation of building materials and 
freshwater resources in the rapidly developing re- 
gions of Central Asia. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07450 



NEW EXPERIMENTAL DATA ON BEHAVIOR 

OF GOLD PARTICLES IN WATER (NOVYYE 

EKSPERIMENTAL'NYYE DANNYYE O 

POVEDENH CHASTITS ZOLOTA V VODNOY 

SREDE), 

Severo-Vostochnyi Kompleksnyi Nauchno-Iss- 

ledovatelskii Institut, Magadan (USSR). 

N. A. Shilo, and Yu. V. Shumilov. 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR Doklady, Vol 195, No 1, p 

193-196, 1970. 2 fig, 1 tab, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Placer mining, 

'Gold, 'Settling velocity, 'Particle shape, Particle 

size, Streams, Alluvium, Suspension, Turbulent 

flow. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Chukot National District, 

'Kolyma River, 'Placer deposits. 

Gold particles from 12 placers in the northeastern 
part of the Kolyma River region (western Chukot 
National District) were examined to determine the 
relationship between their behavior in water and 
their shape and size. A functional relationship was 
established between the flatness of grains and 
their settling velocity in water. The settling 
velocity of any particle is sharply decreased by 
even the slightest change in its shape. The settling 
velocity of large flat particles may be the same as 
that of small, but rounder particles. All gold frac- 
tions, regardless of size, are relatively passive 
(placer forming) provided they have a very low 
flatness factor (less than 5). The extremely low 
mobility of gold in channels of comparatively 
small streams is confirmed for the northeastern 
part of the Kolyma River region and, on the basis 
of geologic data, for other regions of the Northeast 
USSR and the world. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07452 



PALEOGEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS 
AND ABSOLUTE AGE OF THE VALDAY GLA- 
CIAL MAXIMUM NEAR LAKE KUBENSKOYE 
(PALEOGEOGRAFICHESKIYE OSOBENNOSTI 
I ABSOLYUTNYY VOZRAST MAKSIMAL'NOY 
STADU VALDAYSKOGO OLEDENENIYA V 
RAYONE KUBENSKOGO OZERA), 
Leningrad State Univ. (USSR). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02C. 
W72-07453 



HYDROLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL PRO- 

PERTUiS OF ERODED LANDSCAPES 

(GD3ROLOGICHESKTYE I GEOK- 

HIMICHESKIYE SVOYSTVA ERODIROVAN- 

NYKH LANDSHAFTOV). 

Akademiya Nauk Litovskoi SSR, Vilnius, Otdel 

Geografii. 

Izdatel'stvo 'Pyargale', Vilnius, 1970. 309 p. 

Descriptors: 'Soil erosion, 'Aggradation, 
'Geomorphology, 'Geochemistry, 'Hydrologic 
properties, Water balance, Heat balance, Soil 
types, Soil profiles, Soil properties, Soil chemis- 
try, Soil analysis, Soil water movement, Soil 
moisture, Moisture availability, Moisture deficit, 
Water storage. Meteorology, Land reclamation. 
Crop production. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Lithuanian SSR, Water ero- 
sion. 

This monograph, consisting of 12 chapters, ex- 
amines the natural conditions responsible for 
development of erosion-aggradation processes in 
the Lithuanian SSR, beginning with a historical ac- 
count of the economic reclamation of eroded land- 
scapes of the Republic. Special emphasis is placed 
on soil water movement and content, migration, 
and redistribution of chemical substances in 
eroded soils. Other topics include: (1) soil 
morphological features and particle size; (2) water 
and heat regime of soils; (3) soil uptake of 
moisture; (4) oxidation-reduction conditions of 
chemical-element migration; (5) soil 

physicochemical properties; (6) soil loss and accu- 
mulation of ash; and (7) biological productivity of 
eroded lands and biogenic migration of chemical 
elements in different geochemical facies. (Josef- 
son-USGS) 
W72-07455 



TRACE ELEMENTS IN BLACK SEA 
SAPROPEL MUDS AND THEIR INTERACTION 
WITH ORGANIC INTERACTION WITH OR- 
GANIC MATTER (RASSEYANNYYE ELEMEN- 
TY V SAPROPELEVYKH ILAKH CHERNOGO 
MORYA I IKH VZAIMOSVYAZ' S OR- 
GANICHESKIM VESHCHESTVOM), 
Akademiya Nauk SSSR. Moscow. Institut Oke- 
anologii. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07456 



THE INFLUENCE OF BED MATERIAL SIZE 
ON THE TIDAL PRISM-AREA RELATIONSHIP 
IN A TIDAL INLET, 

California Univ., Berkeley. Coll. of Engineering. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W72-07464 



LATE-PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HIS- 
TORY OF THE BLACK SEA AS INDICATED BY 
STABLE-ISOTOPE STUDIES, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 

W. G. Deuser. 

Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 77, No 6, p 

1071-1077, February 20, 1972. 3 fig, 1 tab, 15 ref. 

NSF Grant GA-1659, ONR Contract N0014-66- 

C0241. 

Descriptors: 'Paleohydrology, 'Isotope studies, 
'Marine geoiogy, 'Sediments, 'Cores, Organic 
matter. History, Carbon radioisotopes. Oxygen 
isotopes, Pleistocene epoch. Glaciation, Fresh- 
water, Melt water. Saline water intrusion, Sea 
water. Sea level. 



17 






Field 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2J — Erosion and Sedimentation 



Identifiers: *Black Sea, Inland seas, Mediterrane- 
an Sea. 

A detailed study of the distribution of the stable 
isotopes of carbon and oxygen in a core 6 meters 
long from Black Sea sediments suggests that the 
Sea was fresh or brackish up until 9000 yrs. ago. 
The core, like others from the Black Sea, is di- 
vided into three easily recognizable layers: first, a 
series of alternating thin light and dark layers of 
high carbonate content (Coccolith ooze); second, a 
dark section rich in organic matter (Sapropel); and 
at the bottom a series of light and dark bands con- 
taining less carbonate and organic material than 
the two overlying series. Evidence of increasing 
salinity can be detected in the oxygen isotopes of 
the carbonate deposited 1 ,500 to 2,000 yrs prior to 
onset of the organic matter deposits. This interval 
seems to be between the first influx of saline 
Mediterranean water after the last glacial max- 
imum and the establishment of anoxic bottom con- 
ditions. The rising worldwide sea level caused by 
melt water reached the Bosporous sill about 9,000 
yrs ago and a gradual rise of salinity began with in- 
flow of sea water from the Mediterranean until 
about 3,000 yrs ago when present day salinity 
levels were reached in the Black Sea. (Lang- 
USGS) 
W72-07468 



SALTATION OF PLASTIC BALLS IN A 'ONE- 
-DIMENSIONAL' FLUME, 

National Inst, of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, 
Bethesda, Md. Mathematical Research Branch. 
R. Gordon, J. B. Carmichael, and F. J. Isackson. 
Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 444- 
459, April 1972. 11 fig, 58 ref. NSF Grant GK2781, 
NASA Grant NGR-33O15O02. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment transport, 'Saltation, 
•Hydraulic models, Bed load, Traction, Flumes, 
Model studies. Hydraulics, Sedimentation. 

A one-dimensional flume was designed and used 
for the quantitative measurement of the parame- 
ters of saltation and underwater collision for 
plastic balls transported over an unrippled bed by 
flowing water. Computer simulation suggests that 
saltation is maintained by the roughness of the 
bed. A geometric probability argument based only 
on the grain size distribution was used to derive 
the distance that a particle travels before entrap- 
ment, which is approximately proportional to the 
radius. The phenomenological stochastic transport 
equation was rederived from basic assumptions. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07477 



ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT 
OF SELECTED CROP PRACTICES ON WATER 
QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY--AN APPLI- 
CATION OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agricultural 

Economics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07530 



SEASONAL CHANGES OF NITROGEN-FIXING 
AND NITRIFYING AND DENITRIFYING BAC- 
TERIA IN THE BOTTOM DEPOSITS OF THE 
ILAWA LAKES, 

Wyzsza Szkola Rolnicza, Olsztyn-Kortowa (Po- 
land). 

S. Niewolak. 

Pol Arch Hydrobiol. 17 (4): 509-523. 1970. Illus. 
Identifiers: Azotobacter, Bacteria, Bottom, Clos- 
tridium-Pasteurianum, Deposits, Fixing, Ilawa, 
Lakes, Nitrifying, Nitrogen, Poland, Seasonal. 

The distribution of nitrogen-fixing bacteria 
(Azotobacter and Clostridium pasteurianum) in 
the bottom sediments of the Ilawa lakes depends 
mainly on the bottom type. These microorganisms 
occur more numerously in bottom deposits of the 
muddy type and much less in sandy bottom 
deposits. Seasonal fluctuations were observed in 
the development of these bacteria with maximum 



numbers in the vegetative period and minimum 
numbers in winter. The temperature of bottom 
sediments is significant in the development of 
nitrifying bacteria and for nitrification intensity. 
The number of denitrifying bacteria was higher in 
the muddy sediments. -Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07563 



CLAY MINERALOGY AT THE BRINE-SED- 
IMENT INTERFACE IN THE SOUTH ARM OF 
GREAT SALT LAKE, UTAH, 

Sun Oil Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

L. L. Hedberg, and W. T. Parry. 

Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Special 

Studies 35, March 1971. 1 2 p, 9 fig, 8 tab, 43 ref. 

Descriptors: "Clay minerals, 'Brines, 'Sediments, 
'Interfaces, 'Great Salt Lake, Utah, Water 
chemistry. Geochemistry, Mineralogy, Salinity, 
Chemical reactions, Ion exchange, Chemical pro- 
perties, Analytical techniques, X-Ray diffractions, 
Montmorillonite, Kaolinite, Chemical analysis. 

The clay mineralogy of 23 cores collected at 
specified locations in the south arm of Great Salt 
Lake, Utah, was determined using X-ray diffrac- 
tion. The mean composition of clays from the lake 
is 51 percent K-mica, 39 percent montmorillonite 
and interstratified illite-monimorillonite, and 10 
percent kaolinite. Great Salt Lake clays are not in 
chemical equilibrium with lake brine. K-mica is a 
stable mineral in the lake brine and should form at 
the expense of kaolinite and montmorillonite. Pore 
brines from the clays contain less sodium, potassi- 
um and magnesium than lake brine. These ions 
may be reacting with clay minerals through cation 
exchange in the process of diagenesis. (Woodard- 
USGS) 
W72-07583 



SAND WAVES, 

Ife Univ. (Nigeria). 

I. Wilson. 

New Scientist, Vol 53, No 788, p 634-637, March 

23, 1972, 5 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Dunes, 'Winds, 'Sand waves, 
'Sediment transport, Dune sands, Geomorpholo- 
gy, Sedimentation, Sedimentary structures. 

The sand waves of the major deserts may range in 
wavelength from 0.5 cm to 5.5 km, and in height 
from 0.05 cm to 450 m. A characteristic of sand- 
wave migration is that the ridge does not change 
shape as it moves. The distribution of wave sizes 
shows three prominent modes termed ripples, 
dunes and draas. The almost complete absence of 
transitional sizes suggests that the three groups are 
self-contained. Worldwide discontinuities are 
found between three groups of sand waves formed 
in a wide range of different conditions. The sim- 
plest explanation of this phenomenon is that the 
structures are formed by different mechanisms. 
Simple transverse and longitudinal sand waves are 
the elements from which all the more complex pat- 
terns are made up. Transverse ripples are unusual 
in having a simple theory to explain movement. 
Sand grains move along by saltation. Once sand 
movement has started the wind no longer directly 
affects grains on the bed which are knocked along 
or upwards solely by the impact of other grains. 
All other sand-wave elements are probably formed 
by regular perturbations in the flow structure. 
Considering these secondary flows from a fixed 
point on the bed, the streamline pattern of the 
transverse element is a wave form and that of the 
longitudinal element is a pair of spiral vortices. 
Some of these perturbations may arise only 
because of interaction between the flow and 
chance irregularities on the original bed. Others 
may predate any bedform. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07587 



CONTINENTAL TERRACE AND DEEP PLAIN 
OFFSHORE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA, 

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs., 

Miami, Fla. 

L. A. Weeks, and R. K. Lattimore. 

Marine Geophysical Researches, Vol 1, p 145-161, 

1971. 3 fig, 23 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentology, 'Pacific Ocean, 
'Continental shelf, 'Sediment transport, Seismic 
studies, Sound waves, Analytical techniques, 
Oceanography, Sediments, Sedimentation, Sedi- 
ment distribution, Turbidity currents, Marine 
geology, Geomorphology. 
Identifiers: 'Central California (Offshore). 

Seismic-reflection profile investigations of the 
California continental terrace and Deep Plain, 
between 35 deg N and 39 deg N, support the 
hypothesis that the continental shelf and slope 
consist of alternating blocks of Franciscan and 
granitic-metamorphic basement overlain by vary- 
ing thicknesses of younger sediments. North of 37 
deg N, the seismic profiles confirm the distribu- 
tion of turbidites. A significant proportion of the 
sediments on the middle and lower continental 
rise, south of 37 deg N appears to be unrelated to 
the present Monterey deep-sea canyon system. 
Disappearance of the distinctive abyssal hills 
topography from west to east within the area of in- 
vestigation can be attributed to burial by tur- 
bidites. Normal 'pelagic' sediments form a veneer, 
rarely more than 0.15 sec thick, which conforms 
with the basement topography; some localities are 
devoid of discernible sediment. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07590 



CLIMATIC IMPLICATION OF A LATE 
PLEISTOCENE OSTRACODE ASSEMBLAGE 
FROM SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

P. C. Valentine. 

Available from GPO, Washington, DC 20402, 70 

cents paper copy, Stock no 2401-1133. Geological 

Survey Professional Paper 683-D, 1971. 28 p, 11 

fig, 4 plate, 2 tab, 93 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentology, 'Pleistocene epoch, 
'Marine biology, 'Virginia, 'Continental shelf, 
Atlantic Ocean, Sampling, Data collections, 
Marine geology, Marine animals, Geologic histo- 
ry, Geologic time, Paleoclimatology, 
Paleohydrology. 

Identifiers: Paleontology, Late Pleistocene os- 
tracodes. 

The Norfolk Formation of southeastern Virginia 
contains a large and well-preserved ostracode as- 
semblage - 82 species, 70 of which are still living. 
A cluster analysis of 91 samples containing 1 59 os- 
tracode species from Holocene assemblages of the 
continental shelf between about 32 deg 30 min N. 
and 40 deg N. reveals the existence of four major 
biofacies representing two faunal provinces. A 
study of the temperature tolerances of the species 
common to the Norfolk Formation and the 
Holocene indicates that the Norfolk assemblage 
lived in waters where the bottom temperature in 
the coldest month was 12.5 deg to 15 deg C and in 
the warmest month 20 to 22.5 deg C, a more equa- 
ble marine climate than now prevails in the inner 
sublittoral off southeastern Virginia. The late 
Pleistocene assemblage is indicative of a sublit- 
toral faunal province and a warm-temperate cli- 
matic zone which do not exist today along the At- 
lantic Coast of the United States. At present, the 
convergence of cool- and warm-water masses at 
Cape Hatteras prevents reestablishment of a 
warm-temperature faunal province in this region. 
(Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07591 



A CLOSED-FORM SOIL EROSION EQUATION 
FOR UPLAND AREAS, 

Agricultural Research Service, Lafayette, Ind. 
Soil and Water Conservation Research Div. 
G. R. Foster, and L. D. Meyer. 



18 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Erosion and Sedimentation — Group 2J 



In: Sedimentation, Symposium to Honor Profes- 
sor H. A. Einstein, June 17-19, 1971, Berkeley, 
Calif; Hsieh Wen Shen, editor, Colorado State 
University, p 12-1 - 12-19, 2 fig, 1 tab, 30ref, 1971. 

Descriptors: *Soil erosion, 'Sediment transport, 
Mass transfer, Equations, Erosion, Deposition 
(Sediments), Sediment load, Chezy equation. 

Erosion by water on upland areas may be mathe- 
matically described by the continuity-of-mass 
transport equation and an equation expressing an 
interrelationship between detachment by runoff 
and sediment load. The detachment and transport 
capacities were each taken as a function of the 3/2 
power of the flow's shear stress. With the interac- 
tion equation, predictions of deposition where the 
slope flattens and flow loses its transport capacity 
are possible without using a gradually varied flow 
analysis. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07606 



HYDRAULIC RELATIONS FOR SAND-BEDDED 
STREAMS, 

Geological Survey, Tucson, Ariz. 
T. Maddock, Jr. 

In: Sedimentation, Symposium to Honor Profes- 
sor H. A. Einstein, June 17-19, 1971, Berkeley, 
Calif; Hsieh Wen Shen, editor, Colorado State 
University, p 15-1 - 15-22, 4 fig, 24 ref , 1971 . 

Descriptors: 'Sediment transport, 'Alluvial chan- 
nels, "Regime, Sediment load, Sedimentary struc- 
tures, Water temperature, Particle size, Settling 
velocity, Bed load, Suspended load, Hydraulic 
models, Erosion, Channel erosion, Hydraulics. 

If only discharge and slope are known, it is not 
possible to forecast the behavior of an alluvial 
stream at a given point. A forecast, but still not a 
precise one, can be made if the discharges of water 
and sediment and the slope are known. A good 
forecast can be made of the change in stream 
behavior owing to changes in a number of varia- 
bles, such as discharges of water and sediment, 
sediment size, and temperature, given a sand- 
bedded stream channel and some knowledge of 
bank resistance. Two basic equations relating to 
hydraulic roughness and to transport of sediment 
in alluvial channels that move appreciable 
discharges of sediment and water are proposed. 
One uses a dimensionless coefficient related to a 
characteristic energy expenditure, the weight of 
water, the submerged weight of sediment, and the 
fall velocity of a characteristic particle. The other 
uses a function of the characteristic particle size 
and the concentration of the total sediment 
discharge. From the two equations, other equa- 
tions are developed that are equivalent to the well- 
known regime relations. The limitations of the 
equations are shown, and the reasons for many 
commonly observed anomalies are discussed. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07607 



EINSTEIN'S BEDLOAD FUNCTION APPLIED 
TO CHANNEL DESIGN AND DEGRADATION, 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. Sedimenta- 
tion Section. 
E. L. Pemberton. 

In: Sedimentation, Symposium to Honor Profes- 
sor H. A. Einstein, June 17-19, 1971, Berkeley, 
Calif; Hsieh Wen Shen, editor, Colorado State 
University, p 16-1 - 16-28, 23 fig, 3 tab, 10 ref, 
1971. 

Descriptors: *Bed load, 'Sediment transport, 
'Degradation (Stream), 'Alluvial channels, Chan- 
nel erosion, Sedimentation, Particle size, Stream 
erosion. 
Identifiers: 'Einstein bed load formula. 

Total bed material discharge, consisting of sand 
sizes or coarser material was studied in three river 
channels where total load sampling provided a 
check on the computations. The bedload function 
developed by Einstein required only limited ad- 



justments to give an adequate comparison with the 
total transport for all sand sized fractions greater 
than 0.062 mm. In channel rectification and chan- 
nel design problems for sand-bedded channels, the 
transport of all sizes including the small and 
coarser sand materials should be considered. In 
addition to channel design, the estimates of river 
degradation below a structure such as a dam 
requires an analysis of the transport by size frac- 
tion in order to assess the armoring effect in the 
degradation process. Three examples of channel 
design and degradation are presented to show how 
the adjusted Einstein Bedload Function is applied. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07608 



HYBRID COMPUTER SIMULATION OF SEDI- 
MENT TRANSPORT WITH STOCHASTIC 
TRANSFER AT THE STREAM BED, 

Utah Water Research Lab., Logan. 
K. S. Sakhan, J. P. Riley, and K. G. Renard. 
In: Sedimentation, Symposium to Honor Profes- 
sor H. A. Einstein, June 17-19, 1971, Berkeley, 
Calif; Hsieh Wen Shen, editor, Colorado State 
University, p 21-1 - 21-44, 22 fig, 5 ref, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment transport, 'Bed load, 
'Suspended load, 'Hybrid computers, 'Mathe- 
matical models, 'Analog models, Model studies, 
Simulation analysis, Stochastic processes, Mar- 
kov processes, Floods, Waves (Water). 

A simulation model integrates both the movements 
of flood and sediment flows down an unstable, 
erodible stream channel. Stochastic processes 
were used to describe and evaluate the transfer of 
sediments at the stream bed. Numerical methods 
were used to obtain the solution to one-dimen- 
sional transport equations, and a direct analog 
computer integration was adopted to obtain the 
solution to the Kolmogorov system, which pro- 
vides the probabilities of the transfer of sediments 
at the stream bed. The integrated model describing 
the dynamics of erodible streams is feasible for 
field applications because the entire model 
reduces to being a function of the bed shear stress. 
The suspended sediment discharge tends to 
change instantaneously with the water discharge, 
but there is a time lag in the bed load response. 
Sensitivity analysis shows that the responses of 
water discharge, suspended sediment discharge, 
and bed load discharge agree with what might be 
expected from field observations. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07609 



A NOTE ON INEXPENSIVE TELEMETRY OF 
RIVER SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS, 

Queen's Univ., Kingston (Ontario). 
W. James, and G. D. Finlayson. 
Bulletin of the International Association of Scien- 
tific Hydrology, Vol 16, No 2, p 87-90, June 1971. 
2 fig, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sediment load, 'Instrumentation, 
'Depth, 'Monitoring, 'Flow rates, Rivers, Sedi- 
ments, Sampling, Remote sensing, Telemetry, 
Electronic equipment, Cost, Water analysis, 
Stream gauges, Pressure measuring instruments, 
Gaging stations, Current meters, Velocity, Data 
transmission, Flow measurements, Design, On- 
site data collections, Research equipment, Electri- 
cal equipment, Turbidity. 

Basic design requirements for a system to monitor 
suspended sediments loads were: (1) sturdy con- 
struction to withstand field use; (2) continuous 
operation for two weeks on power from lead accu- 
mulators; (3) first order accuracy only. The system 
essentially consisted of three transducers: a tur- 
bidity meter constructed from a light source and 
two photocells to monitor sediment concentra- 
tions; a pressure cell for depth determinations; and 
a Savonius rotor velocity meter. The sensors were 
attached to a quarter-inch steel plate which was 
streamlined to deflect debris. A water proof elec- 
trical cable linked the sensors with a field station. 
At the field station, the incoming signals were en- 



coded for radio transmission which was controlled 
by a clock timer. At the base station, a monos table 
multivibrator attached to the radio receiver was 
triggered by the waveform and, if used with a pen- 
recorder, recorded station identification and data. 
The system operated effectively, was easy to 
operate and maintain, and the cost of components 
for the sensor and field station was only about 
$500. (Snyder-Battelle) 
W72-07709 



SOIL ERODD3ILITY AS AFFECTED BY SODL 
SURFACE PROPERTD2S, 

Agricultural Research Service, Orono, Maine. Soil 
and Water Conservation Research Div. 
E. Epstein, and W. J. Grant. 

American Society of Agricultural Engineers 
Transactions, Vol 14, No 4, p 647-48, 655, July- 
August 1971. 7 fig, 2 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Soil erosion, 'Simulated rainfall, 
'Surface runoff, 'Impact (Rainfall), 'Soil sur- 
faces, Soil compaction, Surface sealing, Hydraulic 
models, Laboratory tests. 
Identifiers: 'Soil crusts. 

Erodibility of soils is related to the changes in soil 
surface properties resulting from rainfall. After 10 
minutes of applied artificial rainfall, the soil loss at 
different kinetic energies remained constant at a 
rate of 625 g per joule per sq cm. This is caused by 
shearing of a thin layer, accompanied by the con- 
tinual formation of a consolidated seal. The seal 
and underlying crust are mainly due to the physical 
impact of raindrops. There were no discernible 
changes in soil texture below the 0.5-mm region of 
the crust. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07728 



MOVEMENT OF PESTICIDES BY RUNOFF 
AND EROSION, 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Agricultural 
Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07731 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Agricultural 
Engineering. 

G. D. Bubenzer, and B. A. Jones, Jr. 
American Society of Agricultural Engineers 
Transactions, Vol 14, No 4, p 625-628, July-Au- 
gust 1971. 3 fig, 3 tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Soil erosion, 'Simulated rainfall, 
'Surface runoff, 'Impact (Rainfall), Soil surfaces, 
Hydraulic models, Laboratory tests, Correlation 
analysis, Particle size. 

The mean splash rate of soils exposed to rainfall of 
a nearly constant kinetic energy level and impact 
velocity is influenced by drop size at the lower 
energy levels. Smaller drops produce significantly 
less splash than larger ones, even when the kinetic 
energy, total rainfall mass, and impact velocity are 
almost constant. As the energy level increases, the 
influence of drop size decreases. Except for the 
simulation of very low-energy storms, splash ero- 
sion studies may be conducted using a drop-size 
distribution larger than that of natural rainfall at a 
reduced velocity. Since a low-energy storm 
produces much less splash than a more intense 
one, such storms are not of great importance in the 
study of splash erosion. The prediction of soil 
splash for all soils is improved by adding a term 
containing the percent clay to the exponential 
equations relating soil splash to the intensity and 
kinetic energy of the rainfall. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07733 



FLOOD OF JANUARY 1969 NEAR CUCAMON- 
GA, CALD70RNIA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02E. 

W72-07738 



19 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 

Group 2J — Erosion and Sedimentation 



SEDIMENTS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN SOUTH 
OF CEYLON (OSADKI INDIYSKOGO OKEANA 
YUZHNEYE O. TSEYLON), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Geologicheskii 

Institut. 

O. A. Dvoretskaya. 

Litologiya i Poleznyye Iskopayemyye, No 4, p 16- 

33, July-August 1971. 11 fig, 5 tab, 17ref. 

Descriptors: *Sediments, *Sedimentology, 'Sedi- 
mentation, *Sedimentation rates, *Indian Ocean, 
Mud, Deep water. Littoral, Mineralogy, Clay 
minerals, Organic matter, Detritus, Calcium car- 
bonate, Carbon, Iron, Pyrite, Manganese, 
Phosphorus, Silica, Cores, Diagenesis, 
Provenance. 

Identifiers: "USSR, 'Pelagic, *Ooze, 'Nodules, 
•Concretions, Foraminifera. 

Core samples were collected in 1964 from 4 sta- 
tions in the Indian Ocean south of Ceylon for sedi- 
mentology studies in littoral and pelagic zones. 
Sedimentation is of the terrigenous type, the 
detrital material becoming finer with increasing 
distance from the coast. The clay-mineral profile is 
the same for all 4 cores and depends on clay for- 
mation processes in the source areas. Carbonate 
accumulation is biogenous, and is associated with 
the activity of planktonic foraminifera. The sedi- 
ments are fresh and virtually undisturbed by post- 
sedimentation processes. However, two sharply 
contrasting diagenetic processes can be distin- 
guished: (1) reduction of Fe, which correlates with 
near-shore sediments; and (2) formation of Mn 
micro-nodules, which relates to deep-sea deposits. 
(Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07745 



STUDY OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE DIS- 
TRIBUTION BETWEEN SEA WATER AND 
SEDIMENTS (K IZUCHENIYU RAS- 
PREDELENIYA RADIOAKTIVNYKH 

IZOTOPOV MEZHDU MORSKIMI VODAMI I 
OSADKAMI), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W72-07750 



MINERALOGY OF BLACK SEA SEDIMENTS 
(K MINERALOGII OSADKOV CHERNOGO 
MORYA), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Geologicheskii 

Institut. 

G. Yu. Butuzova. 

Litologiya i Poleznyye Iskopayemyye, No 4, p 46- 

54, July-August 1971. 1 fig, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Sediments, 
•Mineralogy, 'Petrography, 'Provenance, Rocks, 
Mud, Particle size, Deep water. Littoral, Detritus, 
Quartz, Migration, Sampling. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Black Sea, Feldspars, 
Pyroxenes, Amphiboles, Pyroclasts, Volcanism. 

The composition and areal distribution of ter- 
rigenous components entering the Black Sea basin 
from land areas are examined. Based on ter- 
rigenous material of the silt fraction of sediments, 
4 principal terrigenous-mineralogical provinces are 
identified: southeast-east, west, north, and cen- 
tral. Division of Black Sea sediments into 4 large 
terrigenous-mineralogical provinces clearly 
reveals the relation of the mineralogical-petro- 
graphic composition of the silt fraction of sedi- 
ments to the petrographic composition of rocks of 
the near-shore zone. A number of indicator 
minerals for determining the paths of migration of 
detrital material and its origin can be distinguished 
in the marine sediments. These minerals include 
pyroxenes, garnet, zircon, and the metamorphic 
mineral group kyanite-staurolite-sillimanite. Divi- 
sion of the Black Sea into mineralogical regions is 
the first stage in the investigation of the ter- 
rigenous mineralogy of these sediments. A further, 
more detailed study of the different fractions will 
provide a clearer picture of the distribution of ter- 
rigenous minerals and may make it possible to sub- 
divide the Black Sea basin into smaller ter- 



rigenous-mineralogical 
USGS) 

W72-07752 



provinces. ( Josef son- 



DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN 
SEDIMENTS OF THE INDIAN OCEAN SOUTH 
OF CEYLON (RASPREDELENIYE RASSEYAN- 
NYKH ELEMENTOV V OSADKAKH IN- 
DIYSKOGO OKEANA YUZHNEYE O. 
TSEYLON), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Geologicheskii 
Institut. 
Z. V. Pushkina. 

Litologiya i Poleznyye Iskopayemyye, No 4, p 34- 
45, July-August 1971. 7 fig, 6 tab, 23 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Sediments, 'Trace 
elements, 'Indian Ocean, Sediment transport. 
Sedimentation rates, Particle size, Mud, Sands, 
Depth, Deep water, Littoral, Pacific Ocean, Atlan- 
tic Ocean, Metals, Mineralogy, Cores, Distribu- 
tion patterns. Provenance. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Ooze, 'Pelagic, Nodules, 
Concentrations, Vanadium, Tungsten, Zirconium. 

Core samples were collected in 1964 from 4 sta- 
tions in the Indian Ocean south of Ceylon to study 
the content and distribution of Cu, Ni, Co, V, Cr, 
Zn, Pb, Mo, W, and Zr in the near-shore and 
pelagic sediments. Pelagic, argillaceous, radiolari- 
an oozes were enriched in trace elements in the 
following descending order: Mo, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, 
Pb, and W. Enrichment of pelagic oozes of the In- 
dian Ocean occurs mainly by the mechanical 
process of sedimentation. In degree of enrichment 
in Cu, Ni, Co, W, Mo, and Mn, pelagic oozes of 
the northern part of the Indian Ocean occupy an 
intermediate position between those of the Pacific 
and Atlantic Oceans. Concentrations of Mn, Cu, 
Ni, Co, W, Mo, Pb and other elements in pelagic 
ocean sediments are directly proportional to basin 
size and inversely proportional to the sedimenta- 
tion rate. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07753 



AUTOCHTHONOUS AND ALLOCHTHONOUS 
ALLUVIAL PLACERS (AVTOKHTONNYYE I 
ALLOKHTONNYYE ALLYUVIAL 'NYYE ROS- 
SYPI), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Geologicheskii 

Institut. 

I. P. Kartashov. 

Litologiya i Poleznyye Iskopayemyye, No 4, p 79- 

87, July-August 1971. 22 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sediments, 'Sediment transport, 
'Unconsolidated sediments, 'Alluvium, 'Placer 
mining, Gold, Mineralogy, Bedrock, Streams, 
Deltas, Terraces (Geologic), Aggradation, Ex- 
ploration. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Placer deposits. Platinum, 
Diamonds, Dispersion halos. 

Depending upon site of formation, alluvial placers 
may be classified as autochthonous or al- 
lochthonous. Autochthonous placers consist of 
mineral particles virtually undisturbed by the ac- 
tion of streams. Upstream sections of these 
placers are closely joined to bedrock or to the 
elongations of these placers along river valleys. 
Allochthonous placers, consisting of mineral parti- 
cles freely transported by flowing water, may 
form at a considerable distance from the bedrock. 
A particular mineral may form alluvial placers of 
either type. Depending on specific gravity, domi- 
nant grain size, and resistance to mechanical wear 
and chemical weathering, some minerals (gold, 
platinum, and cassiterite) form autochthonous 
placers, while others (ilmenite and zircon) form al- 
lochthonous placers. Differences in mode of origin 
lead to marked morphological differences between 
the two placer types. These differences must be 
considered in prospecting and exploration work. 
(Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07754 



MOUNDS (HUMPIES) IN THE PEACE RIVER 
AREA OF ALBERTA, 

Research Council of Alberta, Edmonton. Soils 
Div. 

W. Odynsky. 

CanJSoilSci. 51 (1): 132-135. 1971. Illus. Maps. 
Identifiers: Alberta, Canada, Humpies, Morpholo- 
gy, Mounds, Peace river. Soil. 

Fields of mounds may be observed on a road 
traverse from Falher to Rycroft via stations whose 
elevations in meters are: Falher (580), Girouxville 
(565), Culp (550), Watino (Smoky River flat) (380), 
Tangent (550), Eaglesham (580), Belloy (580), and 
Rycroft (610). From both Falher and Rycroft the 
lacustrine basin slopes gently to the valley banks 
of the Smoky and Peace Rivers. The mounded 
topography becomes apparent at elevations of 
about 15 m below those of Falher and Rycroft and 
reaches maximum development within the next 
drop of 15 m. Similar elevation differences are ap- 
parent between the mounded and non-mounded 
portions of the lacustrine basins in the Peach River 
area. At Falher and Rycroft, the surficial material 
consists of stratified dark gray clay. With decrease 
in elevation this material is usually covered by a 
mantle of brownish colored silty material, which 
becomes deeper and more variable toward the 
banks of the river valley. Mounded topography is 
common to the mantled materials between Giroux- 
ville and Culp. In all areas studied the surficial 
material is stratified for considerable depths. 
Generally, the mounds are composed of contorted 
and slumped strata of yellowish brown silty or 
sandy materials and dark gray clay. Occasionally, 
a veneer of loess-like material caps some of the 
mounds. In the transition area between the 
mounded and non-mounded portions of the lacus- 
trine basin, contorted strata can be seen in areas 
that are characterized by a mantle of yellowish 
brown silty material. Coring studies were made at 
the base of the mound sections exposed through 
road building activities. Cores were taken by a Bull 
soil coring machine at frequent intervals in the ad- 
jacent road ditch. These cores showed that the 
material for an added depth of 3 m below the ex- 
posed section consisted mainly of stratified dark 
gray clay which, in some areas contained a few 
stones. Sections of the intermound areas showed a 
mantle of brownish silty materia] which was 
usually about 1 m thick at the base of the mound, 
but frequently decreased and disappeared in 
proceeding away from the mound. Bogs occupied 
an appreciable portion of these intermound areas. - 
-Copyright 1971 , Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07778 



RELATIONS AMONG RADIONUCLIDE CON- 
TENT AND PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND 
MINERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COLUM- 
BIA RIVER SEDIMENTS, 

Geological Survey, Portland, Oregon. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07822 

2K. Chemical Processes 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SURFACE 
WATERS AND THEIR POLLUTION AND SELF- 
-PURIFICATION. METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF 
NATURAL WATERS (FORMIROVANIYE 
KHIMICHESKOGO SOSTAVA, ZAGRYAZ- 
NENIYE I SAMOOCHISHCHENIYE POVERKH- 
NOSTNYKH VOD. METODY ANALIZA PR 
IRODNYKH VOD). 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 
(USSR). 

Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy, Vol 55, Leningrad, 
1971. 136 p. 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, 'Water analysis, 
'Chemical analysis, 'Analytical techniques, 'Sur- 
face waters, Lakes, Rivers, Reservoirs, Water 
types, Salinity, Sedimentation, Oxidation, Organic 



20 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Chemical Processes — Group 2K 



matter, Metals, Organic compounds, 
Geomorphology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy, 
Thermodynamics, Water pollution. 
Identifiers: "USSR, *Water samples, 'Rubidium, 
•Vanadium, *Biogenous substances, Mineral 
springs, Pelite, Mineralization, Chromatograms. 

This collection of 1 1 papers provides information 
on the chemical composition of waters of some 
lakes of Dagestan; concentration of rare elements 
in lake waters of the Northwest USSR and 
Kamchatka; composition of organic acids in sur- 
face waters of the USSR; concentration and 
dynamics of organic acids in mineral waters of the 
Lake Baikal region; and particle size and 
mineralogical composition of suspended sedi- 
ments in 14 rivers of the USSR. A 1:7,500,000 
scale hydrochemical map of the oxidation capacity 
of river waters of the Asiatic part of the USSR is 
compiled for Siberia, the Soviet Far East, Kazakh- 
stan, and Central Asia. Considerable importance is 
placed on theoretical and methodological in- 
vestigations, including calculation of the tempera- 
ture coefficients of equilibrium constants by the 
thermodynamic method; spectrographic deter- 
mination of heavy metals in natural waters at in- 
creased chromium concentrations; separation of 
hydrocarbons in water by gas-liquid chromatog- 
raphy; and polarographic reduction of simplest 
aliphatic ketones. The collection will be of particu- 
lar value to specialists working in the field of water 
chemistry and water-pollution abatement. (See 
W72-07296 thru W72-07304)(Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07295 



COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC ACIDS DIS- 
SOLVED IN SURFACE WATERS (O SOSTAVE 
ORGANICHESKIKH KISLOT, RAST- 

VORENNYKH V POVERKHNOSTNYKH 
VODAKH), 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 
(USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07298 



HYDROCHEMICAL MAP OF THE OXIDATION 
CAPACITY OF RIVER WATERS OF THE 
ASIATIC PART OF THE USSR (GIDROK- 
HIMICHESKAYA KARTA OKISLYAYEMOSTI 
VODY REK AZIATSKOY TERRITORII SSSR), 
Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 
(USSR). 

M. P. Smirnov, and M. N. Tarasov. 
In: Formirovaniye khimicheskogo sostava, 
zagryazneniye i samoochishcheniye poverkhnost- 
nykh vod. Metody analiza prirodnykh vod; 
Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy, Vol 55, Leningrad, 
p 56-68, 1971. Href. 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, 'Geochemistry, 
•Oxidation, 'Organic matter, *Rivers, 
Geomorphology, Geographical regions. Physio- 
graphic provinces. Orography, Mountains, Per- 
mafrost, Soils, Vegetation, Tundra, Grasslands, 
Forests, Deserts, Seasonal, Mapping. 
Identifiers: *USSR, 'Siberia, Soviet Far East, 
Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Taiga, Water samples, 
Mineralization. 

Results of a determination of the permanganate 
oxidation capacity of over 20,000 water samples 
collected from 1,650 points in the Asiatic part of 
the USSR between 1936 and 1966 were used to 
prepare a 1:7,500,000 scale map of the oxidation 
capacity of river waters for Sineria, the Soviet Far 
East, Kazakhstan, and Central Asia. The pattern 
of organic matter in surface waters of the Asiatic 
part is caused mainly by geographic and mountain 
zonality and by physiographic conditions, with 
Siberian permafrost and orography playing an im- 
portant role in determining the hydrochemical 
characteristics of the area. A zone of moderate ox- 
idation (5-10 mg 0/liter) is typical of tundras, 
steppes, and deserts. A zone of moderately high 
and high oxidation (10-20 mg 0/liter) corresponded 
to taiga and mixed forest zones. The content of 
readily oxidizable and colored organic substances 



increased in a southerly direction within humid 
zones but decreased from humid to arid and 
semiarid zones. Between 2-3 vertical hydrochemi- 
cal zones of oxidation are distinguished in the 
mountains, depending upon geographic location 
and orography. Vertical zonality is well expressed 
in high mountain areas. The content of readily ox- 
idizable and colored organic substances increases 
from high-mountain to low-mountain rivers. (See 
also W72-07295) (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07300 



SPECTROGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF 

HEAVY METALS IN NATURAL WATERS AT 

INCREASED CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS 

(SPEKTROGRAFICHESKOYEOPREDELENIYE 

TYAZHELYKH METALLOV V PRTRODNYKH 

VODAKH PRI POVYSHENNYKH KONTSEN- 

TRATSIYAKH KHROMA), 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 

(USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07303 



SEPARATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN 
WATER BY GAS-LIQUDD CHROMATOG- 
RAPHY (RAZDEL'NOYE OPREDELENTYE 
UGLEVODORODOV V VODAKH METODOM 
GAZO-ZHIDKOSTNOY KHROMATOGRAFTT), 
Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatelskii Institut 
Vodosnabzheniya, Kanalizatsii, Gidrotekh- 
nicheskikh Sooruzhenii i Inzhenernoi 
Gidrogeologii, Moscow (USSR). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07304 



EXPERIMENTAL VADOSE AND PHREATIC 
CEMENTATION OF SKELETAL CARBONATE 
SAND, 

Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, Tex. Dept. of 

Geological Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07306 



CALCITE AND ARAGONITE PHENOMENA 
PRECIPITATED BY ORGANIC DECAY IN 
HIGH LIME CONCENTRATE BRINES, 

Penzoil United, Inc., Houston, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07307 



MARINE DIAGENESIS OF CARBONATE SEDI- 
MENT, BONAIRE, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES, 

Rutgers - The State Univ., New Brunswick, N. J. 

Dept. of Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07312 



SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF 
THE FINE FRACTION OF RECENT CAR- 
BONATE SEDIMENTS FROM BIMINI, 
BAHAMAS, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Geology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W72-07314 



DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-MAGNESIUM 
CALCITE IN LIME MUDS OF THE GREAT 
BAHAMA BANK: DIAGENETIC IMPLICA- 
TIONS, 

Brown Univ., Providence, R.I. Dept. of Geological 

Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07318 



PARTIAL DEMINERALIZATION OF 

BRACKISH WATERS BY ION EXCHANGE, 

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 
W72-07336 



THE AMMONIUM ION AS AN INDICATOR OF 
OIL AND GAS (AMMONIY KAK ODIN IZ 
POKAZATELEY NEFTEGAZONOSNOSTI), 

Akademiya Nauk BSSR, Minsk. Laboratoriya 

Geokhimicheskikh Problem. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04B. 

W72-07451 



HYDROCHEMISTRY OF THE WATER COOL- 
ING THE KURAKHOVKA POWER PLANT, 

Akademiya Nauk URSR, Kiev. Instytut 

Hidrobiologii. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07457 



CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER IN 
STREAMS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07460 



LATE-PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HIS- 
TORY OF THE BLACK SEA AS INDICATED BY 
STABLE-ISOTOPE STUDIES, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W72-07468 



REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF STREAMFLOW 
CHEMICAL QUALITY IN TEXAS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07476 



THE ACETYLENE REDUCTION ASSAY FOR 
MEASURING NITROGEN FIXATION IN 
WATERLOGGED SOIL, 

Department of Agriculture, Beaverlodge (Al- 
berta). Research Station. 
W. A. Rice, and E. A. Paul. 
Can J Microbiol. 17(8): 1049-1056. 1971. Illus. 
Identifiers: Acetylene, Assay, Enzyme, Fixation, 
Measuring, Microbial, Nitrogen, Nitrogenase, 
Reduction, Soil, Waterlogged. 

N fixation in waterlogged, soil-straw, and sand- 
clay-straw mixtures was measured with the C2H2 
reduction assay, the 15N-tracer technique, and the 
Kjeldahl method. The reduction of 6 to 15 moles 
C2H2 corresponded to the fixation of 1 mole N2. 
The theoretical ratio is 3 moles C2H2 to 1 mole N2. 
A ratio of 3 moles C2H2 reduced for each mole of 
N2 fixed was obtained when samples of sandy- 
clay-straw were incubated under conditions that 
minimized effects that were due to gas diffusion 
through the aqueous phase. Calculations indicated 
that N2 at a partial pressure of 0.2 atm above the 
samples was not sufficient to saturate the 
nitrogenase enzyme of the organisms in lower 
layers of soil-straw samples. Thus the concentra- 
tion of N2 dissolved in the aqueous phase limited 
N fixation. C2H2 is more soluble in water than N2; 
the C2H2 reduction was not as limited by the 
C2H2 concentration in the aqueous phase. N2 was 
experimentally shown to be limited at depth in a 
sandy-clay-glucose system in that fixation 
decreased from 128 to 36 microgram N/g of sand- 
clay incubated so that the total sample depth 
ranged from 0.2 to 3 cm. The C2H2 reduction 
assay provides a method for measuring the poten- 
tial nitrogenase activity in the waterlogged soil 
amended with straw; however, this assay must be 
calibrated for specific conditions. The data also in- 
dicate that where N2 diffusion rates may limit N 
fixation, a normal atmosphere (80%) of N2 should 
be used in experiment-Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07557 



TRACE ELEMENTS IN NATURAL WATERS OF 
THE SEMIPALATINSK REGION, (IN RUS- 
SIAN), 
M. S. Panin. 



21 




Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2K — Chemical Processes 



Tr Inst Pochvoved Adad Nauk Kaz Ssr. 18. 142- 
146. 1970. 

Identifiers: Elements, Natural, Semipalatinsk, 
Trace, USSR. 

Data are given on the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn, Co 
in the waters of rivers, lakes, and subsurface 
aquifers.-Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07565 



WATER-QUALITY RECORDS FOR THE HUB- 
BARD CREEK WATERSHED, TEXAS, OC- 
TOBER 1967-SEPTEMBER 1969, 

Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 
H.J. Davidson. 

Geological Survey Open-file Report (Texas Dis- 
trict), 1972. 78 p, 2 fig, 1 1 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water quality, 'Surface waters, 
'Hydrologic data, 'Data collections, 'Texas, 
Water analysis, Chemical analysis, Streams, 
Reservoirs, Small watersheds, Sampling. 
Identifiers: 'Hubbard Creek watershed (Tex). 

Chemical quality of surface waters at 9 stream 
sites in the Hubbard Creek watershed, Texas are 
presented for the period October 1967 to Sep- 
tember 1969. For the same period, specific con- 
ductance and chloride determinations are given for 
Hubbard Creek Reservoir. The conductivity cells 
were positioned at different depths in front of the 
bottom-outlet tube in the reservoir. Continuous 
records of conductivity of the water were obtained 
about 2 feet from the bottom, about 30 feet from 
the bottom, and at the surface. In addition, annual 
water discharge and chemical-quality data are 
summarized for the reservoir and stream sampling 
sites for the water years 1960-69. Weighted 
averages of dissolved solids ranged from 135 
mg/liter at Battle Creek near Moran in 1967 to 
3,120 mg/liter at Hubbard Creek near Albany in 
1963. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07577 



GEOLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES OF THE 
BITTERROOT VALLEY, SOUTHWESTERN 
MONTANA, 

Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1889, 

1972. 80 p, 32 fig, 1 plate, 13 tab, 31 ref. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02E. 

W72-07584 



THE MEASUREMENT OF THE AGGRESSIVE- 
NESS OF WATER TO CALCIUM CARBONATE, 
PARTS II AND III, 

R. D. Stenner. 

Cave Research Group of Great Britain Transac- 
tions, Vol 13, No 4, p 283-296, November 1971. 1 
fig, 5 tab, 14 ref, 4 append. 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, 'Aqueous solu- 
tions, 'Carbonates, 'Trace elements, 'Magnesi- 
um, Karst hydrology, Chemical reactions, 
Equilibrium, Geochemistry, Groundwater, 
Limestones, Karst. 

The changes of concentrations of trace con- 
stituents of natural waters on saturation with calci- 
um were investigated by a number of analytical 
techniques, including X-ray fluorescence spec- 
trometry following concentration in ion exchange 
papers. The concentrations of lithium, magnesi- 
um, potassium, sodium, strontium, bromide, 
chloride, fluoride and phosphate were unchanged, 
and the sulphate concentration decreased on only 
one sample. Large changes occurred in the con- 
centrations of heavy metals. The magnesium con- 
tent of natural water increased when saturated 
with limestones or dolomites, both when the water 
was aggressive and when supersaturated with 
respect to CaC03. The magnesium increase was 
greater with rocks with a low Ca:Mg ratio and with 
water with a high aggressiveness to CaC03. In 
rocks with a high Ca:Mg ratio, the increase of cal- 
cium was greater than that predicted by the aggres- 



siveness to CaC03. With rocks with a high Ca:Mg 
ratio, the reduction of calcium in supersaturated 
waters tended to be less than expected. When 
saturated with dolomites, the increase of calcium 
of aggressive water was lower than the aggressive- 
ness to CaC03. When saturated with dolomites, 
the decrease of calcium for supersaturated water 
was lower than that predicted by the aggressive- 
ness to CaC03. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07592 



A STUDY OF LIMESTONE SOLUTION UNDER 
TROPICAL CONDITIONS IN NORTH EAST 
TANZANIA, 

H. J. Cooke. 

Cave Research Group of Great Britain Transac- 
tions, Vol 13, No 4, p 265-276, November 1971. 13 
fig, 3 tab, 26 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Karst, 'Water chemistry, 
•Limestones, 'Solubility, Karst hydrology, Car- 
bon dioxide, Chemical precipitation. 
Identifiers: 'Tanzania. 

The rate of solution of limestones was measured in 
1966 to 1968 at a number of sites within the out- 
crop of the Tanga limestone in N. E. Tanzania. 
The Tanga limestone (of Jurassic age) consists of 
porcelaneous, oolitic, and coralliferous varieties 
and is very pure. The area of the limestone outcrop 
is part of a low plateau sloping from about 136 me- 
ters altitude in a distance of about 16 km, to sea 
level at the coast. The plateau has been directed by 
a number of streams, and an interesting assem- 
blage of karst landforms has developed. The 
average annual rainfall is 1,347 mm., but over a 
period of 38 years extremes of 800 mm have been 
recorded. The rate of solution in the Tanga area 
appears to be rapid, and given a sufficient supply 
of water, re-precipitation of lime also appears to 
be extremely rapid. In many of the caves, there are 
masses of secondary calcite in a variety of forms, 
but most commonly in great bosses, massive cur- 
tains, and large tiers. The largest masses are found 
in caves which are only a short distance below the 
surface. High concentration of C02 in the soil air 
accounts for the high rate of solution of lime. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07594 



A BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE 
REMOVAL OF SILICATE FROM SEA WATER, 

University of East Anglia, Norwich (England). 

School of Environmental Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W72-07600 



CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF GROUNDWATER 
IN THE BIGHORN BASIN, NORTHWESTERN 
WYOMING, 

Geological Survey, Cheyenne, Wyo. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W72-07601 



METHOD FOR DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF 
THE RADIUM AND RADON CONTENT OF 
SPRING WATERS USING GAMMA SPEC- 
TROMETRY, 

Lyon Univ. (France). Faculty of Medicine and 

Pharmacy; and Lyon Univ. (France). Lab. of 

Biological Physics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07642 



QC TOOLS SNIFF POLLUTANTS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07652 



OPTICAL MULTICHANNEL ANALYZER, 

Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W72-07653 



DUAL ULTRAVIOLET SENSOR, 

Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W72-07654 



INTRINSIC END-POINT ERRORS IN TITRA- 
TION WITH ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES. 
CHELOMETRIC TITRATIONS, 

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07657 



IONIZATION SOURCES IN MASS SPEC- 
TROMETRY, 

Du Pont Instruments, Monrovia, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07658 



INTERACTIVE GEL NETWORKS. I. TREAT- 
MENT OF SIMPLE COMPLEXATION AND 
MASKING PHENOMENA, 

National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. 

Inst, for Materials Research. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07667 



IMPROVED AMPEROMETRIC PROCEDURE 
FOR DETERMINING PLUTONIUM, 

New Brunswick Lab. (AEC), N.J. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07674 



AUTOMATED METHOD FOR DETERMINA- 
TION OF NITRILOTRIACETIC ACffi IN NATU- 
RAL WATER, DETERGENTS, AND SEWAGE 
SAMPLES, 

Department of the Environment, Ottawa (On- 
tario). Inland Waters Branch. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07675 



COULOMETRIC MICRODETERMINATION OF 
NEODYMIUM USING FEEDBACK-CO- 

NTROLLED ELECTROLYSIS CURRENT, 

Missouri Univ., Columbia. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07676 



INTERFERING IONS IN THE ELEMENTAL 
ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES BY 
MASS SPECTROMETRY, 

Medical Research Council, Harrow (England). 

Clinical Research Centre. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07681 



AVAD1ABILITY AND QUALITY OF GROUND 
WATER IN THE MEDFORD AREA, JACKSON 
COUNTY, OREGON, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W72-07740 



USE OF AIR-WATER RELATIONSHIPS FOR 
PREDICTING WATER TEMPERATURE, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

V. Kothandaraman, and R. L. Evans. 

Report of Investigation 69, 1972. 14 p, 8 fig, 1 1 tab, 

9 ref, 2 append. 

Descriptors: 'Air temperature, 'Water tempera- 
ture, 'Fourier analysis, Statisitical methods, Cor- 
relation analysis. Water quality, Mathematical 
models, Statistical models. 

Identifiers: Illinois River, Peoria (111), Air-water 
temperature relations. 

Harmonic analysis was applied to average daily air 
and water temperature records in Illinois. The first 
harmonic accounts for a major portion of the total 
variance in the records. Water temperature 



22 






WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Estuaries — Group 2L 



residuals are well correlated with air temperature 
residuals. Parametric values of a mathematical 
model for predicting water temperatures from air 
temperature records are stable from year to year. 
The water-air temperature relationship is a sta- 
tionary linear process. Consequently, it is possible 
to predict water temperatures at a specific location 
from the air temperature records, provided both 
water and air temperature records are available for 
another similarly situated water body. Air and Il- 
linois River water temperature data at Peoria and 
Havana, Illinois, were used for the study. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07743 



AN EVALUATION OF WATER-QUALITY 
RECORDS FOR TEXAS STREAMS, 

Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07744 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GROUND- 
WATERS OF TROPICAL COUNTRIES AS IL- 
LUSTRATED BY FRENCH GUINEA (K- 
HIMICHESKIY SOSTAV GRUNTOVYKH VOD 
TROPICHESKIKH STRAN (NA PRIMERE 
GVINEI)), 

Tomsk Polytechnic Inst. (USSR). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 
W72-07746 



RARE ALKALI METALS IN RIVER WATERS 

OF THE UPPER VOLGA BASIN (REDKIYE 

SHCHELOCHNYYE ELEMENTY V 

RECHNYKH VODAKH BASSEYNA VERKH- 

NEY VOLGI), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Geok- 

himii i Analiticheskoy Khimii. 

V. V. Krasintseva, G. Ye. Kalenchuk, I. B. 

Serova, and T. A. Aleshonkova. 

Geokhimiya, No 12, p 1509-1514, December 1971. 

6 tab, 12ref. 

Descriptors: *Geochemistry, 'Alkali metals, 
•Rivers, 'River basins, 'Surface waters, Sea 
water, Groundwater, Mineral water, Oily water, 
Brines, Cesium, Sodium, Potassium, Aquatic 
plants, Vegetation, Soils, Rocks, Analytical 
techniques, Sampling. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Volga River, 'Moscow 
River, 'Lithium, 'Rubidium, Water samples, 
Desorption. 

Water samples collected from the Moscow River 
basin in August 1969 were analyzed for their con- 
centration of Li, Rb, Cs, Na, and K. The average 
concentration of Li, Rb, and Cs in river waters 
was 0.004, 0.0025 and 0.00029 mg/liter, respective- 
ly; average Li/K, Rb/K and Cs/K values were 
0.001, 0.0007 and 0.00008 mg/liter. A correlation 
was established between the Li and Na concentra- 
tion. The Cs concentration varied widely and was 
considerably higher than the average Cs content in 
river waters of the world. No correlation was ob- 
served between Cs and the other alkali metals. 
(Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07748 



OXIDATION-REDUCTION PHENOMENA IN 
ARTESIAN WELLS (OKISLITEL'NO-VOS- 
STANOVITEL'NYYE YAVLENIYA V 

PERELIVAYUSHCHIKH SKVAZHINAKH), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Geologicheskii 

Institut. 

V. D. Bezrodnov, and V. I. Dvorov. 

Geokhimiya, No 12, p 1482-1491, December 1971. 

8 fig, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Geochemistry, 'Water chemistry, 
'Artesian wells, 'Oxidation-reduction potential, 
Oxidation, Reduction (Chemical), Iron, Thermal 
water, Brines, Hydrogen sulfide, Groundwater, 
Groundwater movement. Well casings. Boreholes, 
Variability. 



Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Turkmen SSR, 'Caspian 
Sea, 'Artesian basins, Water samples. Mineraliza- 
tion. 

Investigations were conducted in 1968-69 in the 
South Caspian artesian basin of the Turkmen SSR 
to study oxidation-reduction conditions and 
microcomponent composition of deep thermal 
waters in wells. The iron of well casings affects the 
chemical composition of brines circulating in a 
borehole. The Eh value changes sharply, causing a 
shift in the entire chemical balance, transforma- 
tion of ionic complexes, and change in the concen- 
tration of the different elements. In brines without 
H2S, the action of iron may lead to an appreciable 
decrease in Eh from +150 to-350 mv, while in 
brines with H2S, it may result in an increase in Eh 
from -250 to -70 mv. A water sample collected at 
the top of a borehole differs from that collected at 
the bottom. The chemical composition of a bottom 
sample differs from the chemical composition of 
stratal waters. These factors must be taken into ac- 
count in studying the microcomponent composi- 
tion and origin of groundwaters and in analyzing 
migration of chemical elements in them. (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W72-07749 



STUDY OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE DIS- 
TRIBUTION BETWEEN SEA WATER AND 
SEDIMENTS (K IZUCHENIYU RAS- 
PREDELENIYA RADIOAKTIVNYKH 

IZOTOPOV MEZHDU MORSKIMI VODAMI I 
OSADKAMI), 
V. N. Shchebetkovskiy. 

Geokhimiya, No 12, p 1466-1472, December 1971. 
5 fig, 4 tab, Href. 

Descriptors: 'Geochemistry, 'Sediments, 'Sea 
water, 'Radioisotopes, 'Cesium, Mud, Clays, Par- 
ticle size, Sorption, Absorption, Equilibrium, Dis- 
tribution patterns. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Cerium, 'Thorium, 'Ooze, 
Diatom ooze, Sorbents, Desorption, Pelagic, 
Foraminifera. 

The sorption of Cs-137, Ce-144, and Th-234 by red 
deep-sea clay, sediments from icebergs, 
foraminiferal oozes, and diatom oozes was ex- 
amined during changes in the specific concentra- 
tion of sediments in sea water. Sorption series re- 
late capacity of sediments to extract Cs-137 and 
Ce-144 fro the different oozes and clay. A study 
was made of sea- water desorption of CS-137 and 
CE-144 from sediments, and an empirical relation- 
ship was obtained between the percentage of 
desorption and water volume for Cs-137. Cesium- 
137 is distributed between sea water and sediments 
as a homogeneous sorbate. The pattern of Ce-144 
and The-234 distribution between sea water and 
sediments reflects the presence of several ionic 
and complexed forms of these isotopes in sea 
water. For Ce-144, at least one of the forms is not 
absorbed by sediments. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07750 



PRODUCING FREE OXYGEN IN SUBSURFACE 

HYDROSPHERE BY MEANS OF RADIATION, 

(RADIOLIZ VODY KAK ISTOCHNIK SVOBOD- 

NOGO KISLORODA V PODZEMNOY 

GIDROSFERE), 

Akademiya Nauk USSR, Lvov. Inst, of Geology 

and Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels. 

L. K. Gutsalo. 

Geokhimiya, No 12, p 1473-1481, December 1971. 

2 fig, 2 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Geochemistry, 'Oxygen, 'Chemical 
degradation, 'Radiation, 'Radioactivity, At- 
mosphere, Brines, Calcium chloride, Aqueous 
solutions. Freshwater, Groundwater, Aquifers, 
Organic compounds, Organic matter, Oxidation, 
Solubility, Natural resources. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Ukraine, 'Dnieper River, 
'Donets River, 'Radiolysis, Hydrosphere, Radi- 
um, Mineralization. 



Data collected from the Dnieper-Donets basin in 
the Eastern Ukraine confirm the presence of free 
oxygen in underground calcium chloride brines 
with a mineralization of 100-250 g/liter at depths of 
2,000-3,000 m or more near oil and gas deposits. 
Oxygen concentration considerably exceeds that 
which is dissolved from the atmosphere. Correla- 
tion of the oxygen/radium relation in underground 
brines suggests an in situ formation of free oxygen 
in groundwater by radiolytic decomposition of 
water. The amount of oxygen which can be formed 
in groundwater by the ionizing radiation of 
radioactive elements is enormous in terms of 
geologic time. Most of the oxygen formed in 
groundwater during radiolysis of water oxidizes 
organic substances and hydrocarbon accumula- 
tions. It may be assumed that radiolysis of water in 
the earth's crust is of a global character. (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W72-07751 



WATER QUALITY AT SELECTED LOCATIONS 
IN THE SAN ANTONIO AREA, TEXAS- 
--PROGRESS REPORT, 1972, 

Geological Survey, San Antonio, Tex. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05 A. 

W72-07755 



2L. Estuaries 



MIGRATION OF TIDAL SAND WAVES IN 
CHESAPEAKE BAY ENTRANCE, 

Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. Inst, of 
Oceanography. 
J. C. Ludwick. 

Available from NTIS Springfield, Va. 22151, AD- 
724 701, Price $3.00, Paper copy; 95 cents, 
microfiche. Technical Report No. 2, November 
15, 1971. 89 p, 14 fig, 4 tab, 60 ref. Task No NR 
388-098, ONR Contract N00014-70-C-0083. 

Descriptors: 'Sand waves, 'Shoals, 'Chesapeake 
Bay, Estuaries, Inlets (Waterways), Ripple marks, 
Geomorphology, Shallow water, Tides, Sediment 
transport, Water circulation, Currents (Water). 
Identifiers: Tidal sand waves. 

Subtidal sand waves occur atop shoals and on 
shoal margins in the northern part of the tidal en- 
trance to Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Wave length 
ranges from 200-800 ft; height ranges from 5-11 ft. 
In flood-dominated tidal channels, sand waves are 
asymmetrical and face landwards; in ebb- 
dominated tidal channels and atop most banks, 
sand waves face seawards. Where near-bottom 
flood and ebb tidal currents are equal in time- 
velocity impulse, sand waves of symmetrical- 
trochiodal profile are developed. The seaward-fac- 
ing asymmetrical sand waves are migrating 
seaward. Rates of migration of these waves range 
from 115 to 492 ft/year. Symmetrical sand waves 
did not show significant migration. Sand wave 
height changes seasonally, trochiodal waves ex- 
periencing a two-fold height change. Small heights 
occur from October to late April when surface 
water waves are frequently higher than 5 ft; large 
sand wave heights occur from May to September, 
particularly when surface water waves are lower 
than 5 ft in height. Sand-wave pattern is suggestive 
of sand circulation within shoal areas. The circula- 
tion mechanism would explain how the shoals 
maintain their positions in face of strong tidal cur- 
rents and heavy wave action. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07285 



SOUTHERN BRITISH HONDURAS: 

LAGOONAL COCCOLITH OOZE, 

Cities Service Oil Co., Tulsa, Okla. Exploration 

and Production Research. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07305 



23 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2L — Estuaries 



MINERALOGY AND SEDIMENTATION HISTO- 
RY, SANTA BARBARA BASIN, CALDJORNIA, 

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. 

Dept. of Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07308 



GRAIN ACCRETION AND RELATED 
PHENOMENA IN UNCONSOLIDATED SUR- 
FACE SEDIMENTS OF THE FLORIDA REEF 
TRACT, 

Texas Univ., Austin. Dept. of Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07310 



SKEWNESS AND KURTOSIS IN POLYMODAL 
SEDIMENTS FROM THE IRISH SEA, 
Institute of Geological Sciences, London (En- 
gland). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
W72-07311 



MARINE DIAGENESIS OF CARBONATE SEDI- 
MENT, BONAIRE, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES, 

Rutgers - The State Univ., New Brunswick, N. J. 

Dept. of Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07312 



MINERALOGY, PETROGRAPHY AND 

DERIVATION OF SANDS AND SILTS OF THE 
CONTINENTAL SLOPE, RISE AND ABYSSAL 
PLAIN OF THE GULF OF MEXICO, 

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Dept. of Geology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07315 



CLAY MINERALOGY OF HOLOCENE AND 
PLEISTOCENE SEDIMENTS, GUADALUPE 
DELTA OF TEXAS, 

West Virginia Univ., Morgantown. Dept. of 

Geology. 

R. A. Morton. 

Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, Vol 42, No 1, p 

85-88, March 1972. 2 fig, 2 tab, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: *Clay minerals, *Deltas, "Texas, D- 
lite, Kaolinite, Provenance, Mineralogy, Diagene- 
sis, X-ray diffraction. 
Identifiers: "Guadalupe Delta (Texas), Smectite. 

Smectite, illite, and kaolinite are the predominant 
clay minerals in sediments from the Guadalupe 
Delta and San Antonio Bay, Texas, with smectite 
the most abundant. The clay minerals of the area 
studied are indicators of clay minerals in the 
source area because they are the same for both 
Pleistocene and Holocene sediments, they are not 
related to changes in depth, they are not signifi- 
cantly different for fresh water and brackish en- 
vironments, and they are essentially the same as 
those in the source area. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07319 



PLANKTON STUDIES IN A CARIBBEAN 
ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT, 

University of the West Indies, St. Augustine 

(Trinidad). Dept. of Biological Sciences. 

Peter R. Bacon. 

Caribbean Journal of Science 1 1 (1/2): 81-89. 1971. 

Ulus. 

Descriptors: *Estuarine environment, "Plankton, 
"Diatoms, "Copepods, "Nutrients, Crabs, Gas- 
tropods, Swamps. 

Identifiers: Barnacle, Caribbean, Chaetognaths, 
Polychaete, "Trinidad. 

Plankton populations in estuaries of the Caroni 
mangrove swamp, Trinidad, were studied from 
1965 to 1967. The majority of diatoms and 
copepods were species recorded from other low 
salinity Neotropical areas. Barnacle, polychaete. 



gastropod and crab larvae occurred during most of 
the year, while chaetognaths, larvaceans and 
medusae were more common in the dry season. 
There was little variation in numbers or species 
composition during wet and dry seasons, despite 
variations in river discharge, salinity and nutrient 
content. This is attributed to the relatively high 
nutrient levels and to acclimation to changing 
salinity exhibited by different generations of 
planktonic larvae and adults. -Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07326 



TOLERANCE TO SALINITY IN SOME MARINE 
AND FRESHWATER CERCARIAE, 

Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). 

Inst, of Experimental Biology. 

Ewa Styczynska-Jurewicz. 

Acta Parasitol Pol. 19(19-28): 257-268. 1971. Ulus. 

Identifiers: Cercariae, Marine, Salinity, 

Tolerance. 

The life span and behavior of cercariae of 3 marine 
species from an Atlantic tidal region and a fresh- 
water species in relation to the environment salini- 
ty were studied experimentally. Cercariae from 
brackish waters survived a very wide range of 
salinity (6-90%). Freshwater species showed full 
tolerance up to 18%. The role of osmosis in the 
process of encystment in freshwater cercariae is 
discussed.— Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07399 



THE INFLUENCE OF BED MATERIAL SIZE 
ON THE TIDAL PRISM-AREA RELATIONSHIP 
IN A TDDAL INLET, 

California Univ., Berkeley. Coll. of Engineering. 

R. C. Delmonte, and J. W. Johnson. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va 22151 as 

AD-733 282, Price $3.00 paper copy; $0.95 

microfiche. Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory 

Report HEL 24-8, August 1971. 13 p, 6 fig, 2 tab, 5 

ref. 

Descriptors: "Inlets (Waterways), "Scour, "Parti- 
cle size, "Roughness (Hydraulic), "Coastal en- 
gineering. Sediment transport. Harbors. Jetties, 
Bed load, Sand waves, Channels, Tides, Tidal ef- 
fects, Hydraulic models, Model studies. 

To evaluate the effect of grain size on the tidal 
prism-area of tidal inlets, laboratory tests with a 
model jettied entrance were made with median 
sand sizes of 0.30 mm and 0.52 mm. Experiments 
were made with four ebb flow rates, with and 
without waves. With the fine sand the P/A (tidal 
prism/throat area) vs P curve was 10% lower than 
for the coarse sand. The general effect of wave ac- 
tion is to reduce the throat area compared to 
identical test conditions without wave action, 
thereby giving higher P/A values with waves than 
without waves. The effect of waves was more 
noticeable with the coarse sand than with the fine 
sand. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07464 



MEMORANDUM REGARDING JAMES B. 
EADS' CONTRIBUTION TO THE DESIGN OF 
TIDAL INLETS, 

California Univ., Berkeley. Coll. of Engineering. 
M. P. O'Brien. 

Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va 22151 as 
AD-733 281, Price $3.00 paper copy; $0.95 in 
microfiche. Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory 
Report HEL 24-6, July 1971. 28 p, 1 append. 

Descriptors: "Jetties, "Coastal engineering, 
"Reviews, "Florida, Harbors, Channels, Tides, 
Tidal effects. Coastal structures, Inlets (Water- 
ways). 

Identifiers: "St. Johns River (Fla), "Eads (James 
B.). 

The report of James B. Eads in 1878 on the design 
of the jetty system at the mouth of the St. Johns 



River, Florida, appears to have been overlooked in 
the literature over the years. The original report 
and an appraisal by Dean M. P. O'Brien of Eads' 
reasoning in the light of more recent considera- 
tions on inlet design are presented, because of the 
value of the Eads report to the Coastal Engineer- 
ing Research Center, U.S. Army Corps of En- 
gineers. These observations and conclusions, writ- 
ten almost a century ago, are today a valid guide 
for the design of an inlet improvement. Eads pre- 
dicted that the tidal range at Jacksonville would be 
increased by the construction of jetties. In 1878 
the mean range at Jacksonville, corresponding to a 
mean range at the entrance of 5.4 ft, was 0.9 ft; 
today the range at Jacksonville is 1 .2 ft on a mean 
range of tide and 1 .4 ft on a spring range. Eads pre- 
dicted that a spacing of 1 ,700 feet between jetties 
would lead to an average depth of 20 ft at MSL, or 
a flow area of 34,000 sq ft without dredging; the 
channel today, with a project cross section of 
52,000 sq ft and a depth of 41 ft requires main- 
tenance dredging. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07467 



CHEMICAL CHANGES, INCLUDING NITRATE 
REDUCTION IN DARWIN BAY, GALAPAGOS 
ARCHD7ELAGO, OVER A 2-MONTH PERIOD, 
1969, 

Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept. of Ocenaog- 

raphy. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07494 



NITROGEN FIXATION IN AN ESTUARINE EN- 
VIRONMENT: THE WACCASASSA ON THE 
FLORIDA GULF COAST, 

Florida Univ., Gainesville. Dept. of Environmen- 
tal Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07495 



RESONANCE OF UNBOUNDED WATER 
BODIES, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Mathematics. 
R. E. Meyer. 

Reprint from Mathematical Problems in the 
Geophysical Sciences, AMS, Vol. 13, 1971, p 189- 
227. 21 fig, 25 ref. OWRR A-037-WIS (3). 

Descriptors: "Ocean waves, Oceans, "Shores, 
Structures, "Coriolis force, "Resonance, "Mathe- 
matical studies. 

Identifiers: "Long waves, "Transitional zone, 
"Wave resonance, "Tidal theory, Trapped wave. 
Seabed slope, Spectral theory, Eigenfunctions, 
Kelvin waves, Double-Kelvin waves. 

Developments of the mathematical theory of wave 
resonance in unbounded water bodies are 
reviewed. Based on these developments, a study 
was made of the resonance of water waves based 
on the long wave equations of tidal theory. This 
was extended to the concept of trapped waves, 
which include waves that are oscillatory only in a 
bounded region and are damped outside the re- 
gion. When the theory is applied to oceans under 
the effects of the earth's rotation (Coriolis forces) 
some conditions for the trapping of waves can be 
obtained. A second study was devoted to defining 
the effects of oceanographic resonance waves 
under the conditions of small seabed slopes. An 
asymptotic theory based on the fundamental un- 
steady, incompressible, inviscid, linearized 
hydrodynamical equations makes it possible to in- 
vestigate the spectrum of wave motion in an 
ocean. Results developed from the equations in- 
dicate that the influence of the seabed on the wave 
resonance in unbounded water bodies is a three- 
dimensional effect. Because the theory discussed 
for these conditions is heuristic, experimental or 
field observations are urgently needed to test the 
application of the theory. (Shih- Wisconsin) 
W72-07524 



24 



WATER CYCLE— Field 02 
Estuaries — Group 2L 



CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF 
THE INTERSTITIAL FAUNA IN PORTUGAL 
(IN PORTUGEESE), 

Institute) de Zoologia e Estacao de Zoologia 
Maritima 'Dr. Augusto Nobre', Porto (Portugal). 
Maria Helena Galhano. 

Publ Inst Zool Dr Augusto Nobre Fac Cienc Porto. 
110. 9-206. 1970. Illus. Maps. English summary. 
Identifiers: Crustaceans, Fauna, Interstitial, Por- 
tugal, Salinity. 

A comparative study was made of the qualitative 
and quantitative mesopsamon, particularly 
crustaceans, along the Francelos shore, Carbedelo 
and Areinho de Valbom estuaries. The largest 
number of species found were in the seashore 
(Carbedelo) area which is most probably due to the 
salinity factor. Fauna! density was seasonal, being 
maximum during the summer and least during the 
autumn. -Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07555 



EFFECTS OF PROPOSED ELIZABETH RIVER 
DIKE ON THJES, CURRENTS, SALINITIES, 
AND SHOALING, 

Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 

Vicksburg, Miss. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 

W72-07582 



CONTINENTAL TERRACE AND DEEP PLAIN 
OFFSHORE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA, 

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs., 

Miami, Fla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07590 



THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CONDI- 
TIONS OF CHESAPEAKE BAY; AN EVALUA- 
TION, 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. Chesapeake 

Bay Inst. 

J. R. Schubel. 

Chesapeake Bay Institute Special Report 21, 

Reference 72-1, January 1972. 73 p, 24 fig, 1 tab, 

34 ref . 

Descriptors: *Hydrologic data, *Estuaries, *Bays, 
•Chesapeake Bay, *Water properties. Water tem- 
perature, Salinity, Dissolved oxygen, Nutrients, 
Sedimentation, Ecology, Heavy metals. Data col- 
lections. Evaluation, Reviews. 

An assessment of the physical and chemical condi- 
tions of the Chesapeake Bay estuarine system in- 
dicated that (1) there are marked natural spatial 
and temporal variations of temperature, but the 
present inputs of heated waters from powerplants 
do not pose a threat to the Bay; (2) there are large 
natural spatial and temporal variations of salinity, 
and man has had almost no effect on the salinity 
distribution; (3) man's activities have increased 
the frequency, duration, and extent of low oxygen 
zones in the upper reaches of a number of the 
tributaries; (4) man's activities have resulted in 
large inputs of nutrients which have produced un- 
desirable conditions in a number of the tributaries, 
but the nutrient levels in the main body of the Bay 
are at an acceptable level; (5) the Bay is being 
rapidly filled with sediment, and the fine-grained 
sediments have a number of deleterious indirect 
effects on the ecology of the Bay; and (6) there are 
large natural variations in the distributions of 
heavy metals. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07597 



A BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE 
REMOVAL OF SILICATE FROM SEA WATER, 

University of East Anglia, Norwich (England). 

School of Environmental Sciences. 

P. S. Liss, and C. P. Spencer. 

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 34, No. 

10, p 1073-1088, 7 fig, 4 tab, 18 ref, 1970. 



Descriptors: "Water chemistry, "Estuaries, "Sil- 
icates, "Adsorption, "Salinity, Chemical reac- 
tions, Sorption, Analytical techniques, Laboratory 
tests, Electrolytes, Saline water, Sediments, Mix- 
ing, Saline water-freshwater interfaces. 
Identifiers: "River Conway (Wales). 

There is evidence of rapid removal of between 
10% and 20% of the reactive silicate from solution 
in River Conway (Wales) water as it passes 
through the estuarine portion of the river. This 
removal is dependent on the presence of particu- 
late inorganic material in suspension. In the Con- 
way Estuary the particulate material in suspension 
is produced by tidal stirring of the estuarine bot- 
tom deposits. Laboratory experiments have con- 
firmed that both suspended matter and seawater 
electrolytes must be present for the reaction to oc- 
cur. The sorption process is only partially a classi- 
cal adsorption. A large proportion of the sorbed 
silicate is bound to the solid phase. (Woodard- 
USGS) 
W72-07600 



REGIONAL PLANNING AND THE CHES- 
APEAKE BAY ENVIRONMENT: AN ECOLOGI- 
CAL APPROACH, 

Maryland Univ., Prince Frederick. Hallowing 

Point Field Station. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 

W72-07617 



MARINE RESOURCES SPECTROMETER EX- 
PERIMENT, 

TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, Calif. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07649 



COMPOSITION OF PHYTOPLANKTON OFF 
THE SOUTHEASTERN COAST OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 

Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07663 



THERMAL TOLERANCE OF TEN SHALLOW- 
-WATER OPHDUROIDS IN BISCAYNE BAY, 
FLORIDA, 

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric 

Sciences, Miami, Fla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07694 



THE FRESHWATER CRABS OF EUROPE, 
ASIA, AND AUSTRALIA AND THEIR 
PHYLOGENY: A REVISION OF THE POTA- 
MOIDEA AND OF THE 

PARATHELPHUSOIDEA (CRUSTACEA, 

DECAPODA), 

Natur-Museum und Forschungs-Institut Sencken- 
berg, Frankfurt am Main (West Germany). 
Richard Bott. 

Abh Senckenberg Naturforsch Ges. 526: 1-338. 
1970. Illus. Map. 

Identifiers: Asia, Australia, Colonization, Com- 
binations, Crabs, Crustacea, Decapoda, Distribu- 
tion, Europe, Fresh, Genus, Gubematoriana, In- 
glethelphusa. Keys, Land, New, 

Parathelphusoidea, Phylogeny, Potamiscinae, 
Potamoidea, Revision, Species, Subfamily, Sub- 
species, Tiwaripotamon. 

The methods of the investigation are explained. 
Present-day geographical distribution is discussed, 
with data on the distribution of individual species 
and subspecies. There are also sections on the 
geomorphological prerequisites for the coloniza- 
tion of the land by freshwater crabs, and the 
progressive steps of colonization. In the syste- 
matic part, keys are provided, with full treatment 
including references, diagnoses, data on distribu- 
tion, material examined, measurements, and other 
remarks, for about 115 spp. and sspp., including 
descriptions of INGLETHELPHUSA (Geocar- 



cinucinae) with type I. fronto (Paratelphusa fronto 
Alcock), GUBERNATORIANA (Liotelphusinae) 
with type G. gubernatoria (Paratelphusa g. Al- 
cock), Perithelphusa rouxi (Central Borneo), 
Archipelothelphusa sutteri (Philippines), Mainitia 
nieuwenhuisi (Borneo), Balssiathelphusa natu- 
naensis (Natuna Island, between Malaya and Bor- 
neo), Parathelphusa (Parathelphusa) bogorensis 
(Java), P. (Mesotelphusa) lombokensis (Lombok), 
TIWARIPOTAMON (Potaminae) with type T. an- 
namense (Geotelphusa annaemensis Balss), T. 
beusekomae (Thailand), POTAMISCINAE in 
Potamidae based on Potamuscus Alcock, and Ran- 
guna (Ranguna) luangprabangensis phuluangensis 
(Thailand). --Copyright 1971, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07716 



STUDIES ON THE BRACKISH WATERS IN 
THE VICINITY OF LILLOO: IU. SOME 
ETHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN RELA- 
TION TO THE WORKS OF W. CONRAD ON 
THE BRACKISH WATERS OF LILLOO, 
H. Kufferath. 

Inst Roy Sci Natur Belg Mem Deuxieme Ser. 163. 
1-39. 1970. Illus. 

Identifiers: Belgium, Brackish, Ceratium-hiru- 
dinella, Conrad, Ethological, Eudorina-elegans, 
Gonium-pectorale, Lilloo, Pandorina-morum, 
Peridinium-cinctum, Phacus-longicauda, Phacus- 
pleuronectes, Relation, Vicinity, Volvox-globator. 

This is a general discussion of some problems of 
organisms of brackish water. The characteristics 
of this type of environment are given as are some 
variations when brackish water is contiguous to 
fresh and/or salt water. The work by W. Conrad 
was written in 1941. Some organisms discussed are 
Phacus longicauda, Phacus pleuronectes, Peridini- 
um cinctum, Ceratium hirundinella, Pandorina 
morum, Eudorina elegans, Volvox globator, and 
Gonium pectorale. -Copyright 1971, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07730 



HOLKHAM SALTS HOLE, AN ISOLATED 
SALT-WATER POND WITH RELICT FEA- 
TURES: AN ACCOUNT BASED ON STUDIES 
BY THE LATE C. F. A. PANTIN, 

Marine Biological Association of the United King- 
dom, Plymouth (England). Lab. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03C. 

W72-07795 



RADIOISOTOPE TRACER TECHNIQUES IN 

THE INVESTIGATION OF DISPERSION OF 

SEWAGE AND DISAPPEARANCE RATE OF 

ENTERIC ORGANISMS IN COASTAL 

WATERS, 

Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq 

Nuclear Research Centre. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07803 



ON THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF NORTH 
CAROLINA COASTAL PROBLEMS, 

North Carolina Attorney Generals Office, Raleigh. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07847 



WEST V. BAUMGARTNER (IMPLIED RIGHTS 
IN CONVEYANCE OF TIDELANDS). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07853 



DRUM INLET, NORTH CAROLINA (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Wilmington, N.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 

W72-07857 



25 



Field 02— WATER CYCLE 
Group 2L — Estuaries 



INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE DELIMITA- 
TION OF BAYS, 

Virginia Univ., Charlottesville. School of Law. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07867 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW-PRESERVATION OF 
THE ESTUARINE ZONE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07868 



ESTUARINE POLLUTION: THE DETERIORA- 
TION OF THE OYSTER INDUSTRY IN NORTH 
CAROLINA, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W72-07869 



COASTAL LAND USE DEVELOPMENT: A 
PROPOSAL FOR CUMULATIVE AREA-WU)E 
ZONING, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07872 

03. WATER SUPPLY 
AUGMENTATION 
AND CONSERVATION 

3A. Saline Water Conversion 



PARTIAL DEMINERALIZATION OF 

BRACKISH WATERS BY ION EXCHANGE, 

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 
W72-07336 



METHOD OF DISTILLING FRESH WATER 
FROM SEA WATER, 

E. E. Huhta-Koivisto, and R. V. J. Saari. 
U. S. Patent No. 3,630,854, 4 p, 3 fig, 11 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 893, No. 4, p 1457, December 28, 1971. 

Descriptors: *Patents, Distillation, Desalination, 
•Desalination processes, Evaporators, •Conden- 
sation, Separation techniques, Water treatment. 
Equipment, 'Evaporation, Sea water, Potable 
water. 

Sea water is fed through a column to degassers at 
different levels. The non-condensable gases 
released in the degassers are removed and the 
warm water is raised further through the column to 
evaporators. In the evaporators, gradually 
decreasing pressures corresponding to the 
gradually decreasing partial pressure of the water 
vapor are maintained. The waste water from the 
last evaporator is returned to the sea downwards 
through another column and the vapors from each 
evaporator are conducted downwards separately 
to a corresponding condenser operated by the in- 
direct heat exchange using a continuous stream of 
cold sea water. Residual non-condensable gases 
released by vaporization are removed from the 
condensers and the fresh water is collected. (Sin- 
ha-OEIS) 
W72-07366 



METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DESALINIZA- 
TION OF WATER, 

Ling Services. (Assignee). 
Robert E. Petsinger. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,630,042, 3 p, 2 fig, 1 1 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 893, No. 4, p 1256, December 28, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, Desalination, 'Desalination 
processes, Sea water, Potable water, 'Freezing, 
Heat exchangers, Separation techniques, Water 
treatment, 'Water purification, Equipment. 
Identifiers: 'Liquified natural gas. 



Liquified natural gas is used as a source of 
refrigeration and as a fuel for power and heat. Salt 
water is frozen on heat exchangers through which 
LNG is pumped. Water of a lower salt concentra- 
tion freezes on the plates and is separated from the 
remaining liquid. The resultant brine is removed. 
The frozen water is melted and pumped to the next 
successive stage until purified water is obtained. 
(Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07368 



RECDRCULATTNG MULTISTAGE FLASH 
EVAPORATION SYSTEM AND METHOD, 

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. (As- 
signee). 

Frank Cristiano, Jr., and Roland L. Coit. 
U. S. Patent No. 3,507,754, 4 p, 2 fig, 10 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 873, No. 3, p 880, April 21 , 1970. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Flash distillation, Sea- 
water, Potable water, 'Deaeration, 'Evaporation, 
Evaporators, Distillation, Separation techniques, 
Equipment, Water treatment, Water purification. 

Sea water is treated with a chemical additive, then 
directed to a deaerating vessel for initial deaera- 
tion of its non-condensible gases. It is sub- 
sequently admitted to the last and lowest pressure 
flash chamber for additional deaeration. Enriched 
brine is withdrawn from a preceding flash 
chamber. The remaining brine that reaches the last 
chamber is mixed with the deaerated and treated 
sea water and the entire mixture is recirculated. 
The enriched brine resulting from staged evapora- 
tion is partially removed from a higher pressure 
stage, stripped of its vapor and directed to waste. 
The chemical additive will minimize scaling and 
corrosion of equipment. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07371 



WATER DISTILLATION PLANT, 

Weir (G. and J.) Ltd., Glasgow (Scotland). (As- 
signee). 

Forrest Thomson Randell. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,505,173, 2 p, 1 fig, 10 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 873, No. 1, p 209, April 7, 1970. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Distillation, 'Evapora- 
tion, 'Condensation, Desalination, Separation 
techniques, Evaporators, 'Desalination ap- 
paratus, Water treatment, Condensers, 'Desalina- 
tion plants, Treatment facilities, Equipment. 

The plant consists of an evaporation section which 
contains a conduit for throughflow of heating fluid 
for evaporation of the liquid to be distilled. It also 
has a condensing section with a conduit for cooling 
fluid to condense the vapor. There is an air ejector 
for creating a vacuum within the sections, and 
there is an outlet from the evaporation section for 
the excess of liquid to be distilled. During opera- 
tion the pressure in the condensing section is less 
than within the evaporation section. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07373 



SEA WATER DISTILLATION-CONDENSATION 
UTILIZING PRIMARY AND SECONDARY 
EVAPORATORS AND JET EJECTOR, 

Harlow B. Grow. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,505,171, 6 p, 7 fig, 14 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 873, No. 1, p 209, April 7, 1970. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, Distillation, Desalination, 
'Condensation, Heat exchangers, 'Evaporation, 
'Water purification, Potable water, 'Desalination 
apparatus, Equipment, Sea water, Evaporators, 
'Vapor compression distillation. 

Following primary evaporation of impure water in 
a closed vessel which exposes a water surface to 
subatmospheric pressure, the enriched water un- 
dergoes a secondary evaporation. A jet ejector is 
used. Finally vapor compression condensation is 
used to produce potable water. Sea water is 



pumped through water cooling jackets of the ener- 
gy coupling step and admitted by a float to the pri- 
mary step of vaporization. Pumps can be used to 
create fluid pressures for generating fog in the 
secondary evaporation. These are also used to 
transport coolant from the condensor and through 
the heat exchangers. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07374 



MASS TRANSFER IN LAMINAR AND TURBU- 
LENT HYPERFTLTRATION SYSTEMS, 

Clarkson Coll. of Technology, Potsdam, N.Y. 
W. N. Gill, L. J. Derzansky, and M. R. Doshi. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 20402 Price Sl.OO.Office of Saline Water 
Research and Development Progress Report No. 
403, February 1969, 88 p, 4 tab, 63 ref. OSW Con- 
tract 14-00-0001-976. 

Descriptors: 'Desalination, 'Membranes, *R- 
everse osmosis, 'Laminar flow, 'Turbulent flow, 
'Boundary layers, Membrane processes, Diffu- 
sion. 
Identifiers: 'Hyperfiltration. 

The governing differential equations and boundary 
conditions from which the individual membrane 
separtation problems may be generated by specifi- 
cation of pertinent operating conditions and 
parameters are formulated and the behavior and 
significant features of the solution of these 
problems are discussed. Important characteristics 
of the analyses of the laminar flow systems are (1) 
The analysis of linearized problems, wherein the 
product water flux is assumed to be known in ad- 
vance and constant along the wall is useful 
primarily to demonstrate the existence and ap- 
proximate magnitude of concentration polariza- 
tion for a prescribed fraction of water removed. (2) 
The analysis of nonlinear systems is useful in pre- 
dicting local effects, such as concentration and 
flux distributions, once the system operating pres- 
sure, brine flow rate, and membrane parameters 
are specified. The method of solution is described 
for determining concentration polarization in 
fully-developed turbulent flows in tubular and 
parallel plate conduits in which the permeation 
velocity remains constant. The asymptotic values 
of concentration polarization and Sherwood 
number may be applied to nearly the entire conduit 
length for turbulent flow high Schmidt number 
hyperfiltration systems. As membranes become 
more productive the inlet region assumes a more 
significant role. The present analysis is not ap- 
plicable for large distances from the inlet where 
the fraction of feed removed is large enough to 
change significantly the Reynolds number and 
hence the eddy diffusivity. (OSW) 
W72-07571 



MSF FLASH ENHANCER STUDY, 

Aqua-Chem Inc., Waukesha, Wis. 
A. Steinbruchel. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 20402, Price $0.50. Office of Saline Water 
Research and Development Progress Report no 
749, Sept. 1971, 41 p, 20 fig. OSW Contract 14-01- 
0001-2184. 

Descriptors: 'Desalination plants, Distillation, 
•Flash distillation, 'Evaporators, 'Economic effi- 
ciency. 

Identifiers: 'Flash enchancers, Multi-stage flash 
distillation, Flash evaporators. 

The use of flash enhancers in a multi stage flash 
plant to reduce nonequilbrium in the flashing brine 
was studied. A review of all past data was made 
and several configuration of flash enhancers 
tested at the OSW Wrightsville Beach Test Facili- 
ty. The best enhancer was then fabricated for fu- 
ture testing in the MSF module at San Diego, 
California. A method was derived for predicting 
the economic benefits of using flash enhancers. 
(OSW) 
W72-07572 



26 



WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION— Field 03 

Saline Water Conversion — Group 3A 



THIRD REPORT ON HORIZONTAL-TUBE 
MULTIPLE-EFFECT PROCESS PILOT PLANT 
TESTS, 

Universal Desalting Corp., New York. 

G. A. Matta, J. Z. Karpf , A. S. Pascale, and J. A. 

Cardello. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. 

C. 20402, Price $2.25. Office of Saline Water 

Research and Development Progress Report no. 

740, October 1971, 102 p, 27 fig, 1 tab, 6 ref. OSW 

Contract No. 14-01-001-2247. 

Descriptors: Corrosion, Elastomers, 'Evapora- 
tors, Fabrication, Flow, "Heat transfer, Evapora- 
tion, Operating costs, Pilot plants. 
Identifiers: Experimental data. Enhanced heat 
transfer surface, *Heat transfer improvements, 
•Horizontal tubes, 'Multiple effect distillation, 
Pressure drop, Two phase flow. 

A three-effect pilot plant was constructed at 
Wrightsville Beach and operated to investigate ad- 
ditional design factors that could not be obtained 
from the original single-effect piolot plant. Testing 
of the three-effect pilot plant demonstrated multi- 
ple-effect operability of the horizontal tube 
method when utilizizing basically the same con- 
struction methods and materials as those proposed 
for commercial HTME plants. The three-effect 
pilot plant, after operating almost continuously for 
nine months, was shut down and dismantled suffi- 
ciently so that each piece of equipment could be 
examined to determine its corrosion resistance. 
Design factors were determined for the pressure 
drop through the tubes of the vapor condensing in- 
side the effect tubes, the pressure drop through 
the transfer pipes of the vapor that flows from ef- 
fect to effect, and the design of seal loops and flow 
restrictors for the two-phase flow of condensate 
and brine from effect to effect. The testing of the 
three-effect pilot plant determined the heat 
transfer performance of tubes of various lengths, 
diameters, and materials, and compared this per- 
formance with that previously obtained from the 
old single-effect unit. (OSW) 
W72-07573 



A STUDY OF STABILIZED SPINEL FILMS FOR 
THE PROTECTION OF MILD STEEL, 

Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
N. Michael, D. W. Lewis, D. E. Sestrich, and H. 
E. Ricks. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 20402, Price $0.25. Office of Saline Water 
Research and Development Progress Report No 
275, Aug. 1967. 29 p, 13 fig, 5 tab, 1 ref. 14-01-001- 
1126. 

Descriptors: 'Corrosion control. 'Calcium sulfate 
scale, 'Corrosion tests, 'Pitting, 'Spinel coatings, 
'Steels (Plain-carbon). 
Identifiers: Corrosion rates, Inorganic coatings. 

Spinel coatings of lithiated iron oxide and iron- 
chromium oxides on mild carbon steel specimens 
were evaluated in flowing synthetic seawater at 
velocities from 0.2 to 10 ft/sec and at temperatures 
between 180 and 275 F. Coatings were prepared by 
two methods (I) exposure of steel specimens to 
high temperature aqueous salt solutions and (2) 
treatment of specimens with molten salts. Coating 
compositions were established by x-ray and spec- 
trographic analyses. Lithiated iron oxide coated 
specimens underwent frequent and sometimes 
severe pitting attack presumably due to discon- 
tinuities in the coating. Uncoated and iron-chromi- 
um oxide coatings did not exhibit this type of at- 
tack. The iron-chromium oxide coating, however, 
did not significantly minimize the general corro- 
sion of steel under any of the conditions tested. It 
was concluded that films of the evaluated spinel 
types did not offer a suitable, continuously imper- 
vious, and adherent barrier layer for protecting 
steel from seawater attack. During experimenta- 
tion with synthetic seawater it was observed that 
calcium sulfate deposited on specimens at 275 F. 
Under turbulent conditions (8-10 ft/sec), the 



deposits formed a costing which reduced the cor- 
rosion rate of the underlying steel. At 0.2 ft/sec. 
the calcium sulfate formed as clusters of discrete 
crystals which did not noticeable affect the corro- 
sion rate. (OSW) 
W72-07574 



EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM TO IMPROVE 
THE VTE DISTILLATION PROCESS, 

Houston Research Inst., Inc., Tex. 
L. C. Elliott, C. V. Grana, and A. E. Dukler. 
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 20402, Price $2.00, Office of Saline Water 
Research and Development Progress Report no 
487, Sept. 1969, 76 p, 56 fig, 8 tab, 12 ref. OSW 
Contract 14-01-001-682. 

Descriptors: 'Heat transfer, 'Condensers, 'Distil- 
lation, 'Evaporators, Non-condensable removal, 
Falling film evaporation, Entrainment, Mass 
transfer. 

Identifiers: 'Verticle tube evaporators, 'Pressure 
drop, 'Enhanced tubing. 

Heat transfer, pressure drop and entrainment were 
measured on a single tube vertical evaporator in 
downflow operation. Fluted tubes of 3 in. and 2 in. 
diameter by 10 ft. in length were tested. The effect 
of liquid flowrate, salinity, temperature and air in 
condensing steam were studied. Liquid flowrate 
had little effect on pressure drop. A tentative cor- 
relation of the pressure drop data based on total 
water vaporized and steam density was developed 
for both the 2 and 3 in. diameter tubes. Both the 
condensing film and vaporizing film heat transfer 
coefficients show a trend for an increase with an 
increase in temperature. The condensing coeffi- 
cient is 3 to 5 times higher than the evaporating 
coefficients. Sea water gives higher evaporating 
coefficients than fresh water. Brine with a concen- 
tration factor of 2.5 to 3.2 gives lower evaporating 
coefficients than fresh water. The Colburn-Hou- 
gen method successfully predicts the effect on 
heat transfer of air in condensing steam. Some im- 
provement in the heat transfer coefficient is ob- 
tained at a 500 lb/hr flowrate in the 3 in. fluted tube 
with inserts in the middle of the tube. (OSW) 
W72-07575 



CONDENSATION OF REFRIGERANT VAPORS 
IN A GRAVITY-DRAINED ICE BED, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge, Dept. of 

Chemical Engineering. 

K. A. Smith, A. F. Sarofim, and G. Margolis. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 

D.C. 20402, Price $0.55. Office of Saline Water 

Research and Development Progress Report No. 

621. December 1970, 52 p, 36 ref. OSW Contract 

14-01-0001-1719. 

Descriptors: 'Desalination plants, 'Freezing, 
'Ice, 'Heat transfer, 'Condensation, 'Melting. 
Identifiers: 'Melter-Condensers, 'Ice crystalliza- 
tion. Gravity-drained ice beds. 

The melter-condenser is one of the five main items 
of equipment (crystallizer, washer, melter-con- 
denser, compressor, and heat exchange system) 
and thus represents an important part of the in- 
stalled cost for a freeze desalination plant. The ob- 
jective of this investigation was to study the 
overall rate of heat transfer attainable in a gravity- 
drained melter-condenser utilizing water vapor 
and the condensing vapor. From the study, it was 
concluded: (1) Quantitative prediction of the 
overall heat transfer obtainable in a gravity- 
drained melter-condenser utilizing water vapor 
condensation in the absence of non-condensable 
vapors is now possible. This work shows that a 
prior analytical model in conjunction with static 
saturation results predict melter-condenser opera- 
tion within PLUS OR MINUS 19% in the region 
where the gas phase Reynolds number (based on 
inlet vapor velocity and the equivalent spherical 
surface-to-volume particle size) is PLUS OR 



MINUS 25. (2) Water vapor can penetrate very lit- 
tle into a gravity-drained ice bed, and thus the 
design and scale-up of the melter-condenser must 
be based upon the surface area of contact between 
the ice bed and the vapor -- not gross bed volume. 
(3) Due to the small vapor penetration depth, the 
minimum bed depth for a melter-condenser is 
governed by the capillary rise of the ice particles 
discharged from the washer. (OSW) 
W72-07576 



MULTICOMPONENT DIFFUSION: GENERAL- 
IZED THEORY WITH ION-EXCHANGE APPLI- 
CATIONS, 

California Univ., Richmond. 
Theodore Vermeulen. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 20402, Price $1.25. Office of Saline Water 
Research and Development Progress Report no. 
326, 258 p, 25 fig, 63 ref, 10 append, April 1968. 
Grant No. 14-01-0001-737. 

Descriptors: 'Desalination, 'Ion exchange, 'Ad- 
sorption, 'Diffusing, Theoretical analysis, Mass 
transfer, Computer programs, Model studies. 
Identifiers: 'Fixed-bed columns, 'Concentration 
profile, 'Multicomponent diffusion, Diffusion 
fluxes. 

The objective has been to develop a nonequilibri- 
um theory for ion-exchange column operations in- 
volving more than two exchanging ionic species. A 
comprehensive and consistent scheme for distin- 
guishing diffusion fluxes and their frames of 
reference is presented, together with a generalized 
relation for converting from one type of flux to 
another and from one reference frame to another, 
and a consistent method of identifying diffusion 
coefficients. The utility of the weight-equivalent 
fraction and the weight-equivalent flux and frame 
of reference in ion-exchange systems is 
established. Relations between ternary and binary 
diffusion coefficients based on the kinetic-theory 
(Fick's Law) model are converted to a fundamen- 
tal form, and are applied to multicomponent ion 
exchange with the binary mass-transfer coeffi- 
cients expressed as functions of composition. 
Also, the Nernst-Planck diffusion model is ex- 
tended to multicomponent ion-exchange modified 
to allow the single-component diffusion coeffi- 
cients to vary with composition. A computer pro- 
gram based on the method of characteristics has 
been developed to describe ternary ion-exchange 
column operations, and used successfully with dif- 
ferent rate models, diffusion models, and 
equilibrium behavior. Either an entire column 
profile or a single transition zone can be calcu- 
lated. Plateau-zone concentrations in equilibrium 
and nonequilibrium systems are shown to be 
identical, and certain other equilibrium-theory 
relations, therefore, apply also to nonequilibrium 
systems. For constant-pattern transitions in terna- 
ry systems a second computer program is derived 
with a graduated time scale, and its use to describe 
a single transition zone is shown. Several binary 
and ternary column experimental runs are re- 
ported in which pore diffusion is the principal con- 
trolling mass-transfer mechanism. A substantial 
degree of success is obtained in matching the ex- 
perimental results by use of the two computer pro- 
grams. (OSW) 
W72-07645 



SUMMARY EVALUATION OF CONCEPTUAL 
DESIGN FOR 50 MGD DESALINATION PLANT. 

Technology Services, Inc., Washington, D.C. 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 20402, Price $0.60. Office of Saline Water 
Research and Development Progress Report no. 
277, 90 p, 30 tab. 26 ref, Aug 1967. 14-01-0001-770. 

Descriptors: 'Desalination, Design data, 
'Desalination plants. 'Distillation, Flash distilla- 
tion. Capital costs, 'Cost comparisons, Costs, 
Water costs. 



27 






Field 03— WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION 
Group 3A — Saline Water Conversion 



Identifiers: 'Feedwater treatment. 

Fifteen conceptual design reports are summarized 
and evaluated for a 50 Mgd desalting plant with a 
30-yr life. The reports were prepared by contrac- 
tors for OSW. Four different types of distillation 
processes were included among the proposals. 
Discussions and tabulations of materials of con- 
struction for plant equipment, feedwater treat- 
ments for scale and corrosion control, and post- 
treatments for product water that were presented 
in the reports are included. It was concluded that 
although all the conceptual designs were generally 
feasible, a number of areas exist (including materi- 
als selection, feedwater treatment, and pacifica- 
tion of product water) in which further detailed 
study and/or better basic data are needed before it 
is possible to finalize design and to predict per- 
formance and cost. (OSW) 
W72-07646 



COMPRESSIBILITY AND MOLAL VOLUME 
STUDIES, 

Miami Univ., Fla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 01 B. 

W72-07647 

3B. Water Yield Improvement 



ATMOSPHERIC ICE NUCLEI FROM DECOM- 
POSING VEGETATION, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Atmospheric 

Resources. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02B. 

W72-07293 



THE EFFECT OF ANTITRANSPIRANT CHEMI- 
CALS ON THE TRANSPIRATION AND 
PHYSIOLOGY OF TAMARISK, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Watershed 
Management. 

D. B. Thorud, K. N. Brooks, and R. S. 
Cunningham. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 608, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Technical Completion Report, 
October, 1971 , 3 p, 5 ref. OWRR A-0I8-ARIZ (3). 

Descriptors: *Phreatophytes, 'Transpiration con- 
trol. Soil-water-plant relationships, Water conser- 
vation, "Antitranspirants, Tamarisk, Southwest 
US. *Brush control. Photosynthesis, "Chemcon- 
trol. 

Five-stamen tamarisk, an important phreatophyte 
in the southwestern United States, is difficult to 
eradicate for water salvage. There also is increas- 
ing opposition to its eradication because this spe- 
cies provides cover for wildlife and greenery in the 
environment. The application of nontoxic an- 
titranspirant sprays to reduce tamarisk transpira- 
tion may be an altermative to eradication. Several 
antitranspirants were tested including a combina- 
tion of the monomethyl and monoglyceryl esters 
of n-decenylsuccinic acid (MDSA-GDSA), 8- 
hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), and phenyl- 
mercuric acetate (PMA), on tamarisk in green- 
house and field environments. PMA was toxic at a 
concentration of 0.001 M and was therefore not 
considered in the evaluation. The effects of 
MDSA-GDSA and 8-HQS on transpiration, 
growth, net photosynthesis, dark respiration, rela- 
tive stomatal apertures, chlorophyll and protein 
contents, and foliage temperature were evaluated. 
Transpiration rates of plants for 20 days in the 
greenhouse and for at least 5 days in the field. 
Retreatments with MDSA and 8-HQS prolonged 
transpiration reductions in greenhouse studies. 
Growth was reduced for 2-3 weeks, and net 
photosynthesis for less than 1 week. The other 
physiological factors were not changed substan- 
tially. 
W72-07358 



AVAILABLE WATER STORAGE IN A RANGE 
OF SOILS IN NORTHEASTERN QUEENSLAND, 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research 

Organization, Townsville (Australia). Div. of 

Tropical Pastures. 

R. L. McCown. 

Aust J Exp Agr Anim Husb. 1 1 (50): 343-348. 1971 . 

Illus. 

Identifiers: Australia, Available, Drainage, Grass- 

M, Porosity, Queensland, Range, Soils, Storage, 

Stylo-D, Technique, Townsville. 

A comparative study of the available water storage 
capacity of 3 soils under Townsville stylograss 
vegetation is reported. Two of the soils were 
selected as representing solodized-solonetz and 
solodic soils typical of extensive areas of eastern 
Australia, yet differing greatly in their demon- 
strated productivity after fertilization. The third 
selection was a well-drained, highly productive 
soil. After full recharge, available soil water in the 
3 soils above 1.5 m was 80, 150, 180 + mm. Sub- 
sequent root density and soil water content 
profiles indicated that differences in water entry, 
and not in completeness of withdrawal, accounted 
for differences in storage. The difficulties of esti- 
mating the storage capacity of poorly drained soils 
are discussed. A technique is described which uses 
total porosity for estimation of the upper limit of 
the available water range and the distribution of 
total soluble salts as an indicator of the depth of 
water entry. --Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W72-07554 

3C. Use of Water of Impaired 
Quality 



HOLKHAM SALTS HOLE, AN ISOLATED 
SALT-WATER POND WITH RELICT FEA- 
TURES: AN ACCOUNT BASED ON STUDD2S 
BY THE LATE C. F. A. PANTIN, 

Marine Biological Association of the United King- 
dom, Plymouth (England). Lab. 
O.D.Hunt. 

J Mar Biol Ass UK. 51 (3): 717-741. 1971. Illus. 
Maps. 

Identifiers: England, F. Fauna, Flora, History, 
Hole, Holkham, Isolated, Pantin, Pond, Relict, 
Salt, Salts. 

A saline pond, the Salts Hole at Holkham on the 
northern coast of Norfolk is situated between 
pine-covered sand-hills and fields that have been 
reclaimed for agriculture from pre-existing salt- 
marshes. It has a salinity of about 75% of that of 
sea water and supports a peculiar relict marine 
fauna. Except for rare flooding for a short period, 
the pond probably has been cut off from the sea 
for about 250 years. It presents 3 problems: how it 
got its fauna and flora; how its marine character is 
maintained; and how the pond originated geo- 
graphically. The fauna and flora, show the pond as 
a refuge where various marine and brackish spe- 
cies have managed to maintain themselves and co- 
exist in water outside their normal and differing 
ranges of salinity. The pond is remarkably con- 
stant with respect to salinity, alkalinity, tempera- 
ture and oxygenation. The pond is a study in 'natu- 
ral engineering,' constituting a natural marine 
aquarium with natural controls. It is fed near the 
level of high-water neap tide by continuous flow 
from a salt spring of very constant salinity sup- 
plied from water contained in the extensive coastal 
sands. Its only apparent artificial feature is the 
outlet controlled by a dam through a culvert into a 
ditch that conveys its water through the fields to 
the sea at Wells nearly 2 mi. away. Maps dating to 
Elizabethan days show the history of the Salts 
Hole. Its site was once the mouth of a large system 
of creeks in salt-marshes associated with an an- 
cient earthwork. This old creek system is still visi- 
ble in air photographs. Accumulation of sand along 
Holkham Meals and across Holkham Gap began 
the isolation of the mouth of the creek, a process 
which was completed by successive reclamation 
and draining of the salt-marshes. Eventually only 



the Salts Hole was left on the landward side of the 
barriers, natural and artificial, to indicate the 
original position of the mouth of the old creeks- 
Copyright 1971, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 

W72-07795 



3D. Conservation in Domestic and 
Municipal Use 



A MODEL OF COMMUNITY PROBLEM SOLV- 
ING AND SELECTED EMPIRICAL APPLICA- 
TIONS, 

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Water Resources 

Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06A. 

W72-07279 



PROPRIETY OF INJUNCTIVE RELIEF 
AGAINST DIVERSION OF WATER BY MU- 
NICIPAL CORPORATION OR PUBLIC UTILI- 
TY, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07386 



RUNOFF VOLUMES FROM SMALL URBAN 
WATERSHEDS, 

Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Water Resources 

Research Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 

W72-07479 



MODELING URBAN RUNOFF AS A DETER- 
MINISTIC PROCESS, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07486 



A GENERAL RATIONALE FOR MODELING 
URBAN RUNOFF, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07487 



DETERMINISTIC URBAN RUNOFF MODEL, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07488 



URBAN WATER DATA NEEDS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07489 



DATA COLLECTION FOR REAL-TIME 
SYSTEMS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07490 



CONTROL OF SEDIMENT IN THE URBAN EN- 
VIRONMENT, 

Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07491 



CASE STUDY ON DESIGN OF URBAN WATER 
DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS, 

Watermation, Inc., Saint Paul, Minn. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07492 



THE CHOICE OF INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGE- 
MENTS FOR WATER RESOURCE DEVELOP- 



28 



WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION— Field 03 
Conservation in Domestic and Municipal Use — Group 3D 



MENT--WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
CALIFORNIA WATER INDUSTRY, 

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07570 



CHARLES RIVER: AN URBAN RIVER IN ITS 
CHANGING SOCIAL CONTEXTS, 

Massachusetts University, Amherst. Water 

Resources Research Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W72-07614 



PLANNING AND USING UTILITY MAPS, 

East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, 

Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07618 



DESIGNING RESDDENTIAL WATER SER- 
VICES, 

Columbus Water Engineers Office, Ohio. 
J. L. Francis. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 62, No. 2, p 85-90, February 1970. 6 tab, 
2 fig, lOref. 



Descriptors: 'Design, 'Design criteria, 'Distribu- 
tion systems. Supply, Demand, Estimation, 
Planning, Pipelines, Plumbing, 'Water delivery, 
Water demand. 

Identifiers: 'Water services, 'Residential, Service 
design. 

The factors involved in service design are ex- 
amined and a design procedure is recommended 
which will take these factors into account. All 
water distribution systems are composed of three 
main parts: (1) transmission facilities to transport 
water from the source to the distribution mains, (2) 
distribution mains to transport water from the 
transmission mains to the service lines, and (3) ser- 
vice lines to transport water from the distribution 
grid to the customer. Much attention has been paid 
to the first two components, but little has been 
paid to the service lines. The problem of the ser- 
vice designer is twofold. He must estimate the 
potential maximum instantaneous emand on the 
service, and he must size the service to meet this 
demand. In estimating demand, the designer must 
take into account the number of plumbing fixtures, 
the design demand per fixture, and the probability 
of simultaneous use of fixtures. In sizing the ser- 
vice the designer must consider the residual pres- 
sure required to operate the fixtures properly, the 
pressure available in the water main and the pres- 
sure losses which will occur at the various service 
compoents with the design flow passing through 
them. A service design chart is included. 
(Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07623 



UTILITY WATER RATE STRUCTURING, 

Black and Veatch, Kansas City, Mo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06C. 

W72-07625 



THE POLITICS OF PASSING PIPELINES 
THROUGH CITIES, 

Beuttner (Carl F.) and Associates, Inc., St. Louis, 
Mo. 

C. F. Buettner. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 63, No. 5, p 262-268, May 1971. 13 
photo, 1 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water supply, 'City planning, 
'Pipelines, 'Political aspects. Negotiations, Instal- 
lation, Design, Coordination, Economics, Missou- 
ri. 

Identifiers: 'Cooperation. Political considera- 
tions, 'St. Louis (Mo). 



The need for cooperation and understanding of 
combined endeavors is necessary if the growing 
challenges facing the water supply industry are to 
be met and solved. Due to the increasing urban and 
suburban sprawl of large metropolitan areas, the 
ability to acquire adequate easements or rights-of- 
way for large conduit installations must be of 
prime important, and all negotiations must be on a 
person-to-person basis. Installation of a large- 
diameter water conduit through muncipalities not 
served by a utility is subject to the political whims 
of the citizens and officials. Using the City of St. 
Louis as an example, the problems that arise when 
installation of a large-diameter water conduit is 
proposed in a large metropolitan area are 
discussed. Politcal considerations in designing and 
installing a large pipeline through several mu- 
nicipalities must be met directly by qualified, ex- 
perienced personnel with all parties pledging their 
efforts to a common cause in a positive manner. 
These considerations are dictated and reflected in 
the type of demands imposed by the nonowner 
communities, local conditions to be met, the 
degree of nonowner participation in project con- 
trol, and the amount of goodwill previously 
established between the communities. A well- 
coordinated and well-designed conduit project is 
still possible in a time of rising prices, in spite of 
heavy requirements and restrictions. (Strachan- 
Chicago) 
W72-07626 



JOINT DISCUSSION - RECLAMATION AND IN- 
DUSTRIAL REUSE OF AMARILLO'S WASTE- 
WATER, 

Amarillo Water Reclamation and Sewage Treat- 
ment Plant, Tex. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07628 



JOINT DISCUSSION - RECLAMATION AND IN- 
DUSTRIAL REUSE OF AMARILLO'S WASTE- 
WATER, 

Southwestern Public Service Co., Amarillo, Tex. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W72-07629 



JOINT DISCUSSION - EXPANDING TO SERVE 
METROPOLITAN SYSTEMS: TACOMA, 

Tacoma Dept. of Public Utilities, Wash. 
A. J. Benedetti. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 62, No. l,p 31-32, January 1970. 

Descriptors: 'City planning, 'Water supply, 'Ex- 
pansion, 'Municipal water, Comprehensive 
planning, Coordination, Economics, Rates, Costs, 
Washington, 'Water resources development. 
Water delivery, Water demand. 
Identifiers: 'Tacoma (Wash), Direct service ap- 
proach. 

Water should be considered and developed as an 
area resource. It is the obligation of the municipal 
supply utility to plan its system to meet logical 
area needs. This expansion of water service should 
be based upon coordinated and comprehensive 
planning, which will provide the greatest benefits 
to the municipality, to the metropolitan area, and 
to the individual customer. Water supply planning 
should be coordinated with comprehensive 
planning, including consideration of: population 
growth, land use planning, zoning, transportation 
development, topography, economics, and em- 
ployment projections. The municipal water utility 
should maintain contacts with the governments of 
the county and adjacent cities and towns. The 
water needs of the public surrounding a 
metropolitan region can be served either by direct 
service or a v. holesale-for-resale basis with water 
delivery to a master metering point. The direct ser- 
vice approach is more desirable from the point of 
view of the municipality, the region, and the 
customer. Tacoma, Washington has furnished 
water for many years on a resale basis to water 
cooperatives, mutuals, districts, and companies. A 



new resale water rate has been recently enacted 
which is based upon demand rather than number 
of customers. (See also W72-07632 thru W72- 
07634) (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07631 



JOINT DISCUSSION - EXPANDING TO SERVE 
METROPOLITAN AREAS: ST. PAUL, 

Saint Paul Board of Water Commissioners, Minn. 
C. W. Hamblin. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 62, No. 1 , p 33-34, January 1970. 

Descriptors: 'City planning, 'Water supply, 'Ex- 
pansion, Public utilities, Suburban areas, 
Economics, Costs, Rates, Water quality, Missis- 
sippi River, Municipal water, Minnesota, Water 
delivery (Minn). 

Identifiers: 'Saint Paul, (Minn)'Metropolitan 
water needs. 

The public utility of the City of St. Paul has 
operated under a board of commissioners since 
1883 when the city acquired the private investor- 
owned water company. The main source of supply 
has always been the surface waters. Lake sup- 
pliers have been supplemented by water from the 
Mississippi River since 1925. The ratio of supply 
between the river and lake varies, due to annual 
rainfall and runoff, but it is usually two thirds from 
the river and one third from the lakes, with the 
lakes serving as terminal reservoirs. All first-tier 
suburbs receive water service under contract with 
the Saint Paul board of water commissioners. 
Since there is no shortage of a rain water supply in 
this area, it is entirely feasible for a community to 
develop its own water system. The choice to do so 
is an economic one, and remains that of the sub- 
urb. The advantages of a large central city system 
are the economic ones of operating a large-volume 
plant compared with several small plants, and the 
fact that the suburbs are financially burdened with 
other public needs. The philosophy behind this 
system is to provide an economic benefit to both 
the centra] supplier and the suburban customer. It 
does not matter whether a suburb desires to 
purchase its water on a wholesale or retail basis. 
The same quality water is distributed to the city 
and its suburbs. Any return on investments 
derived from the suburbs is passed on to the cen- 
tral city as a savings in its rate structure. (See also 
W72-07631) (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07632 



JOINT DISCUSSION-EXPANDING TO SERVE 
METROPOLITAN SYSTEMS: MIAMI, 

Miami Dept. of Water and Sewers, Fla. 
G. Sloan. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 62, No. 1 , p 34-36, January 1970. 4 tab. 

Descriptors: 'City planning, 'Water supply, 'Ex- 
pansion, 'Municipal water, Rates, Costs, Cost 
sharing. Economics, Florida, Water delivery. 
Identifiers: 'Miami (Fla), 'Metropolitan water 
needs, Retail, Wholesale, Large scale operation. 

From the case of Miami, it can be concluded that a 
large, central water supply system with uniform 
rates is the best possible facility to meet the water 
needs of a metropolitan area. The Department of 
Water and Sewers of the City of Miami sells about 
one-half of its water at retail, and the other half is 
sold to municipal and private water utilities on a 
wholesale basis. All retail customers are charged 
the same rates regardless of location. The larger 
wholesale customers enter into long-term cost 
sharing contracts for a period of thirty years. A 
complete monthly financial operating statement 
with all costs is used as the basis for calculation of 
rates each month. Miami has cooperated with 
metropolitan Dade County to form eight water im- 
provement special taxing districts to install water 
mains to existing residences. The cost sharing con- 
tracts have been in effect for over 30 years. The 
retail rates are generally lower than those prevail- 
ing elsewhere in Dade County. The lower rate of 



29 



Field 03— WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION 
Group 3D — Conservation in Domestic and Municipal Use 



retail charges is directly attributable to economics 
enjoyed through large scale operation. (See also 
W72-0763 1 ) (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07633 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: COMING WATER- 
-SUPPLY CRISIS, 

Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, 
DC. 

R. H. Groves. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 63, No. 5, p 31 1-312. May 1971. lfig. 

Descriptors: *Water supply, 'Projections, *Re- 
gional development, Water quality, Water de- 
mand. Northeast U.S., Future planning (Pro- 
jected), Long-term planning. 
Identifiers: 'Regional problem, Water quantity, 
Regional planning, Studies. 

Current projections of well-established trends 
demonstrate a water supply crisis of major propor- 
tions in the future. There are about 2,000 indepen- 
dent water supply systems in the US; most of 
these are confined within local political bounda- 
ries. Increasingly, water supply is a regional 
problem. Regional-wide systems of water supply 
offer definite advantages: (1) better use of capaci- 
ty as drought insurance, (2) stimulation of 
economic adjustments in industrial use, (3) effec- 
tive employment of nearby already polluted 
sources, and (4) encouragement of the develop- 
ment of other technological opportunities. Water 
supply involves aspects of four problems: of quali- 
ty , of quantity, of time of need, and of location for 
both supply sources and demand. In the 
Northeast, Water supply is a function of the mu- 
nicipalities and of private companies. Only supply 
systems of regional, state, or interstate magnitude 
are likely to develop the quantities of water 
needed to meet estimated future demands. The 
great drought of 1961-67 in Northeastern US 
focused attention upon the fragile relationship 
between supply and need in large areas. With the 
passage of Public Law 89-298, Title I, a study of 
over-all water supply problems was authorized by 
Congress. (See also W72-07636 thru W72-07638) 
(Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07635 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: SCOPE OF THE 
NEWS STUDY, 

Corps of Engineers, New York. North Atlantic 
Div. 

H. E. Schwarz. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol.63, No. 5. p 313-314, May 1971. 

Descriptors: *Water supply, 'Long-term planning, 
'Formulation, Regional development, Project 
planning. Assessments, Northeast U. S., Potomac 
River. 

Identifiers: 'Northeastern United States Water 
Supply Study (NEWS study). Regional water 
supply opportunities, Regional planning, Mer- 
rimack River. 

The Northeastern United States Water Supply 
Study (commonly referred to as the NEWS Study) 
is a direct result of congressional concern for the 
1961-67 drought in Northeastern U.S., and Public 
Law 89-298, Title 1. The Corps of Engineers was 
authorized to undertake the NEWS study, in 
cooperation with federal, state, and local agencies, 
to formulate plans to meet the long-range water 
needs of the Northeast. Five regions were 
identified as the most urgent and critical areas of 
study: (I) Southeastern New England, (2) 
Northern New Jersey - New York City - Western 
Connecticut metropolitan area, (3) South-central 
Pennsylvania, (4) Metropolitan Baltimore, and (5) 
Washington, D. C. metropolitan area. The NEWS 
study will develop regional water supply opportu- 
nities on the wholesale level to permit specific pro- 
ject authorization in these urgent areas, provided 



that advantages can be shown for regional ap- 
proaches. Assessment of water supply problems in 
remaining areas will be conducted to indicate areas 
for future detailed study. Two studies of special 
interest are: (1) a feasibility study considering the 
use of the Potomac River estuary as a supplemen- 
tary water supply source for Washington, D.C., 
and (2) a detailed investigation in the eastern Mas- 
sachusetts region for utilization of the principal 
potential sources of the area (including the Mer- 
rimack River.) (See also W72-07635) (Strachan- 
Chicago) 
W72-07636 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: AWWA FACTORS 
RELATED TO THE NEWS STUDY, 

Detroit Metro Water Dept., Mich. 
G.J. Remus. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 63, No. 5, p 314-315, May 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Water supply, 'Northeastern U.S., 
'Planning, 'Long-term planning, St. Lawrence 
River, Water resources development, Manage- 
ment, Conservation. 

Identifiers: 'Northeastern United States Water 
Supply Study (NEWS study), 'American Water 
Works Association, Cooperation. 

The Army Corps of Engineers which is conducting 
the Northeastern United States Water Supply 
Study (NEWS study) asked the American Water 
Works Association, (AWWA) to help in planning. 
The AWWA committee is made up of representa- 
tives of the water systems in the areas which are 
under study, and its basic purpose is to work 
cooperatively with the Corps of Engineers. Since a 
raw water shortage does not exist in Northeastern 
US, better management of this resource is sug- 
gested. It seems apparent that major reservoirs 
will have to be built, and that diversion from one 
river basin to another may be necessary. Studies 
of ground water, better treatment practices, reuse, 
and other means of water conservation are 
needed. The long-term planning solution for water 
supply for the 41 million people in this area may 
well be the St. Lawrence River. Once the site 
selection process and subsequent detailed studies 
have determined the desirability of a site, AWWA 
has agreed that it will support the Army Corps of 
Engineers at every level and in all possible legal 
ways. (See also W72-07635) (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07637 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: NEW YORK CITY 
WATER-SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENT 
MANAGEMENT, 

New York State Dept. of Conservation, Albany. 
F. W. Montanari, and E. A. Karath. 
Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion. Vol. 63, No. 5, p 315-320, May 1971. 5 fig, 1 
tab, 5 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Water supply, 'Environmental con- 
trol, 'Comprehensive planning, 'City planning, 
'Long-term planning. Conservation, Hudson 
River, Engineering, New York. 
Identifiers: 'New York City, 'Water resources ac- 
tivities, Northeastern United States Water Supply 
Study (NEWS study). 

The capability exists of managing the environ- 
ment, and even of enhancing nature. This possi- 
bility is particularly true within the area of natural 
resources, i.e. land and water. Comprehensive 
planning will permit the husbanding of resources 
and 'honest' conservation. In New York State, 
concern about the environment resulted in con- 
structive legislative action, the Environmental 
Conservation Law (effective July I, 1970). New 
York now has all water resource activities, regula- 
tion, planning, development, and management in a 
single, effective, streamlined department. Some of 
the major study efforts discussed include: state- 
wide reconnaissance studies, the inter-municipal 



public water supply study (CPWS-27), and the 
Northeastern United States Water Supply Study 
(NEWS study). These three major engineering stu- 
dies are exploring alternatives for new sources of 
supply for the New York City metropolitan area, 
each with a somewhat different focus. It is ap- 
parent from these studies that the Hudson River 
could be utilized as a major source of supply for 
New York City. It is indicated that use of the Hud- 
son river will be more conomical and might also 
provide more optimum use of New York State's 
water resouces, as a result of multipurpose 
benefits. Substantial numbers of communities are 
using the water from the Hudson River, and it is 
being recommended as a source of supply for 
other communities, so use of it will increase. Early 
decision must be made upon the situation of New 
York City, and the program begun to avoid drastic 
metropolitan water shortages. (See also W72- 
07635) (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07638 



WATER BUDGET FOR THE CITY OF 
LARAMTE, WYOMING, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Water Resources 

Research Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W72-07798 

3E. Conservation in Industry 



SELECTION OF WATER SUPPLIES FOR NEW 
MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS, 

Black, Crow and Eidsness Inc., Wilmington, Del. 
B. W. Dickerson. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 62, No. 10, p 611-615, October 1970. 6 
tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water supply, 'Sites, 'Water quali- 
ty, Surface waters, Groundwater, Resources, 
Long-term planning, Economics, Investigations, 
Water reuse. 

Identifiers: 'Manufacturing operations, 'Selec- 
tion, Inplant water needs. 

Factors which must be considered in the evalua- 
tion of a plant site include: available electric 
power, fuel supply, satisfactory labor market, 
transportation facilities, proximity of plant loca- 
tion to raw materials and product market, 
adequate water supply, and pollution considera- 
tions for air, water, and solid waste discharges. 
Only the aspects of water quantity and quality as 
related to inplant water needs are considered. 
Three case studies involving plant site selection in 
the South, the Midwest, and for a defense plant 
are discussed in some detail to illustrate the in- 
dividual problems of each plant. The most impor- 
tant consideration involving water plant site selec- 
tion is an investigation of surface and ground 
water resources. Some frequently over looked 
considerations include: elevation of the water ta- 
ble, rate of the well, pumping costs, chemical 
analyses, upstream and tributary uses, affects of 
weather, seasonal flow variations, characteristics 
of the waterway up- and downstream, water pres- 
sure, capacity, availability of untreated water, 
geographical aspects, and affects from the sur- 
rounding community. A thorough investigation 
must be made at each prjected site to provide a 
satisfactory and economical water supply for plant 
uses. Two broad challenges are facing the en- 
gineer: (1) to use the least water, and (2) to reuse 
water whenever possible. (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07624 



JOINT DISCUSSION - RECLAMATION AND IN- 
DUSTRIAL REUSE OF AMARILLO'S WASTE- 
WATER, 

Southwestern Public Service Co., Amarillo, Tex. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W72-07629 



30 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL— Field 04 
Control of Water on the Surface — Group 4A 



INDUSTRY'S RESPONSE TO NEW ENVIRON- 
MENTAL LAW AND PROBLEMS, 

LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby and MacRae, Washington, 

DC. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07866 

3F. Conservation in Agriculture 



ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING CHANGE 
IN THE INTENSITY OF FLOOD PLAIN USE, 

Iowa State Water Resources Research Inst., 

Ames. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W72-07361 



SPRINKLER APPLICATION OF ANAEROBI- 
CALLY TREATED SWINE WASTES AS 
LIMITED BY NITROGEN CONCENTRATION, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Agricultural En- 
gineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W72-07364 



ECONOMICS OF WATER QUALITY MANAGE- 
MENT: EXEMPLHTED BY SPECIFIED POLLU- 
TANTS IN AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W72-07365 



INTERNAL WATER STATUS AND WATER 
TRANSPORT IN SEED ONION PLANTS, 

Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. of Soils. 
A. A. Millar, W. R. Gardner, and S. M. Goltz. 
Agronomy Journal 63 (5): 779-784. 1 97 1 . 

Descriptors: Plants, Soils. 

Identifiers: Allium-Cepa-M, Florets, Leaf, 
*Onion-M, Pedicels, *Water potential, Root, 
Seed, Stalk, *Stomatal resistance, Surface, 
•Transpiration rate, Transport, Umbel. 

Water potential, transpiration rate, and stomatal 
resistance of the various parts of the onion (Allium 
cepa L.) plant were measured under field and con- 
trolled conditions. Water potentials of florets and 
pedicels were always lower than leaf water poten- 
tials. Water potential difference between the 
florets and the soil of as much as -9 bars were 
found. The greatest drop in water potential was 
found between the flowers and the upper part of 
the seed stalk. These differences in water potential 
were found even when plants were growing in soil 
well supplied with water. Transpiration rates of 
the leaves were the greatest of all plant parts, the 
seed stalk next (about 15-20% of the flux density 
from the leaves), and the umbel lowest, represent- 
ing a very small fraction of the total. Stomatal re- 
sistance of the leaves was at all times lower than 
seed stalk stomatal resistances. An almost on-off 
stomatal behavior by which the onion plant regu- 
lates its transpiration was found to operate in a 
narrow range of leaf water potential, -3 to -7 bars. 
The relation between flux density and water 
potential drop was found to be highly nonlinear in 
plants growing in different soils and under a wide 
range of soil water potential and environmental 
conditions. Impedance to water flow in the seed 
stalk was 5 - 8 times greater than in the leaves. For 
the same conditions potential drop between soil 
and root surface was less than 5 cm of waters- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07493 



WATER RELATIONS, SALT BALANCE, AND 
NITRATE LEACHING LOSSES OF A 960-ACRE 
CITRUS WATERSHED, 

California Univ., Riverside; and California Univ., 

Riverside. Dept. of Agriculture. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07498 



INTERNAL WATER STRESS AND APPARENT 
PHOTOSYNTHESIS WITH SOYBEANS DIF- 
FERING IN PUBESCENCE, 

Pahlavi Univ., Shiraz (Iran). Dept. of Crop 

Science. 

S. R. Ghorashy, J. W. Pendleton, D. B. Peters, J. 

S. Boyer, and J. E. Beuerlein. 

Agron J. 63 (5): 674-677. 1971. 

Identifiers: Chamber, Flowering, Glycine-Max-D, 

Interna], Leaves, Photosynthesis, Pod, Pressure, 

Pubescence, Soybeans-D, Stress, Technique. 

Three near-isogenic lines (isolines) of 'Clark 
soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) differing 
greatly in pubescence characteristics (dense pu- 
bescent, normal, and glabrous) were subjected to 
water stress during flowering or pod-filling stage 
under field conditions. During these developmen- 
tal stages, apparent photosynthesis (AP) rates of 
fully expanded top leaves were measured using a 
single leaf chamber, and water potential was deter- 
mined on the same leaves using the pressure 
chamber technique. AP rates decreased linearly as 
leaf water potential decreased. The decrease was 
less during the flowering stage than during pod- 
filling stage for all 3 isolines. Under nonstressed 
conditions (-1 bar soil water potential), AP rates 
for normal, dense pubescent, and glabrous were 
119.8, 73.4, and 76.0% higher during pod-filling 
stage than during flowering. -Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07567 



FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCUMULATION 
OF NITRATE IN SOIL, WATER, AND PLANTS, 

Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, 111. Soil 
and Water Conservation Research Div. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W 72-07610 



EFFECTS OF INSECTICIDE-TREATED RICE 
PLANTS AND PADDY WATER ON VER- 
TEBRATE ANIMALS, 

Amherst Coll. , Mass. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07708 



MOVEMENT OF PESTICIDES BY RUNOFF 
AND EROSION, 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Agricultural 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07731 



POTENTIAL POLLUTION OF OGALLALA BY 
RECHARGING PLAYA LAKE WATER - PESTI- 
CIDES, 

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Water Resources 

Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07761 



IRRIGATION IN MICHIGAN 1970. 

Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing. 
Water Resources Commission. 

57 P, 24 FIG, 6 TAB, 14 REF. Water Resources 
Council WDS-7. 

Descriptors: "Irrigation, 'Michigan, *On-site in- 
vestigations, "Irrigated land, "Water require- 
ments, "Consumptive use, Evapotranspiration, 
Water distribution, Surface-ground water relation- 
ships, Irrigation practices. Irrigation operation and 
maintenance. Irrigation programs. Irrigation 
water, Surface irrigation, Water utilization. 

The Michigan State Water Resources Commission 
initiated an irrigation field survey in 1970. They 
wished to determine the extent and significance of 
agricultural, commercial, and recreational land 
under irrigation and the relative quantities of ir- 
rigation water applied. Irrigation as a land-water 
use practice was practiced in every county in 
Michigan in 1970 except Alger, Montgomery, and 



Ontonagon Counties. Since the 1958 irrigation sur- 
vey, supplemental irrigation increased by 49 per- 
cent in Michigan, with most of this increase at- 
tributable to the southern half of the Lower Penin- 
sula. About 62 percent of the 102,625 acres which 
are irrigated use surface water sources. Ground- 
water resources supply the remaining 38 percent. 
Seventy one percent of the 102,625 acres of ir- 
rigated land is in agricultural use and accounts for 
54 percent of the total State irrigation water 
withdrawals. Sixteen percent of the land is in 
recreational use and uses 35 percent of the water 
withdrawals. Miscellaneous use accounts for 1 
percent of the acreage and less than 1 percent of 
the water, while commercial use accounts for 12 
percent of the acreage and 1 1 percent of the water. 
Irrigation accounts for only a small fraction of 
Michigan's total water use but assumes a dispro- 
portionately large significance. Ninety percent of 
water used for irrigation is lost to the atmosphere 
through evapotranspiration. Most other water uses 
lose 10 percent or less through consumption. 
Between 1958 and 1970, irrigated acreage in- 
creased by 49 percent. In the same period water 
withdrawals increased 10 percent. Over 54% of the 
total land irrigated is located in southwestern 
Michigan. (Poertner) 
W72-07784 



THE AFTER-EFFECT OF THE TREATED 
SLUDGE OF WASTE WATER CONTAINING 
HEAVY METAL DM A FD2LD TEST, (IN GER- 
MAN), 

Bonn Univ. (West Germany). Agrikul- 
turchemisches Institut. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 
W72-07809 

04. WATER QUANTITY 
MANAGEMENT AND 
CONTROL 

4A. Control of Water on the 
Surface 



FATE OF DIQUAT IN THE AQUATIC EN- 
VIRONMENT, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Water Resources Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07355 



HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF 
FORESTED WATERSHEDS IN ARIZONA, AUG- 
MENTATION OF HYDROLOGIC RECORDS BY 
DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Lab. of Tree-Ring 

Research. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07359 



ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT ON ALMONT 
FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT MEASURE, 
LEWIS AND CLARK 1805 RC AND D PRO- 
JECT, NORTH DAKOTA (FINAL ENVIRON- 
MENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 
Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08 A. 
W72-07413 



BURNSVILLE LAKE, LITTLE KANAWHA, 
WEST VIRGINIA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL 
IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Huntington, W.Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W72-07416 



ENVntONMENTAL STATEMENT GRAND 
LAGOON, FLORIDA NAVIGATION (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Mobile, Ala. 






31 



Field 04— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 
Group 4A — Control of Water on the Surface 



Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-199 874F, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. June 11, 1971. 24 p, 1 map, 11 
append. 

Descriptors: *Florida, * Environmental effects, 
•Channel improvement, *Inlets (Waterways), 
•Navigation, *Estuarine environment, Impaired 
water quality, Rivers and Harbors Act, Dredging, 
Channel erosion, Channels, Channel flow, 
Lagoons, Turbidity, Water pollution effects, Silt- 
ing, Aquatic environment, Bodies of water, Water 
properties, Bays, Navigable waters, Estuaries. 
Identifiers: *Grand Lagoon (Fla.), 'Environmen- 
tal Impact Statements. 

The project will improve navigational facilities in 
Grand Lagoon, Florida by channel enlargement to 
accommodate recreational vessels. The benefit-to- 
cost ratio is 2.8. Grand Lagoon is an arm of St. An- 
drew's Bay opposite Panama City, Florida. Grand 
Lagoon serves as an operational base for commer- 
cial and recreational fishing vessels. Material 
removed from the channel will be placed on an 
eroded section of Gulf beach. The primary adverse 
environmental impact will be increased turbidity 
and siltation. Since the material dredged will be 
quick settling sand, the impact will be minimal. 
Tidal interchange should minimize pollution due to 
organics. Twenty-three acres of bay bottom, of 
moderate value to fish and wildlife, will be 
required for the channel. The alternative of 
foregoing construction is not feasible: it would 
permit continued erosion of Gulf beach, eventual 
loss of the existing channel, and reduction in the 
community's economic growth. Short-term 
benefits are considered to outweigh long-term 
productivity losses. It is doubtful that grass beds 
will re-establish within the channel. Comments of 
concerned agencies are included. (Doise-Florida) 
W72-07417 



ALGAE CONTROL, 

Wisconsin Committee on Water Pollution, Madis- 
on. 

K. M. Mackenthun. 

Public Works, Vol 91, No 9, p 114-116 and 158, 
September 1960. 2 fig, 8 ref. 

Descriptors: Water treatment, *Algae, "Copper 
sulfate, 'Alkalinity, Water quality control, 'Con- 
trol, 'Algal control, Toxicity. 

Damage caused by algal growths is described. The 
difference in treatment of waters with low alkalini- 
ty and those with over 40 mg/1 methyl orange al- 
kalinity is discussed. The application of copper 
sulfate, equipment required, control of the appli- 
cation, and the toxicity of the application to 
aquatic life are described. More than half the 
states report complete supervision of field applica- 
tion of chemicals, and in addition one-fifth report 
that they spot check field applications. (Bean-AW- 
WARF) 
W72-07442 



HYDRAULIC MODEL STUDIES OF THE IN- 
TAKE-OUTLET STRUCTURE FOR THE PUMP- 
-GENERATION FACILITY AT MORMON FLAT 
DAM, SALT RIVER PROJECT, ARIZONA, 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. Engineer- 
ing and Research Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 
W72-07461 



HYDRAULIC MODEL STUDIES OF THE 
RESERVOIR INLET-OUTLET STRUCTURE 
FOR HORSE MESA PUMP-STORAGE UNIT, 
SALT RIVER PROJECT, ARIZONA, 

Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo. Engineer- 
ing and Research Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 
W72-07462 



ANALYTICAL FLOW NETS IN CHANNEL 
SEEPAGE FLOWS, 

California Univ., Santa Barbara. Dept. of 

Mechanical Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 

W72-07471 



MODELING URBAN RUNOFF AS A DETER- 
MINISTIC PROCESS, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07486 



A PROGRESS REPORT ON THE INTRODUC- 
TION OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNG- 
DON IDELLUS) IN FIJI, 

Department of Agriculture, Suva (Fiji). 

A. E. Adams, and V. Titoko. 

Fiji Agric J. 32 (2): 43-46. 1970. DJus. 

Identifiers: Carp, Control, Ctenopharyngdon-Idel- 

lus, Fiji, Grass, Hydrilla-Verticillata-M. 

Grass carp were introduced from Malaysia to as- 
sess their ability to control waterweed, particu- 
larly Hydrilla verticillata. A method of rearing 
them was devised and problems studied. -Copy- 
right 1971 , Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07518 



LOCAL WATER AGENCIES, COMMUNICA- 
TIONS PATTERNS AND THE PLANNING 
PROCESS, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Environmental 

Resources Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W72-07521 



DESIGNING RESIDENTIAL WATER SER- 
VICES, 

Columbus Water Engineers Office, Ohio. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 

W72-07623 



SIMULATION OF RUNOFF FROM DEPRES- 
SION CHARACTERIZED WATERSHEDS, 

South Dakota State Univ., Brookings. Dept. of 

Agricultural Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07732 



AN OPERATIONAL WATERSHED MODEL: 
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS, PURPOSES, 
AND PROGRESS, 

Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Dis- 
trict, West Palm Beach. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07734 



HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF WATER CON- 
TROL AND MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHEAST- 
ERN FLORIDA, 

Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Fla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04C. 

W72-07735 



USE OF AIR-WATER RELATIONSHIPS FOR 
PREDICTING WATER TEMPERATURE, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07743 



FLOOD ROUTING THROUGH STORM 
DRAINS, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08B. 

W72-07781 



STORM WATER PROBLEMS AND CONTROL 
IN SANITARY SEWERS, OAKLAND AND 
BERKELEY, CALD70RNIA. 

Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as SN 550- 
0095, $4.00; microfiche from NTIS as PB-208 815, 
$0.95. Environmental Protection Agency, Water 
Quality Office, Research Series, March 1971. 270 
p, 48 fig, 31 tab, 25 ref. EPN Program 11024EQG 
03/71,14-12-407. 

Descriptors: 'Infiltration, 'On-site investigations, 
'Infiltration rates, 'Sewerage, 'Combined sewers, 
'Separated sewers, Computer models, Urban 
drainage, Storm runoff, Storm water, California, 
Water pollution sources, Bays, Estimated costs. 
Identifiers: 'San Francisco Bay, 'Sanitary 
sewers, Combined sewer overflows, Flow routing 
program, East Bay Municipal Utility District. 

An engineering investigation was conducted on 
storm water infiltration into sanitary sewers and 
associated problems in the East Bay Municipal 
Utility District, Special District No. 1, with 
assistance from the cities of Oakland and 
Berkeley, California. Rainfall and sewer flow data 
were obtained in selected study subareas that 
characterized the land use patterns predominant in 
the study area. Results obtained were extrapolated 
over larger drainage areas. A computerized flow 
routing program for the sewer system was used in 
this analysis. Ratios of infiltration to rainfall in the 
study subareas range from 0.01 to 0.14. Ratios of 
peak wet weather flow to average dry weather 
flow range from 2.1 to 9.1. About 11.1 percent of 
the rainfall enters the sanitary sewer system; 30.6 
percent of the infiltration is contributed by the 4 
percent of the study area that has combined 
sewers. Problems associated with infiltration and 
resulting overflows and bypasses are: (1) pollution 
of San Francisco Bay, (2) operational difficulties 
at the treatment plant, and (3) danger to public 
health, property damage, and nuisance. Estimated 
costs for the most feasible combinations of solu- 
tions to these problems, consisting of treatment 
plant improvements, separation of remaining com- 
bined sewers, partial treatment of overflows, and 
sewer improvements, range from approximately 
$42 million to $94 million. Specific recommenda- 
tions for subsequent developmental programs are 
presented; complete implementation of the recom- 
mended plan will take about 7 years. (Poertner) 
W72-07785 



DRUM INLET, NORTH CAROLINA (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Wilmington, N.C. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-199 253-F, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. August 1971. 26 p, 1 map, 13 
append. 

Descriptors: 'North Carolina, 'Dredging, 'Inlets 
(Waterways), 'Channel improvement, 'Environ- 
mental effects, Channeling, Salt marshes, Salinity, 
Ecological distribution, Commercial fishing, Boat- 
ing, Fish passages, Project benefits, Project 
planning, Project purposes. 

Identifiers: 'Environmental impact statements, 
'Drum Inlet (N.C). 

Drum Inlet, located 25 miles northeast of Cape 
Lookout, North Carolina, is presently closed to 
navigation. The project, which will include a chan- 
nel to deep water in the Atlantic Ocean, is 
proposed to create a new inlet for commercial and 
recreational vessels. There are no known adverse 
effects associated with the construction and 
operation of the project, other than some covering 
of subtidal bottom. The major impact of the pro- 
ject will be the creation of a dependable channel. 
Associated with the project are plans for the crea- 
tion of a new salt-water marsh utilizing dredged 
spoil from the project's channel. The project will 
increase salinities within an undefined local area, 
but it will not affect overall salinity in the Sound. 



32 



WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL— Field 04 
Groundwater Management — Group 4B 



The alternative of locating the project at the 
original Drum Inlet site was considered, but the 
proposed location was chosen for ease of con- 
struction and minimal environmental damage. A 
draft environmental statement was sent to in- 
terested federal, state, and local agencies, and 
some comments did not agree that attempted crea- 
tion of salt marsh represents an increase in long- 
term productivity. (Blank-Florida) 
W72-07857 



RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT PEMBINA, 
NORTH DAKOTA (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL 
IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, St. Paul, Minn. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W72-07859 



RIO GRANDE ABOVE HIDALGO-REYNOSA 
INTERNATIONAL CHANNEL RELOCATION 
PROJECT, TEXAS (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL 
IMPACT STATEMENT). 

International Boundary and Water Commission, 
El Paso, Tex. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB201 087-F, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. June 1971. 27 p, 11 append. 

Descriptors: 'Channeling, *Rio Grande River, 
•Wildlife habitats, 'Environmental effects, Trea- 
ties, Excavation, International boundary and 
water coram., Land use, Turbidity, Sedimenta- 
tion, Water quality, Flow characteristics, Texas. 
Identifiers: 'Environmental impact statements. 

Under a 1970 treaty between Mexico and the 
United States, 1.6 miles of the Rio Grande will be 
relocated by excavating a new channel. The river 
changes its course frequently during floods. The 
relocation project will stabilize the river and boun- 
dary between Mexico and the United States. The 
relocated channel will have essentially the same 
flow characteristics as the present natural channel. 
A small acreage of wildlife habitat will be lost to 
the excavation and concomitant placement of spoil 
in upland areas. But the relocated channel will 
create an additional freshwater habitat. Although 
the project will comply with federal, state, and 
local water quality regulations, turbidity and sedi- 
mentation will have temporary effects on the 
water quality. One hundred and thirty-six acres of 
land will be committed to the project. No alterna- 
tives are considered since the project is specifi- 
cally called for in a treaty. (Brackins-Florida) 
W72-07860 



BEAVER BROOK LAKE, KEENE, NEW 
HAMPSHIRE (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IM- 
PACT STATEMENT). 

Corps of Engineers, Waltham, Mass. New En- 
gland Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W72-07861 



DEVELOPMENT OF PRIVATE WATERFRONT 
CANALS. 

ENFO Newsletter, February 1972. 12 p, 4 photo. 

Descriptors: 'Florida, 'Dredging, 'Landfills, 
'Canal construction, Canal seepage. Fish-kill, 
Anaerobic conditions, Eutrophication, Water pol- 
lution effects, Public health, Coliforms, Aquatic 
bacteria, Aquatic microorganisms. Aquifer 
(Characteristics), Groundwater movement, Ru- 
noff, Water level fluctuations. Social aspects. 
Saline water instusion, Stagnant water. 

Extensive development of Florida waterfronts 
through dredge and fill operations and inland canal 
construction has created an ecological disaster. 
Fishing in bays has been dramatically reduced due 
to destruction of marine estuaries. Most canals are 
stagnant since tidal action has a limited effect 



upon inland canals. The excessive depth of canals 
creates temperature stratification and anaerobic 
bottoms resulting in fish kills. Accelerated 
eutrophication results from storm sewer runoff 
and decaying animal and vegetable matter in 
canals. Excessive coliform bacteria concentra- 
tions in most South Florida canals create health 
hazards. Drainage of the Biscayne aquifer by 
canals has caused water supply contamination by 
interflow of canal and groundwater in dry seasons. 
Saltwater intrusion is present further inland. 
Stormwater runoff stirs up anaerobic bottom sedi- 
ment which then runs into receiving waters. 
Recommended are the following actions: an im- 
mediate halt to canal construction pending a com- 
prehensive study, periodic examination of all 
canals for contamination, standardized procedures 
for making oxygen and coliform counts, studies to 
determine which canals are affecting aquifer quan- 
tity and quality, and a survey to determine which 
canals must be filled. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07871 



4B. Groundwater Management 



SUBSURFACE WASTE DISPOSAL CONTROL 
ACT, 

Congress, Washington, D.C.; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07418 



THE AMMONIUM ION AS AN INDICATOR OF 
ODL AND GAS (AMMONIY KAK ODIN IZ 
POKAZATELEY NEFTEGAZONOSNOSTI), 

Akademiya Nauk BSSR, Minsk. Laboratoriya 

Geokhimicheskikh Problem. 

G. V. Bogomolov, A. V. Kudel'skiy, and M. F. 

Kozlov. 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR Doklady, Vol 195, No 4, p 

938-940, 1970. 2 fig, 1 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Geochemistry, 'Groundwater 
basins, 'Groundwater movement, 'Natural gas, 
'Oil, Oil fields, Brines, Aquifers, Sedimentary 
rocks, Halogens, Volcanoes, Hydrogen ion con- 
centration, Exploration, Correlation analysis. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Ammonium, Mineralization. 

The ammonium ion (NH4) is a typical constituent 
of groundwater and brines in oil and gas basins and 
oil fields. Its concentration reaches several 
thousand mg/liter in the Pripyat basin and ranges 
from 600 to 1 ,625 mg/liter in fields of the Volga- 
Ural region, Angara-Lena basin and Lower Volga. 
The association of high NH4 concentrations in 
groundwater with oil and gas basins and oil fields 
makes it useful as an indicator of oil and gas. Com- 
parative analysis of groundwater of the Lower 
Volga, Ciscaucasia and Pripyat, West Turkmen, 
Angara-Lena, and other oil and gas basins reveals: 
(1) a correlation between NH4 concentrations and 
mineralization of groundwater and brines; (2) a 
relation between pH and NH4 concentrations in 
groundwater; and (3) an occurrence of maximum 
NH4 concentrations in groundwater and brines of 
basins whose sedimentary formations consist 
primarily of compact carbonate rocks and 
halogenic deposits. Two specific rules for the use 
of NH4 as an indicator of oil and gas can be 
established on the basis of the mode of its origin 
and distribution in groundwater: (1) under the ther- 
modynamic conditions of hydrogeological basins 
of nonvolcanic regions, NH4 is one of the conver- 
sion products of oil and is thus a direct indicator of 
the present or past occurrence of oil below the sur- 
face; and (2) the presence of NH4 can be effec- 
tively used to estimate the oil potential of in- 
dividual areas in basins containing highly concen- 
trated brines with a pH of less than 6.4. (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W72-07451 



USE OF NATURALLY OCCURRING 
PHENOMENA TO STUDY HYDRAULIC DIF- 
FUSIVITHiS OF AQUITARDS, 

Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of 

Geology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W72-07473 



RADIAL FLOW IN AN INFINITE AQUIFER UN- 
DERGOING CONVERSION FROM ARTESIAN 
TO WATER TABLE CONDITIONS, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W72-07474 



GEOLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES OF THE 
BITTERROOT VALLEY, SOUTHWESTERN 
MONTANA, 

Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1889, 

1972. 80 p, 32 fig, 1 plate, 13 tab, 31 ref. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02E. 

W72-07584 



WATER-LEVEL CHANGES 1964-71, 

NORTHERN HIGH PLAINS OF COLORADO, 

Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. Water 
Resources Div. 

W. E. Hofstra, J. M. Klein, and T. J. Major. 
Geological Survey Open-file Report 71004, Oc- 
tober 1971. 10 p, 5 fig, 1 plate, 1 tab, 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Hydrogeology, 'Water wells, 
'Water level fluctuations, 'Basic data collections, 
'Colorado, Hydrologic data, Groundwater, 
Withdrawal, Water yield, Irrigation, Aquifers, 
Aquifer characteristics, Observation wells, 
Hydrographs. 

Identifiers: 'Colorado (Northern High Plains), 
Groundwater hydrology. 

Groundwater withdrawals for irrigation increased 
from about 84,000 acre-feet to 430,000 acre-feet 
per year between 1960 and 1970 in the northern 
High Plains of Colorado, causing significant 
water-level declines in areas where high-capacity 
wells are concentrated. The number of wells in- 
creased from about 500 in 1960 to 2,560 in 1970. 
The northern High Plains of Colorado is formed 
from an erosional remanent of the Ogallala Forma- 
tion of Pliocene Age that extends from the South 
Platte River on the north to the Arkansas River on 
the south, and from Limon, Colo, on the west 
across the Colorado State line on the east. This 
area includes all or part of 11 counties and con- 
tains about 9,500 square miles. The report includes 
general information on groundwater resources; a 
map shows the net changes in water level in about 
300 wells between 1964 and 1971 and 11 hydro- 
graphs typical of the water-level changes. The 
hydrographs show water-level changes from 1964, 
or as early as 1956, to 1971, and illustrate the con- 
sistency of water-level change rates. (Woodard- 
USGS) 
W72-07589 



THE SHALLOW-AQUIFER SYSTEM IN DUVAL 
COUNTY, FLORIDA, 

Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Fla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02F. 

W72-07599 



ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AND THE 
MICROFLORA IN THE UNDERGROUND 
WATERS OF THE BUKHARO-KHIVINSK 
PETROLEUM AND GAS REGION, (IN RUS- 
SIAN), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07747 



OXIDATION-REDUCTION PHENOMENA IN 
ARTESIAN WELLS (OKISLITEL'NO-VOS- 



33 



Field 04— WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 
Group 4B — Groundwater Management 



STANOVITEL'NYYE YAVLENIYA V 

PERELIVAYUSHCHIKH SKVAZHINAKH), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Geologicheskii 

Institut. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07749 



POTENTIAL POLLUTION OF OGALLALA BY 
RECHARGING PLAYA LAKE WATER - PESTI- 
CIDES, 

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Water Resources 

Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07761 



GEOHYDROLOGY OF TATUM SALT DOME 
AREA, LAMAR AND MARION COUNTIES, 
MISS., VELA UNIFORM PROGRAM: PROJECT 
DRIBBLE, 

Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07828 

4C. Effects on Water of 
Man's Non- Water 
Activities 



RUNOFF VOLUMES FROM SMALL URBAN 
WATERSHEDS, 

Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Water Resources 

Research Inst. 

C. R. Miller, and W. Veissman, Jr. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 429- 

434, April 1972. 5 fig, 4 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Urban hydrology, * Rainfall-runoff 
relationships, * Precipitation excess, "Infiltration, 
Vegetation effects, Small watersheds. Depth-area- 
duration analysis, Urbanization, Runoff forecast- 
ing. 

An empirical equation estimates the runoff volume 
from rainfall on small urban watersheds. If the 
rainfall is less than 1.5 inches, the runoff is pre- 
dicted by the relationship between the percent im- 
pervious area in the watershed and the percent ex- 
cess rainfall. An adjustment is made for the initial 
abstraction combined with the initial surface 
depression storage. For rainfall amounts greater 
than 1.5 inches, an additional increment of runoff 
is added for the pervious areas by using the 
hydrologic soil class, the vegetative cover, and the 
controlling parameters. Detailed 1- or 5-min rain- 
fall and runoff records from four small urban 
watersheds for 77 storms were used to develop the 
procedure. The method was tested on 17 additional 
storms on these watersheds. The maximum predic- 
tion error was 37% for over 80% of the test events. 
The median error was 17% of the actual runoff. 
(Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07479 



A GENERAL RATIONALE FOR MODELING 
URBAN RUNOFF, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07487 



DETERMINISTIC URBAN RUNOFF MODEL, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07488 



URBAN WATER DATA NEEDS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07489 



DATA COLLECTION FOR REAL-TIME 
SYSTEMS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07490 



HYDROLOGIC EFFECTS OF WATER CON- 
TROL AND MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHEAST- 
ERN FLORIDA, 

Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Fla. 
S. D. Leach, H. Klein, and E. R. Hampton. 
Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau 
of Geology Report of Investigations, No 60, 1972. 
1 15 p, 47 fig, 12 tab, 24 ref. 

Descriptors: *Water management (Applied), 
*Flood control, 'Urbanization, 'Urban hydrolo- 
gy, 'Florida, Swamps, Saline water intrusion, 
Drainage, Canals, Land reclamation, Hydrogeolo- 
gy, Drainage practices. 

Identifiers: Everglades (Fla), Miami (Fla), Lake 
Okeechobee (Fla). 

Most of the land in southeastern Florida presently 
utilized for urban, suburban, and agricultural pur- 
poses was inundated all or much of the time under 
natural predevelopmental conditions. Early settle- 
ment was on the higher ground, where flooding 
during the rainy season was less probable. Major 
urban expansion in the 1900's occurred in the 
vicinity of Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West 
Palm Beach. Drainage canals were extended in- 
land along natural drainageways, and through 
transverse glades. Urban areas expanded west- 
ward on land formerly inundated or used for 
agriculture, displacing agriculture land farther in- 
land to the east edge of the Everglades. The prime 
effect of the water-control works in south Florida 
has been to facilitate the flow of water out of the 
Everglades. Before drainage, water levels were 
near or at land surface along much of the coastal 
ridge area. One principal effect of pre-1945 land- 
reclamation practices was the lowering of ground- 
water levels throughout the coastal ridge and in- 
terior areas. Overdrainage of many coastal areas 
allowed sea-water intrusion of canals and the 
Biscayne aquifer, the source of nearly all potable 
water in the area. The overdrainage has been ar- 
rested and, since 1954, water levels have tended to 
stabilize in most of Dade County. Yearly peak 
water levels are considerably lower than in pre- 
flood-control times, and yearly low water levels 
are higher than in pre-management times. The im- 
proved conditions of well-field production and 
salinity control are results of salinity barriers in 
canals and replenishment of water in well-field 
areas from canals. Additional improvements in the 
hydrologic situation in places in southeast Florida 
can be achieved by applying existing hydrologic 
management practices to smaller, specific areas of 
need, generally by installing additional salinity and 
water-control structures at key places in canals 
and by carefully manipulating these to maintain 
groundwater at the maximum levels that allow 
flood protection to urban and suburban areas. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07735 



THE EFFECT OF A CYCLONIC STORM ON 
THE ENERGY FLUXES AT THE URBAN IN- 
TERFACE-^ PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT, 

California Univ., Los Angeles. Dept. of Geog- 
raphy. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07742 



EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE ON 
THE QUALITY OF SURFACE RUNOFF, 

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Agricultural 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07818 



COASTAL LAND USE DEVELOPMENT: A 
PROPOSAL FOR CUMULATIVE AREA-WIDE 
ZONING, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 



W72-07872 

4D. Watershed Protection 



ROLE OF TERRACES ON STEEP SLOPES IN 
THE WATER BALANCE AND EROSION CON- 
TROL, 

K. I. Populidi, and K. K. Populidi. 
(Tr) Novo-Cherk Inzh-Melior Inst. 11 (5): 87-92. 
1969. 

Identifiers: Balance, Control, Erosion, Formation, 
Grass-M, Runoff, Slopes, Steep, Surface, Sward, 
Terraces, Tillage, Wheat. 

Terraces with horizontal transverse and longitu- 
dinal profiles can regulate the surface runoff form- 
ing on the slope and facilitate the accumulation of 
moisture in soil. Terraces 4 m wide facilitate max- 
imum mechanization of tillage and tending. The 
best conbination for sward-forming on the em- 
bankment slopes is wheatgrass with quack grassy- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07351 



CREATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF 
WATERSHED CONSERVANCY DISTRICTS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07407 



EVOLUTION OF RIVER VALLEYS IN THE 

SOUTHERN PART OF CENTRAL ASIA IN THE 

ANTHROPOGENE (ZAKONOMERNOSTI RAZ- 

VITIYA RECHNYKH DOLIN YUGA SREDNEY 

AZH V ANTROPOGENE), 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Fiziki 

Zemli. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07450 



CONTROL OF SEDIMENT IN THE URBAN EN- 
VIRONMENT, 

Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07491 



ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT 
OF SELECTED CROP PRACTICES ON WATER 
QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY-AN APPLI- 
CATION OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agricultural 

Economics. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07530 



END OF THE LANDSLIDE MENACE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W72-07588 



MINE SPOIL POTENTIALS FOR WATER 
QUALITY AND CONTROLLED EROSION. 

West Virginia Univ., Morgantown. Div. of Plant 

Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W72-07796 

05. WATER QUALITY 
MANAGEMENT AND 
PROTECTION 

5A. Identification of Pollutants 



THE ROLE OF THE INDIAN MONSOONS IN 
THE INTERHEMISPHERIC TRANSPORT OF 
RADIOACTIVE DEBRIS FROM NUCLEAR 
TESTS, 

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). 

Air Monitoring Section. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07291 



34 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5A 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SURFACE 

WATERS AND THEIR POLLUTION AND SELF- 

-PURIFICATION. METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF 

NATURAL WATERS (FORMIROVANIYE 

KHIMICHESKOGO SOSTAVA, ZAGRYAZ- 

NENIYE I SAMOOCHISHCHENIYE POVERKH- 

NOSTNYKH VOD. METODY ANALIZA PR 

IRODNYKH VOD). 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 

(USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07295 



RUBIDIUM AND CESIUM CONCENTRATIONS 
IN WATERS OF SOME WEAKLY SALINE 
LAKES OF NORTHWEST USSR AND 
KAMCHATKA (SODERZHANIYE RUBIDIYA I 
TSEZIYA V VODE NEKOTORYKH 

SLABOMINERALIZOVANNYKH OZER 

SEVERO-ZAPADA SSR I KAMCHATKI), 
Akademiya Nauk SSR, Leningrad. Institut 
Evolyutsionnoi Fiziologii i Biokhimii. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02H. 
W72-07297 



COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC ACIDS DIS- 
SOLVED IN SURFACE WATERS (O SOSTAVE 
ORGANICHESKIKH KISLOT, RAST- 

VORENNYKH V POVERKHNOSTNYKH 
VODAKH), 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 
(USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07298 



SPECTROGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF 

HEAVY METALS IN NATURAL WATERS AT 

INCREASED CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS 

(SPEKTROGRAFICHESKOYEOPREDELENIYE 

TYAZHELYKH METALLOV V PRmODNYKH 

VODAKH PRI POVYSHENNYKH KONTSEN- 

TRATSIYAKH KHROMA), 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 

(USSR). 

V. Ya. Yeremenko, and Ye. A. Mel'nikov. 

In: Formirovaniye khimicheskogo sostava, 

zagryazneniye i samoochishcheniye poverkhnost- 

nykh vod. Metody analiza prirodnykh vod; 

Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy, Vol 55, Leningrad, 

p 103-107, 1971. 3 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, 'Analytical 
techniques, 'Spectroscopy, 'Heavy metals, 
'Chromium, Nickel, Cobalt, Copper, Molyb- 
denum, Titanium, Aluminum, Iron, Lead, Man- 
ganese. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Water samples, Vanadium, 
Silver, Tin, Bismuth. 

On the basis of a method developed by the 
Novocherkassk Hydrochemical Institute for spec- 
trographs determination of heavy metals in natu- 
ral waters, the presence of 80 micrograms of Cr 
(VI) and 100 micrograms of Cr (HI) in a 0.5-liter 
water sample does not interfere with determina- 
tion of other elements (Ni, Co, Ag, Cu, V, Sn, Mo, 
Ti, Al, Bi, Fe, Pb, and Mn), which are determined 
with an error not exceeding plus or minus 20%. A 
method was also developed to determine Ni, Co, 
Ag, Cu, V, Sn, Mo, Bi, Pb, and Mn in natural 
waters when the Cr (III) concentration in a 0.5-liter 
water sample was 1 mg. The determination accura- 
cy of this method was also plus or minus 20%. (See 
also W72-07295) (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07303 



SEPARATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN 
WATER BY GAS-LIQUID CHROMATOG- 
RAPHY (RAZDEL'NOYE OPREDELENIYE 
UGLEVODORODOV V VODAKH METODOM 
GAZO-ZHIDKOSTNOY KHROMATOGRAFII), 
Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatelskii Institut 
Vodosnabzheniya, Kanalizatsii, Gidrotekh- 
nicheskikh Sooruzhenii i Inzhenernoi 
Gidrogeologii, Moscow (USSR). 
Yu. Yu. Lur'ye, V. A. Panova, and Z. V. 
Nikolayeva. 



In: Formirovaniye khimicheskogo sostava, 
zagryazneniye i samoochishcheniye poverkhnost- 
nykh vod. Metody analiza prirodnykh vod; 
Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy, Vol 55, Leningrad, 
p 108-125, 1971. 10 fig, 8 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, 'Water analysis, 
'Analytical techniques, 'Gas chromatography, 
'Organic compounds, Oil, Aqueous solutions, Pol- 
lutant identification. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, Chromatograms. 

Gas chromatography was proposed for determin- 
ing and identifying individual hydrocarbons of 
petroleum in water following their preliminary 
separation from water by direct extraction with 
hexane or chloroform, and adsorption on activated 
carbon prior to desorption by chloroform. 
Hydrocarbons can be identified from general chro- 
matograms provided no specific accuracy is 
required in their identification. When specific ac- 
curacy is required, hydrocarbons must first be 
separated on silica gel into paraffin-naphthene and 
aromatic components. The method can be used in 
many cases to identify pollutants and the main pol- 
lution offender. Determination accuracy of the 
method corresponds to the accuracy of gas-liquid 
chromatography, which is plus or minus 4 %-5%. 
(See also W72-07295) (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07304 



WATER QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION - 
TRACE ORGANICS, 

Mellon Inst., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

R. A. Baker, and B. A. Malo. 

American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal 

Sanitary Engineering Division, Vol. 93, No. SA6, 

p. 41-54, Paper 5637, December 1967. 60 ref. 

Descriptors: Water treatment, 'Water quality, 
Sanitary engineering, 'Microorganisms, 'Chro- 
matography, 'Spectroscopy, 'Analytical 
techniques, 'Water analysis, 'Organic com- 
pounds, Pollutant identification. 
Identifiers: 'Trace organics. 

A need exists for analytical procedures which per- 
mit identification and quantification of organic 
contaminants in aqueous systems in the milligram 
per liter to microgram per liter or lower, concen- 
tration range. The instrumental procedures which 
are most promising at present involve spectro- 
graphic and chromatographic techniques. How- 
ever, most of these instruments lack the sensitivity 
to analyze the organic directly at the levels found 
in natural and waste waters. Preliminary concen- 
tration techniques which do not alter either the in- 
dividual organic constituents or their relative dis- 
tribution in complex mixture are essential. Typical 
concentration and analytical procedures are 
reviewed with indications of sensitivity, limita- 
tions, and applications to water technology. (Bean- 
AWWARF) 
W72-07341 



REAGENTS FOR DETERMINATIONS OF 
TRACE IMPURITIES IN WATER, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Water Resources Center. 
A. L. Caskey, F. N. Abercrombie, R. J. 
Antepenko, G. D. Carlson, and R. A. Cox. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 597, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Illinois Water Resources 
Center Research, Urbana, Report No. 49, Februa- 
ry 1972. 249 p, 36 fig, 35 tab, 165 ref. OWRR A- 
022-ILL (2). 

Descriptors: 'Pollutant identification, 'Nitrates, 
'Cobalt, 'Trace elements, 'Sulfonates, 'Spec- 
trophotometry, Nitrites, Heavy metals, Instru- 
mentation, Groundwater, Analytical techniques, 
'Organic acids. 
Identifiers: 'Reagents. 

Sensitive, specific, stable, water-soluble reagents 
are needed for rapid, spectrophotometric deter- 
minations of trace impurities in water. Syntheses, 
purifications, and characterizations of the 



naphthol-mono-sulfonic acids are described. Data 
essential to the quantitative evaluation of various 
naphtholsulfonic acids is presented. A new 
method for the determination of nitrate in water is 
described; the proposed method, which uses 2- 
nitroso-l-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid, is much more 
rapid than the presently accepted standard 
methods for determination of nitrate. Another 
method, which uses l-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid for 
the determination of nitrate and proposed by 
another worker has been critically evaluated and 
found to be satisfactory only under very carefully 
controlled conditions. A new reagent, sodium 2- 
nitroso-l-naphthol-5-sulfonate, has been proposed 
for the rapid, specific, sensitive determination of 
cobalt in natural waters. The method can readily 
be applied to such diverse systems as lakes where 
agricultural fertilizer run-off may be significant, to 
effluents from plants in the metallurgical industry, 
to natural-water systems in highly mineralized 
areas, and to run-off from strip-mined lands. Ef- 
fective new research areas are identified as an ex- 
tension of the work reported here: better methods 
for the determination of nitrate in water, and more 
sensitive methods for the determination of cobalt 
in water are envisioned. 
W72-07354 



TRACE ELEMENTS IN BLACK SEA 
SAPROPEL MUDS AND THEIR INTERACTION 
WITH ORGANIC INTERACTION WITH OR- 
GANIC MATTER (RASSEYANNYYE ELEMEN- 
TY V SAPROPELEVYKH ILAKH CHERNOGO 
MORYA I IKH VZAIMOSVYAZ' S OR- 
GANICHESKIM VESHCHESTVOM), 
Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Oke- 
anologii. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07456 



ON DETERMINATION OF BOD AND PARAME- 
TERS IN POLLUTED STREAM MODELS FROM 
DO MEASUREMENTS ONLY, 

Purdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. School of Electrical 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07470 



REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF STREAMFLOW 
CHEMICAL QUALITY IN TEXAS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Water 

Resources Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07476 



THE ACETYLENE REDUCTION ASSAY FOR 
MEASURING NITROGEN FIXATION IN 
WATERLOGGED SOIL, 

Department of Agriculture, Beaverlodge (Al- 
berta). Research Station. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07557 



TRACE ELEMENTS IN NATURAL WATERS OF 
THE SEMD7ALATINSK REGION, (IN RUS- 
SIAN), 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W72-07565 



WATER-QUALITY RECORDS FOR THE HUB- 
BARD CREEK WATERSHED, TEXAS, OC- 
TOBER 1967-SEPTEMBER 1969, 

Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 

W72-07577 



THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CONDI- 
TIONS OF CHESAPEAKE BAY; AN EVALUA- 
TION, 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. Chesapeake 

Bay Inst. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W72-07597 



35 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



OCCURRENCE OF ALKYLMERCURY COM- 
POUND IN CAUSTIC SODA FACTORY, 

Kurume Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07620 



METHOD FOR DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF 
THE RADIUM AND RADON CONTENT OF 
SPRING WATERS USING GAMMA SPEC- 
TROMETRY, 

Lyon Univ. (France). Faculty of Medicine and 

Pharmacy; and Lyon Univ. (France). Lab. of 

Biological Physics. 

C. A. BiZollon, R. Moret, and J. P. Molgatini. 

Ann Phys Biol Med. 5 (1) 1971 . 45-63. 

Identifiers: Direct, Gamma, Measurement, 

Method, Radium, Radon, Spectrometry, Spring. 

A direct method allowing the measurement of Ra 
and Rn in spring waters is described. The method 
is developed and applied to several spring waters 
coming from Massif Central and Alps. --Copyright 
1971, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07642 



PREPARATION OF SINGLE-LAYER TISSUE 
CULTURE FROM CRUCIAN CARP AND COM- 
MON CARP GONADS, (PRIGOTOVLENIE OD- 
NOSLOINOI KUL'TURY TKANEI IZ GONAD 
KARASYA I KARPA), 

Gosudarstvennyi Nauchno-Issledovatelskii In- 
stitut Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozyaist- 
va, Leningrad (USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07643 



MARINE RESOURCES SPECTROMETER EX- 
PERIMENT, 

TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, Calif. 
R. C. Ramsey. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-733 685, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Final Report, November 1971. 
83 p, 146 fig, 3 tab. Contract No. N62306-71-C- 
0153. 

Descriptors: *Remote sensing, *Spectrometers, 
•Fish, Mullets, Mississippi, California, Gulf of 
Mexico, Ocean, Spectroscopy, Systematics. 
Identifiers: Menhaden, Anchovy, Epipelagic 
schools, Spectral reflectance. 

Studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility 
of remote sensing techniques to identify epipelagic 
schools of marine fish. It was determined that aeri- 
al spectrometry is not a recommended procedure. 
Spectral contract ratios in the visible region of the 
spectrum between the radiance from fish schools 
and adjoining water were obtained by an airborne 
spectrometer. Most of the data presented are of 
menhaden just after capture in a purse seine, and 
of natural mullet schools. These data were taken 
from a helicopter near the Mississippi Delta. Addi- 
tional data for natural anchovy schools were ob- 
tained off the coast of Southern California from a 
seaplane. A repeatable signature for the mullet 
was definitely established. Useful contrast ratios 
were not obtained for the menhaden or anchovy 
schools. For the menhaden, this was due to the 
muddy water caused by seining operations. If ad- 
ditional studies are pursued, an instrument utiliz- 
ing a selectable, differential waveband comparison 
technique is recommended. Additionally, con- 
siderably more data are required on many species 
taken under different environmental conditions to 
establish definite signatures for the species of in- 
terest. Even then, the probability of an airborne 
spectrometer replacing or significantly aiding 
human fish spotters is doubtful. However, these 
series of tests have not fully explored the potential 
of visual spectroscopy as an aid to stock assess- 
ment and management. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07649 



WATER USES AND WASTES IN THE TEXTILE 
INDUSTRY, 

Clemson Univ., S.C. 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07650 



QC TOOLS SNIFF POLLUTANTS. 

Quality Progress, Vol. 4, No. 12, p 4-5, December 
1971. 

Descriptors: *Pollutant identification, 'Instrumen- 
tation, 'Monitoring, 'Automation, 'Computers, 
Equipment, Water pollution, Industrial wastes, 
Gas chromatography, Pollutants, Water quality 
control, Organic wastes, Chemical wastes, 
Analytical techniques. 

Identifiers: 'Organic pollution, Detection, 
Genesee River. 

Eastman Kodak Company uses a computerized 
gas chromatograph to detect and identify vapors in 
pipes carrying industrial wastes through its largest 
manufacturing complex, Kodak Park. The gas 
chromatograph identifies possible pollution 
sources, analyzes chemicals, and can raise an 
alarm after detecting and identifying potentially 
troublesome vapors. The computer can handle cal- 
culations as to what chemicals are present and the 
amounts for 20 gas chromatographs simultane- 
ously. Scientists at North American Rockwell Cor- 
poration's Rocketdyne Division have developed a 
method for detecting organic pollution in water in 
15-30 minutes utilizing analytical hardware, 
mathematical logic, and computer procedures. 
This new technique, which involves heating a pol- 
luted water sample to a high temperature and 
separating the resulting gaseous mixture into its in- 
dividual components, is being studied jointly by 
Rocketdyne and EPA. The method has been 
demonstrated with a single material and a mixture 
of materials. Presently, up to four compositions in 
water can be determined. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07652 



OPTICAL MULTICHANNEL ANALYZER, 

Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W72-07653 



DUAL ULTRAVIOLET SENSOR, 

Waterloo Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W72-07654 



SHORT CUT FUSED PEAK RESOLUTION 
METHOD FOR CHROMATOGRAMS, 

International Business Machines Corp., Palo Alto, 

Calif. Data Processing Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07655 



BETA-GLUCOSU)ASE ENZYME DETERMINA- 
TION WITH ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODES, 

State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

R. A. Llenado, and G. A. Rechnitz. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 468-471, 7 

fig, 1 tab, 23 ref, March 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Enzymes, 'Membranes, 'Elec- 
trochemistry, Separation techniques, Ion 
exchange, Hydrogen ion concentration, 
Fluorometry, Laboratory equipment, Ions, Equip- 
ment. 

Identifiers: 'Ion selective electrodes, *Beta-glu- 
cosidase, 'Amygdalin, Method validation, Cya- 
nides, Biological samples, Acetylcholinesterase, 
Assay, Substrate concentration, Membrane elec- 
trodes. Precision, Detection limit. 

A new analytical method is described for the assay 
of beta-glucosidase based on the reaction rate for 
hydrolysis of amygdaline as measured with a cya- 
nide ion selective electrode under controlled con- 
ditions. The cyanide produced by the enzyme 
reaction is sensed by the electrodes, and a plot of 
potential versus time, which gives the reaction rate 



measurement, is automatically recorded using a 
Beckman Model 1055 recorder. At a fixed enzyme 
concentration, the initial rate increases with amyg- 
dalin concentration until a nonlimiting excess of 
substrate is reached. pH and temperature affect 
reaction rate. With this method, as little as 0.01 mg 
of enzyme per 100 microliters can be determined 
with a precision of two percent and an analysis 
time of approximately one minute as compared to 
the 30 minutes required by Robinson's fluoromet- 
ric technique and methods based on salicin. (Jef- 
feris-Battelle) 
W72-07656 



INTRINSIC END-POINT ERRORS IN TITRA- 
TION WITH ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES. 
CHELOMETRIC TITRATIONS, 

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Chemistry. 

P. W. Carr. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 452-456, 4 

fig, 5 tab, 11 ref, March 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Volumetric analysis, 'Chelation, 
Electrodes, Ions, Mathematical studies, Equa- 
tions, Chemical precipitation, Methodology, 
Statistical methods, Analytical techniques. 
Identifiers: 'End-point errors, 'Ion selective elec- 
trodes, 'Chelometric titrations, Gran plots, Ionic 
interference, Method evaluation, Errors, Chemi- 
cal interference, Precision. 

The precision of chelometric titrations using ion 
selective electrodes as end-point indicators was 
tested in order to ascertain the existence of end- 
point errors. The major part of the work was con- 
cerned with end points located from the inflection 
point in the potential volume curve; however, the 
case of titration to a preset end-point potential or 
by the method of Gran plots was also evaluated. 
The position of the inflection point depends 
strongly upon beta, defined as the product of the 
equilibrium constant (K to the zero prime power) 
and the initial analyte concentration (C subcapital 
A to the zero prime power), and upon the mag- 
nitude of the ionic interference (b). As implied 
from the results obtained, the error increases as 
beta decreases or b increases. To achieve a preci- 
sion better than plus or minus 0.1 percent, titra- 
tions must be carried out under conditions where 
beta is greater than 10,000 and b is less than 0.01. 
Titration to a preset potential was shown to be su- 
perior to the inflection-point method only under 
restricted conditions where b and beta are both 
small. The method of Gran plots did not entail any 
serious determinate errors; however, as ionic in- 
terference increased, the precision deteriorated. 
Under titration conditions, where activity coeffi- 
cients and liquid junction potentials are constant, 
Gran's method is preferable. (Jefferis-Battelle) 
W72-07657 



IONIZATION SOURCES IN MASS SPEC- 
TROMETRY, 

Du Pont Instruments, Monrovia, Calif. 

E. M. Chait. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 77-88, 91,7 

fig, 13 ref, March 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Ionization, 'Instrumentation, Spec- 
trometers, Ions, Chromatography, Analytical 
techniques, Chemical analysis, Methodology, 
Molecular structure. 

Identifiers: 'Mass spectrometry, 'Ion sources, 
Field ionization, Chemical ionization. Spark 
source ionization, Surface ionization, Photo 
ionization, Forensics, Toxicology, Plasma chro- 
matography, Electron impact ionization, 
Polymers, Cold electron sources. 

The various ionization sources utilized in mass 
spectrometry are discussed in relation to (1) types 
of samples analyzed, (2) description and principle 
of operation, and (3) limitations. The ion sources 
include field, chemical, spark source, surface, 
photo, and electron impact. The electron impact 
source is the most commonly used and highly 
developed ionization method. However, the trend 



36 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5A 



is toward more gentle methods of ionization for 
very specific detection of limited classes of com- 
pounds. Field and chemical ionizations will be 
used increasingly in the area of increased molecu- 
lar ion abundance and simplified spectra. Future 
developments in ion sources will probably include 
new methods for the analysis of previously in- 
tractable solid materials such as polymers and cold 
electron sources, radioactive beta emitters such as 
Nickel-63 which has been successfully demon- 
strated in the plasma chromatograph, a very sensi- 
tive device for air pollution sampling. (Jefferis- 
Battelle) 
W72-07658 



EFFECT OF MERCURY ON ALGAL GROWTH 
RATES, 

Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07660 



ANALYSIS OF ARSENIC AND BROMINE IN 
MARINE AND TERRESTRIAL OILS, 

Central Inst, for Industrial Research, Oslo (Nor- 
way). 
G. Lunde. 

Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 
Vol 49, No 1 , p 44-47, January 1972. 1 fig, 4 tab, 9 
ref. 

Descriptors: *Oil, 'Separation techniques, 
'Neutron activation analysis, Arsenic compounds, 
Distillation, Lipids, Marine plants, Marine 
animals. Fish, Shrimp, Lobsters, Clams, Mussels, 
Snails, Herrings, Aquatic weeds. 
Identifiers: *Animal oils, 'Vegetable oils, 
Bromine, Fish oil, Saponification, Seaweed, 
Soybean oil. Linseed oil, Cod liver oil, Mackerel 
oil, Silica gel, Starfish, Squid, Capelin, Plaice, 
Biological samples, Mallotus villosus, Clupea 
harengus, Sacomber scomber, Gadus morrhua, 
Pleuronectes, Pecten maximum, Ommatos- 
trephes, Asterias rubens, Pandalus borealis, 
Homarus vulgaris, Mytilus edulis, Littorina lit- 
torea, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria saccharina, 
Laminaria hyperborea, Ascophyllum nodosum, 
Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis, 
Pelvetia canaliculata. 

Analytical results indicate that lipid soluble 
bromine and arseno organic compounds are 
characteristic of marine animal and plant 
(seaweed) oils. Oils were produced and saponified 
using conventional methods, and neutron activa- 
tion techniques were used to analyze for bromine 
and arsenic. Samples of cod liver oil and oil ex- 
tracted from mackerel fillets were fractionated on 
silica gel columns to determine bromine. In addi- 
tion to showing the presence of bromine and ar- 
senic, the results indicated that bromine is not lo- 
calized in any particular compound or type of 
compounds. Bromine-containing compounds were 
relatively stable; arseno-containing compounds 
were not. Saponification showed that some of the 
arsenic and bromine compounds were in the fatty 
acid fractions while others appeared in the water 
soluble fraction. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07662 



COMPOSITION OF PHYTOPLANKTON OFF 
THE SOUTHEASTERN COAST OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 

Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07663 



EFFICIENT METHOD FOR DEGASSING SUR- 
FACTANT SOLUTIONS FOR POLARO- 
GRAPHIC ANALYSIS, 

Hunter Coll., New York. 

J. Novodoff, and H. W. Hoyer. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1, p 202-203, 

January 1972. 3 fig, 6 ref. 



Descriptors: 'Surfactants, 'Polarographic analy- 
sis, Laboratory equipment, Foam separation, Dis- 
solved oxygen, Analytical techniques. 
Identifiers: Degassing, Laboratory techniques, 
Chemical interference. 

Complete removal of dissolved oxygen is necessa- 
ry in the polarographic analysis of most ions, since 
the polarographic waves of oxygen at -0.05 and-0.9 
volts vs. SCE might interfere with analysis. When 
surfactant material is involved in polarographic 
analysis, removal of oxygen by usual degassing 
techniques results in extensive foaming, or 
requires use of elaborate apparatus. A new method 
involves a disk device fabricated from lucite 
plastic which simultaneously degasses surfactant 
solutions and breaks foam when generated. Excel- 
lent results were obtained using this device. The 
disk can be adapted to any polarographic cell and 
fabricated from any easily machined material. 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07665 



IDENTIFICATION AND ESTIMATION OF 
NEUTRAL ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN 
POTABLE WATER, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Inst, for Atomic 

Research; and Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

A. K. Burnham, G. V. Calder, J. S. Fritz, G. A. 

Junk, and H. J. Svec. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1, p 139-142, 

January 1972. 3 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Separation techniques, 'Gas chro- 
matography, 'Organic compounds, Industrial 
wastes, Water pollution, Pollutant identification, 
Laboratory equipment, Trace elements, Potable 
water. 

Identifiers: 'Mass spectrometry, Detection limits, 
Resins, Absorbents, Methyl isobutyl ketone, n- 
Hexanol, Ethyl butyrate, Benzene, Naphthalene, 
Benzene sulfonic acid, p-Toluene sulfonic acid, 
Benzoic acid, Phenylenediamine, 2-Hydroxy-3- 
napththoic acid, Phenol, 2 4-Dimethylphenol, p- 
Nitrophenol, 2-Methylphenol, 4 6-Dinitro-2- 
aminophenol, Aniline, o-Cresol, Acenaphthylene, 
1-Methylnaphthalene, Methylindenes (Two 
isomers), Indene, Acenaphthene, 2 2- 
Benzothiophene, Isopropylbenzene, Ethyl 
benzene, Naphthalene, 2 3-Dihydroindene, Alkyl- 

2 3-dihydroindene, Alkyl benzenes, Alkyl 
benzothiophenes, Alkyl naphthalenes. 

Because of the disadvantages of charcoal absorp- 
tion and solvent extraction techniques for retrieval 
of trace organic contaminants in drinking water, a 
new method has been developed using XAD-2 and 
XAD-7 macroreticular resin beds. These beds can 
extract weak acids, bases, and neutral compounds 
quantitatively from polluted water. Resolution 
levels of parts per billion to parts per million are 
possible with a gas chromatograph-mass spec- 
trometer combination and spectrometric methods. 
The apparatus consists of a 1.5 cm column filled 
with 7.0 cm of 100-150 mesh Rohm and Haas 
XAD-2 or 7 resins. Spiked water samples were 
tested and used as a basis for comparison with 
samples from a well contaminated with organic 
compounds. It was assumed that retention and elu- 
tion efficiency of the column was 100 percent over 

3 runs. The source of the contamination was ap- 
parently a coal gas plant. The compounds 
identified by this method were consistent with the 
source of contamination. The simplicity of equip- 
ment allows easy field sampling. The sorption 
process appears reversible yielding qualitative and 
quantitative results. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07666 



INTERACTIVE GEL NETWORKS. I. TREAT- 
MENT OF SIMPLE COMPLEXATION AND 
MASKING PHENOMENA, 

National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. 

Inst, for Materials Research. 

D. H. Freeman. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1, p 117-120, 

January 1972. 1 fig, 5 tab, 1 1 ref. 



Descriptors: 'Separation techniques, Chemical 
stratification, Chemical analysis. 
Identifiers: 'Liquid chromatography, 'Masking, 
Complexation, Gels, Interactive gel networks, 
Solute dimerization, Chemical interference. 

The stoichiometry and theory of simple acceptor: 
donor complexation equilibria, treated as idealized 
associative processes are explored. These interac- 
tions extend the separation capabilities provided 
by gel chromatography. Chromatographic mea- 
surements involving a diffusible solute and solvent 
and the nondiffusible gel component can be pre- 
dicted and evaluated by equations developed 
herein. Systems treated include: (1) inert species, 
(2) simple solute:gel complexation, (3) solute.gel 
complexation with solvent:gel masking, (4) 
solute:gel complexation with solvent:solute mask- 
ing, and (5) the effects of solute dimerization and 
solute disfunctionality. Interactions are expressed 
in terms of distribution coefficient expressions, 
which are tied to the equation for liquid chro- 
matography. The results are directly applicable to 
the experimentally measured solute distribution 
coefficient. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07667 



RAPID SEPARATION AND DETERMINATION 
OF NONIONIC SURFACTANTS OF THE 
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL-MONOALKYL 

PHENYL ETHER-TYPE BY COLUMN LIQUID 
CHROMATOGRAPHY, 

Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Lab. of Analyti- 
cal Chemistry. 

J. F. K. Huber, F. F. M. Kolder, and J. M. Miller. 
Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1, p 105-110, 
January 1972. 6 fig, 1 tab, 35 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Laboratory equipment, Surfactants, 
Detergents, Water analysis, Phase diagrams, Pol- 
lutant identification. 

Identifiers: 'Liquid chromatography, 'Non-ionic 
surfactants, Detection limits, Polyoxyethylene, 
Polyoxypropylene, Alkyl phenol ethyoxylates. 

Because of the widespread use of non-ionic sur- 
factants in detergents and as emulsifying agents in 
cosmetics and paints, research was conducted to 
improve chromatographic methods for routine 
analysis and water pollution studies. Liquid chro- 
matography employing a custom 23 cm column in- 
jection port, and ultraviolet detector was chosen 
as the most feasible method. Use of these com- 
ponents was aimed at finding a phase system yield- 
ing a linear isothermic distribution with maximal 
selectivity for polyethylene glycol-non phenyl 
ethers. The phase system using PGE-400 as the 
stationary phase provided rapid routine analysis. 
Analysis was achieved for a series of adducts of 1- 
20 ethylene oxide units with subsequent charac- 
terization of commercial products. Time for 
separation varied, depending on resolution and 
component member, from 5-30 minutes. Approxi- 
mate precision is 0.4 percent, with a detection limit 
estimated at 0.2 micrograms. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07668 



D3ENTIFICATION OF HYDROCARBON POL- 
LUTANTS ON SEAS AND BEACHES BY GAS 
CHROMATOGRAPHY, 

Shell Research Ltd., Chester (England). Thornton 

Research Centre. 

E. R. Adlard, L. F. Creaser, and P. H. D. 

Matthews. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 1, p 64-73, 

January 1972. 9 fig, Href. 

Descriptors: 'Gas chromatography, 'Oil, 
Beaches, Oceans, Sulfur, Fuels, Water pollution 
sources, Water analysis, Flame photometry, Pol- 
lutant identification, Laboratory equipment, Sea 
water, Chromatography. 

Identifiers: 'Oil characterization, Flame 
photometric detectors, Crude oil. Fuel oil, Oil 
residues, Flame ionization detectors, Hydrocar- 
bon pollutants, Capillary columns, Boiling point, 
Oil fingerprinting. 






37 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



Identification of general classifications of 
hydrocarbon pollutants, i.e., crude oils, fuel oils, 
residues, can be accomplished more accurately by 
a modified gas chromatographic technique which 
requires no sample preparation, needs only small 
samples, and uses standard and relatively inexpen- 
sive equipment. 'Fingerprinting' of the pollutants 
is possible by determining boiling ranges and or- 
ganic sulfur contents. The experimental procedure 
employs a flame ionization detector (FID) coupled 
with a flame photometric sulfur detector (FPD) for 
simultaneous sample analysis. Details and modifi- 
cations of the equipment are presented with 
discussion on the application of the technique to 
pollution studies. Chromatograms obtained in- 
dicate that sulfur contents of samples can be esti- 
mated and used as 'fingerprints' to identify the 
pollutant. Weathering can be shown by FID data 
because of the loss of volatile material. Weather- 
ing has small effect on FPD fingerprinting. FPD al- 
lows identification of degraded pollutants since 
sulfur selective microorganisms are less common 
than paraffin selective ones. Use of capillary 
columns for introduction of samples increases 
resolution, but samples must be prepared and be 
of lower sulfur content. Advantages of the 
procedure are: rapid screening, cheap operation, 
availability of equipment, and increased diagnostic 
value. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07669 



DETECTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETER- 
MINATION OF CERTAIN CHLORINATED 
PESTICIDES BY MICRO-THIN LAYER CHRO- 
MATOGRAPHY, 

Central Food Technological Research Inst., 

Mysore (India). 

K. Visweswariah, and M. Jayaram. 

Journal of Chromatography, Vol 62, No 3, p 479- 

484, November 25, 1971. 1 fig, 4 tab, Href. 

Descriptors: 'Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, 
"Pesticide residues, DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, Spec- 
troscopy, Gas chromatography, Insecticides, 
Color, Wheat, Methodology, Gels. 
Identifiers: "Micro-thin layer chromatography, 
•Spot diameter method, "Visual extinction, Cap- 
tan, GHC, DDE, DDA, Lindane, DDD, 
Metabolites, Precision, Detection limits, o- 
tolidine, Chromogenic agents, Chloroform, Er- 
rors, Chemical recovery. Benzene hexachloride. 
Cleanup. 

It is possible to use a combination of the visual ex- 
tinction and spot diameter methods on micro-thin 
layer chromatography (micro-TLC) slides for the 
rapid detection and quantitative estimation of 
pesticides. When a series of spots of known con- 
centrations of chlorinated pesticides was run on 
micro-TLC plates, the minimum quantity detecta- 
ble using o-tolidine as the chromogenic agent was 
found to be (1) 0.015-0.02 micrograms for DDT, 
lindane, captan, and BHC and (2) 0.3 micrograms 
and above for aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, DDD, DDA, 
and DDE. The concentration range was also as- 
sessed by the different shades of color produced. 
In order to eliminate variation in spot sizes for the 
quantitative method, chloroform was used in 
preparing the silica gel slurry. A straight-line rela- 
tionship was found to exist, in most cases, 
between quantity of pesticide and spot area. There 
is no correlation between spot diameter and 
molecular weight. Known quantities of pure pesti- 
cide samples were used to check the reproducibili- 
ty and accuracy of the two methods. Error in the 
visual extinction method varied between three and 
five percent as compared to 4-5.7 percent in the 
spot diameter method. Wheat samples treated with 
lindane, DDT, and captan were estimated by the 
visual extinction and spot diameter methods after 
clean-up. Pesticide recovery was 90-92 percent 
with an accuracy within 6 percent. (Jefferis-Bat- 
teUe) 
W72-07670 



COMPUTER MATCHING OF PYROLYSIS 
CHROMATOGRAMS OF PATHOGENIC 
MICROORGANISMS, 

Emory Univ., Atlanta, Ga. Dept. of Chemistry. 
F. M. Menger, G. A. Epstein, D. A. Goldberg, and 
E. Reiner. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 2, p 423-424, 
February 1972. 1 tab,6ref. 

Descriptors: "Bacteria, "Gas chromatography, 
"Computers, Analytical techniques, Pathogenic 
bacteria, Microorganisms, Computer programs, 
Systematics, Data storage retrieval. Automation, 
Chromatography. 

Identifiers: "Pyrolysis-gas-liquid chromatography, 
"Pyrochromatograms, Chemotaxonomy, Chro- 
matograms, Identification, Gas liquid chromatog- 
raphy. 

The feasibility of using the computer to compare 
bacterial pyrochromatograms in the identification 
of pathogenic species is demonstrated for the first 
time. Pyrochromatograms were obtained with the 
Barber-Colman Series 5000 gas chromatograph 
equipped with a flame ionization detector. A com- 
puter program was written which directed an RCA 
Spectra 70/55 to read peak heights and retention 
times characteristic of an unknown bacterium, to 
search a file of PELC parameters of known bac- 
teria, and to produce as output the identity of the 
unknown if contained in the library. All pyrochro- 
matograms, known and unknown, are secured 
under identical conditions from 90-100 micrograms 
dry weight of bacteria. Ten unknowns were ex- 
amined and nine of them were identified correctly. 
The one disadvantage is that the search program 
gives only a 'yes' or 'no' answer. A program which 
quantitatively assesses the degree of bacteria] dif- 
ferences would be more powerful. (Holoman-Bat- 
telle) 
W72-07671 



DETERMINATION OF TRACES OF URANIUM 
BY RADIOISOTOPE ENERGY DISPERSIVE X- 
-RAY (EDX) ANALYSIS, 

Kennecott Copper Corp., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Research Dept. 

C. C. Bertrand, and T. A. Linn, Jr. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 2, p 383-384, 

February 1972. 2 tab, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: "Uranium radioisotopes, "Aqueous 
solutions, "X-ray analysis, Water analysis, Waste 
water (Pollution), Brines, Mine water, Ground 
water, Spectrophotometry, Separation 

techniques, Analytical techniques, Methodology, 
Radioactivity techniques. 

Identifiers: "Chemical interference, 

"Radioisotope energy dispersive x-ray, EDX, 
Acid process solutions, Uranium, Precision. 

A rapid, simple procedure for determining traces 
of uranium in a variety of aqueous samples in- 
volves separation of the uranium by the addition 
of barium sulfate which acts as a collector of 
uranium (IV) and other III- and IV-valent cations. 
The separated uranium is then analyzed by EDX 
analysis. The relative precision of the method was 
tested by ten-replicate analysis of process tailing 
solution samples and compared with data from a 
solvent extraction-spectrophotometric method. 
The relative precision ranges from 4-20 percent for 
20.0-1.0 ppm uranium. The procedure has been ap- 
plied successfully to samples of ground water, 
acid process solutions, mine waters with large 
amounts of metal cations, waste waters, and 
brines. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07673 



IMPROVED AMPEROMETRIC PROCEDURE 
FOR DETERMINING PLUTONIUM, 

New Brunswick Lab. (AEC), N.J. 

C. E. Hedrick, C. E. Pietri, A. W. Wenzel, and M. 

W. Lerner. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 2, p 377-378, 

February 1972. 2 tab, 6 ref. 



Descriptors: "Volumetric analysis, Ions, Chromi- 
um, Manganese, Catalysts, Reduction (Chemical), 
Methodology. 

Identifiers: "Amperometric titration, "Plutonium, 
"Chemical interference, Cerium, Arsenite, Osmi- 
um, Vanadium, Arsenic, Precision. 

The improved amperometric method for determin- 
ing plutonium eliminates interference by cerium, 
chromium, and manganese by selective reduction 
before titration with arsenite and osmium (VIII) 
catalyst. Vanadium interference remains, but 
amounts up to 250 ppm can be tolerated. Certain 
process samples were analyzed by this method and 
compared with the New Brunswick laboratory ion- 
exchange separation method and a conventional 
amperometric method. Tabulated data confirm 
that there is interference by vanadium. The rela- 
tive standard deviation of the improved am- 
perometric method is 0.05 percent with an average 
relative difference from the NBL method of plus 
0.03 percent. The procedure is rapid, requiring 
about 30 minutes after sample preparation as com- 
pared to about 2 hours for a method employing 
prior separation of impurities such as ion 
exchange. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07674 



AUTOMATED METHOD FOR DETERMINA- 
TION OF NITRILOTRIACETIC ACU) IN NATU- 
RAL WATER, DETERGENTS, AND SEWAGE 
SAMPLES, 

Department of the Environment, Ottawa (On- 
tario). Inland Waters Branch. 
B. K. Afghan, P. D. Goulden, and J. F. Ryan. 
Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 2, p 354-359, 
February 1972. 6 fig, 2 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: "Automation, "Water analysis, 
"Polarographic analysis, "Analytical techniques, 
"Methodology, Detergents, Chemical analysis, 
Water quality, Sewage effluents, Pollutants, 
Water pollution, Chelation, Lakes, Reduction 
(Chemical), Magnesium, Calcium, Copper, 
Cobalt, Vanadium, Ions, Iron, Chromium, Fresh 
water, Sea water, Automatic control, Heavy 
metals, Laboratory equipment, Sewage, Metals. 
Identifiers: "Nitnlotriacetate, "Chemical inter- 
ference, Twin cell oscillographic DC polarograph, 
Chelating agents, Metal complexes, Zinc, An- 
timony, Indium, Vanadium, Hydroxylamine 
hydrochloride, Arsenic, Cadmium, Nickel, 
Chromium (III), Chromium (IV), Iron (II), Iron 
(HI), Laboratory techniques, Detection limit, 
Precision. 

The method for determination of NTA which is 
based on the formation of a bismuth-NTA com- 
plex at pH 2 has been automated using twin cell 
oscillographic DC polarography. Determinations 
can be made down to 10 micrograms/liter without 
any preconcentration or separation of samples. All 
manual operations of sample preparation and 
polarographic determination are automated and 
analysis may be performed at a rate of 15 samples 
per hour without any manual chemical manipula- 
tion. The effects of interfering ions on NTA deter- 
mination were studied and of the 13 ions tested, 
iron (III) was found to be the only ion that inter- 
fered. It forms a complex with NTA at pH 2 which 
has a prewave close to that of the bismuth com- 
plex. Reduction of iron (III) with hydroxylamine 
eliminates this interference. Quantitative recovery 
of NTA from different metal complexes is accom- 
plished by the described method. Typical results 
obtained by the Ottawa Water Quality Division 
laboratory after using the automated method for 
over 18 months showed that the coefficient of 
variation of the method at 100 micrograms/liter 
was 1.3 percent. (Little-Battelle) 
W72-07675 



COULOMETRIC MICRODETERMINATION OF 
NEODYMIUM USING FEEDBACK-CO- 

NTROLLED ELECTROLYSIS CURRENT, 

Missouri Univ., Columbia. 

J. E. McCracken, J. C. Guyon, and W. D. Shults. 



38 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5A 



Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 2, p 305-308, 
February 1972. 3 fig, 3 tab, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Electrolysis, 'Volumetric analysis, 
Electrodes, Electrolytes, Ions. 
Identifiers: 'Neodymium, 'Rare-earth elements, 
•Coulometric titrimetry, Coulombs, Feedback- 
controlled coulometric titrator, Complexometric 
titration, Nd (III), Ion selective electrodes. 

Methods have been developed for the coulomet- 
ric, complexometric microdetermination of 
neodymium using feedback-controlled electrolysis 
current. Determinations were made in a machined 
Teflon microcoulometric cell that used a mercury 
pool generating electrode and a Pt (Hg) indicator 
electrode. The intermediate electrolyte was an am- 
monium acetate buffer solution containing Na2H- 
gEDTA. Three different techniques were studied 
and compared using this chemical system. The op- 
timum technique exhibited a standard deviation of 
0.3 microgram in the sample range 1.2 to 170 
microgram of neodymium. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07676 



FAST REACTION FLOW SYSTEM USING 
CRYSTAL-MEMBRANE ION-SELECTIVE 

ELECTRODES, 

State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07677 



ELECTRODEPOSITION OF ACTINIDES FOR 
4LPHA SPECTROMETRIC DETERMINATION, 

Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, 
Nev. Western Environmental Research Lab. 
N. A.Talvitie. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 2, p 280-283, 
February 1972. 3 fig, 11 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Electrolysis, Spectrometers, Spec- 
roscopy, Radioactivity, Radioisotopes, Separa- 
:ion techniques, Soils, Urine, Sea water. Uranium 
•adioisotopes. 

Identifiers: 'Electrodeposition, 'Actinides, 
'Chemical interference, 'Alpha spectrometry, 
Biological samples, Plutonium, Thorium, Urani- 
jm, Americium, Environmental samples, Plutoni- 
jm radioisotopes, Americium radioisotopes, 
rhorium radioisotopes, Sample preparation, Plu- 
onium-238. 

rhe electrodeposition of plutonium, thorium, 
jranium, and americium as hydrous oxides for 
ilpha spectrometric determinations is described, 
jraphic data show that with this procedure 
leposition recoveries from a 1M ammonium 
tulfate solution at pH 2 ranged from 98.8 to 99.8 
>ercent in 120 minutes of electrolysis at 1.2 am- 
>eres. A 40-minute electrolysis period was 
idequate for the alpha spectrometric determina- 
ion of plutonium using Pu-236 as an internal tracer 
itandard. In the absence of an internal standard, 
he electrodeposition efficiency can be determined 
?y repeating the electrodeposition. The complex- 
ng action of the sulfate ion at pH 2 was shown to 
jrevent premature hydrolysis and precipitation of 
he actinides as well as iron which interferes with 
ictinide electrodeposition. Oxalic acid will further 
iuppress iron interference but it inhibits actinide 
leposition. Cross contamination in low-level 
inalyses of biological and environmental samples 
vas prevented by the use of disposable 
>olyethylene cells and electropolished stainless 
iteel planchets. (Holoman-Battelle) 
#72-07678 



MEW COMPUTERIZED INFRARED SUB- 
STANCE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM, 

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. 

Materials Research Lab. 

*. W. Sebesta, and G. G. Johnson, Jr. 

\nalytical Chemistry, Vol 44. No 2, p 260-265, 

February 1972. 4 fig, 1 tab. 12 ref. 



Descriptors: 'Data storage and retrieval, 'Instru- 
mentation, Digital computers, Equipment, Auto- 
mation, Computer programs, Programming lan- 
guages, Pollutant identification. 
Identifiers'. 'Infrared spectra, Multicomponent in- 
frared retrieval system. 

A computerized infrared retrieval system, 
MIRET, has been designed for the solution of mul- 
ticomponent infrared problems. The ability of this 
system has not been fully substantiated but it has 
been found to be successful with certain two-com- 
ponent problems. The present solution criteria 
consist of sufficiently large mathematical subsets 
of the spectrum of the unknown. Negative logic is 
used to discard reference standards that possess 
chemical or spectral properties not found in the 
unknown. Machine independence is achieved 
through the use of standard FORTRAN IV. The 
only use of assembler language is a very small, 
well-defined unpacking function used to obtain the 
economically reasonable data input speed. Up to 
ten problems can be solved simultaneously, with 
substantial savings in machine time. A sample 
analysis is shown for an anthracene-benzoic acid 
mixture. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07679 



BURNER AND ULTRASONIC NEBULIZER IM- 
PROVEMENTS FOR ATOMIC ABSORPTION 
SPECTROMETRY, 

Illinois Univ., Chicago. Dept. of Chemistry. 
M. B. Denton, and H. V. Malmstadt. 
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 2, p 241-247, 
February 1 972. 1 fig, 2 tab, 1 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Instrumentation, 'Laboratory 
equipment, Aqueous solutions, Copper, Iron, Sta- 
bility. 

Identifiers: 'Atomic absorption spectrometry, 
Zinc, Lead, Absorbance, Ultrasonic nebulizer, 
Burners, Gas flow rates. 

An approach to optimized burner design for use 
with conventional commercial ultrasonic transdu- 
cers is presented. Several burner designs are 
described that operate properly at very low flow 
rates so as to increase droplet residence time in the 
flame and minimize flow rate demands on the ul- 
trasonic nebulizer. This system provides improved 
stability and an increase in sensitivity by atomic 
absorption of ten times compared with a conven- 
tional burner-pneumatic nebulizer system. The ul- 
trasonic nebulization system is constructed for ef- 
ficient introduction and changing of sample solu- 
tions. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07680 



INTERFERING IONS IN THE ELEMENTAL 
ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES BY 
MASS SPECTROMETRY, 

Medical Research Council, Harrow (England). 

Clinical Research Centre. 

N. L. Gregory. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 2, p 231-236, 

February 1972. 7 fig, 1 tab, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Ions, 'Chemical analysis, Spec- 
trometers, Fluorine, Sodium, Magnesium, Alu- 
minum, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine, Potassium, 
Calcium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, 
Copper, Stable isotopes. Bromine, Heavy metals. 
Trace elements. 

Identifiers: 'Mass spectrometry, 'Chemical inter- 
ference, 'Biological samples, Spark source mass 
spectrometry, Densitometers, Silicon, Scandium, 
Vanadium, Nickel, Zinc, Blood, Rubidium, 
Selenium. 

In a detailed analysis of a dc arc source mass spec- 
trum of blood, in which a resolution of 19,000 was 
attained, most spectrum lines were shown to be 
multiplets. By precise mass measurement, many 
element lines were identified in the presence of in- 
terfering lines at the same mass number, and 
atomic compositions were assigned to interfering 
ions. The nature and extent of the interference was 



calculated from microdensitometer records and 
the interfering lines together with minimum resolv- 
ing powers required for given separations have 
been tabulated. Singly charged ions were much 
more abundant than multiply charged ions for all 
elements. Many compound ions appeared, and 
doubly charged compound ions were present. 
Since sixteen elements F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, CI, 
K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, were well resolved 
from inorganic interfering species it appears that 
they also can be detected by spark source mass 
spectrometry. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07681 



SIMPLE AND VERSATILE ATOMIC 
FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR DETERMINA- 
TION OF NANOGRAM QUANTITIES OF MER- 
CURY, 

Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. 
V. I. Muscat, T. J. Vickers, and A. Andren. 
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 2, p 218-221, 
February 1972. 4 fig, 2 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Fluorescence, 'Spectroscopy, 
Heavy metals, Water analysis, Sediments, Spec- 
trometers, Instrumentation, Rocks, Wheat, Ar- 
gon, Laboratory equipment, 'Mercury. 
Identifiers: 'Flameless atomic fluorescence spec- 
troscopy, Chemical interference, Atomic absorp- 
tion spectrophotometry, Amalgamator, Quantita- 
tive analysis, Combustion atomic fluorescence 
spectroscopy. Reduction-aeration atomic 
fluorescence spectroscopy, Biological samples, 
Environmental samples, Detection limits, Labora- 
tory techniques. 

A flameless atomic fluorescence system which 
makes use of either reduction-aeration or com- 
bustion techniques to generate a mercury vapor 
and a silver amalgamator to collect the mercury 
prior to final measurement is used to determine 
small quantities of mercury. Samples of water, 
rocks, and wheat flour, for which values of mercu- 
ry content have been reported previously, were 
analyzed using this system. The values agreed 
rather closely with the reference values. Identical 
mercury concentrations were found for sediment 
samples analyzed by three methods: furnace 
technique AF, reduction-aeration AA, reduction- 
aeration AF. This measurement system has 
several advantages over the closed system of 
atomic fluorescence: (1) nearly all of the mercury 
vapor is presented in the fluorescence cell simul- 
taneously; (2) use of the amalgamator brings about 
a ten-fold increase in the fluorescence signal due 
to increased mercury concentrations and a 100- 
fold increase due to the replacement of air with ar- 
gon, separates the mercury from potential inter- 
ferants, and reduces the sample size; (3) the fur- 
nace technique requires a short time for analysis 
as compared to the reduction-aeration technique. 
This system can measure mercury levels as low as 
0.6 ng. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07682 



A LIST OF NEW GENERA AND TYPE SPECIES 
OF FLAGELLATES AND ALGAE PUBLISHED 
IN 1966-1968. PART IV, 

B. V. Skvortzov. 

Hydrobiologia, Vol. 39, Issue 1, p 1-7, January 31, 

1972. 24 fig, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Algae, 'Chlorophyta, 

'Euglenophyta, 'Pyrrophyta, 'Systematics, 
Dinoflagellates, Speciation. 

Identifiers: Kolbeana ovoidea, Palmeriamonas 
planctonica, Manchudinium sinicum, Sinamonas 
stagnalis, Kofoidiella uniflagellata, Tsumuraia nu- 
merosa, Hiroseia quinquelobata, Troitskiella trian- 
gulata, Akiyamamonas terrestris, Brastlobia 
pisciformis, Prowsemonas tropica, Stigmobodo 
brasiliana, Pavloviamonas fruticosa, Nodamastix 
spirogyrae, Colemania verrucosa, Gordymonas 
vitalis, Proctormonas characola, Iolya planc- 
tonica, Protoaceromonas spinosa, Angulomonas 
triquetra, Swirenkoiamonas uniflagellata, 

Protochroomonas granulata, Rotundomastix plu- 
vialis. 



39 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



Twenty-three new genera and type species are 
listed. Other data include illustrations of the type 
species, size of the cells and their habitats. 
(Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07683 



DETERMINATION OF CHROMIUM AND 
BERYLLIUM AT THE PICOGRAM LEVEL BY 
GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPEC- 
TROMETRY, 

Aerospace Research Labs., Wright-Patterson 

AFB.Ohio. 

W. R. Wolf, M. L. Taylor, B. M. Hughes, T. O. 

Tiernan, and R. E. Sievers. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 616-618, 

March 1972. 2 fig, 1 tab, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: "Trace elements, 'Chromium, *Gas 
chromatography, Animal physiology, Chelation, 
Instrumentation, Separation techniques, Metals, 
Heavy metals, Mercury. 

Identifiers: 'Biological samples, 'Beryllium, 
'Mass spectrometry, Air, Blood, Methylmercury, 
Detection limits, Chemical interference, Electron 
capture detector, Environmental samples, Che- 
lates, Precision. 

A modified conventional gas chromatograph-mass 
spectrometer (GC-MS) has been successfully ap- 
plied to the quantitative determination of picogram 
amounts of chromium in blood plasma and serum 
and of beryllium in an environmental residue sam- 
ple. The samples were prepared for injection into 
the GC-MS system by one of two methods: (1) 
direct chelation and extraction in a benzene solu- 
tion of trifluoroacetylacetonate or (2) dry-ashing 
followed by chelation and extraction. Levels of 10- 
13 ppb of chromium were determined for the 
plasma samples; the one serum sample analyzed 
had a concentration of 7 ppb. The lower limit of 
detectability for Cr with this technique is 0.5 pico- 
gram using standard solutions. Cr concentrations 
in the sub-ppb range have been determined in stan- 
dard solutions with an accuracy of about 20 per- 
cent. The environmental sample (particulate 
matter on an air-filter) analyzed for beryllium 
yielded 22-23 picograms Be/microliter as com- 
pared to 20-25 picograms Be/microliter by GC-EC. 
The lower limit of detectability using a standard 
solution was on the order of 0.1 picogram of Be. 
With the described technique, chromatographic 
conditions are not very critical for successful 
analyses since electron capturing impurities do not 
interfere with the detection of the metal derivative 
and analysis need not be restricted to fluorinated 
metal chelates. (Jefferis-Battelle) 
W72-07684 



DETERMINATION OF MICROGRAM QUANTI- 
TIES OF CHROMIUM (VI) AND/OR CHROMI- 
UM (III) BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE, 

Georgia Univ. , Athens. Dept. of Chemistry. 
D. E. Leyden, R. E. Channell, and C. W. Blount. 
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 607-610, 
March 1972. 2 fig, 2 tab, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: *X-ray fluorescence, 'Chromium, 
'Chelation, 'Heavy metals, Ion exchange, Volu- 
metric analysis. Reduction (Chemical), Equip- 
ment, Separation techniques, Instrumentation, 
Ions, Analytical techniques, X-ray analysis, Chro- 
matography, Spectrometers, Resins. 
Identifiers: 'Ion exchange resins, 'Coulometric 
titrimetry, EDTA, Sodium bisulfite, Precision, 
Detection limits, Cr (III), Cr (IV). 

The analysis of chromium (III) or total chromium 
in a mixture of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) at the 0.01-1.0 
micromole level can be accomplished by using the 
ion exchange and x-ray fluorescence techniques. 
Cr (III), Cr (VI), and total Cr can be determined 
from a single sample all aliquots of which are 
analyzed as pelletized resins (Chelex 100). For six 
replicate determinations, the relative error was 
found to be (1) 0.6 percent in the Cr (III) content 
with a relative standard deviation of 1.3 percent at 
the 0.50 micromole level, (2) 0.0 percent in total Cr 
content, relative standard deviation of 1.5 percent 



at 1 .00 micromole level, and (3) 0.6 percent in total 
Cr (VI) content, relative standard deviation of 3.4 
percent at the 0.50 micromole level. Chelex 100, 
the ion exchange resin was compared to EDTA 
and found to allow a faster reduction of Cr (VI) to 
Cr (IU) for total chromium analysis. However, it 
was still slow enough to allow for the analysis of 
Cr (in) in the presence of Cr (VI) at room tem- 
perature. (Jefferis-Battelle) 
W72-07685 



SPECTROPHOTOMETRY MICRODETER- 
MINATION OF SULFATE, 

Clemson Univ., S.C. Dept. of Chemistry. 

J. B. Davis, and F. Lindstrom. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 524-532, 

March 1972. 1 1 fig, 1 tab, 22 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sulfates, 'Spectrophotometry, 
'Aqueous solutions, 'Reduction (Chemical), 
'Hydrogen sulfide, Water analysis, Surface 
waters, Ground water, Nitrites, Sulfonates, Ions, 
Chemical analysis, Equipment, Digestion, Safety, 
Toxicity, Surfactants, Chemical reactions, 
Chlorides, Sodium, Potassium, Nitrates, 
Nutrients. 

Identifiers: Phenanthroline, Complex compounds, 
Biological samples, Chemical interference, Ionic 
interference, Sample preparation, Detection 
limits. 

Sulfate reduction to hydrogen sulfide is the basis 
for the spectrophotometric method which has 
been developed for the selective determination of 
sulfate in the 0-10 and 0-100 microgram (ppm in 
water) ranges. Aqueous samples are treated with a 
mixture of hydriodic acid, acetic anhydride, and 
sodium hypophosphite and heated in a modified 
countercurrent reaction apparatus to evolve 
hydrogen sulfide. The gas is swept by nitrogen into 
a buffered solution of a ferric ion and 1,10- 
phenanthroline, where it reduces the ferric ion to 
the ferrous ion. A bright orange tris (1,10- 
phenanthroline - iron II) complex forms and is 
measured spectrophotometrically at 510 nm. Over 
twenty common ions and three sulfonated surfac- 
tants were tested to determine interference. Only 
nitrite and those ions capable of yielding hydrogen 
sulfide under the same conditions interfered while 
the sulfonated surfactants did not interfere. (Jef- 
feris-Battelle) 
W72-07686 



A COMPOUND CLASSIFIER BASED ON COM- 
PUTER ANALYSIS OF LOW RESOLUTION 
MASS SPECTRAL DATA, GEOCHEMICAL 
AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, 

Bristol Univ. (England). School of Chemistry. 
D. H. Smith. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 536-547, 
March 1972. 10 fig, 6 tab, 29 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Computers, 'Gas chromatography, 
'Classification, 'Data processing, 'Organic com- 
pounds, Instrumentation, Data collections, Auto- 
mation, Input-output analysis. Geochemistry, 
Aromatic compounds, Lichens, Computer pro- 
grams. Effluents, Alcohols. 

Identifiers: 'Mass spectrometry, Mass spectra, 
Hydrocarbons, Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkyls, 
Ketones, Polynuclear aromatic compounds, 
Isoprenoid methyl esters, Acetates, Phthalates, 
Amines, Alkynes, Aldehydes, Benzene, Alkyl 
benzenes, Methyl-n-alkanoates, Aliphatic 
hydrocarbons, Carbon black, Environmental sam- 
ples, MISMATCH values, Triterpanes, Steranes, 
Cycloalkanes, Low resolution mass spectrometry. 

A computer-based method for determination of 
chemical compound class based on low resolution 
mass spectral data has been developed. The 
method relies on computer analysis of sets of stan- 
dard spectra, reducing these large data sets to a 
much smaller 'Correlation set'. The correlation 
set, consisting of 'ion series spectra' of each class, 
is used in subsequent automatic computer classifi- 
cation of mass spectra. This approach is particu- 



larly important in analysis of data from coupled 
gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer systems 
where large numbers of spectra of separated com- 
ponents of complex mixtures can be classified 
rapidly and further structural information elicited 
based on this classification. Although initially pro- 
grammed for compound classes relevant to 
geochemical and environmental studies, the cor- 
relation set and structural information programs 
can easily be expanded to include classes impor- 
tant in other areas of research. The simplicity of 
the method lends itself readily to small computer 
or semiautomatic methods of data reduction and 
analysis. (Jefferis-Battelle) 
W72-07687 



GAS CHROMATOGRAPH/MASS SPECTROME- 
TER TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINATION OF 
INTERFERENCES IN PESTICIDE ANALYSIS, 

Finnigan Corp., Sunnyvale, Calif. 

E. J. Bonelli. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 603-606, 

March 1972. 10 fig, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Gas chromatography, 'Chlorinated 
hydrocarbon pesticides, Equipment, Separation 
techniques, Instrumentation, DDT, Dieldrin, Al- 
drin, Heptachlor, Monitoring, Computers, Auto- 
mation, Data processing. 

Identifiers: 'Mass spectrometry, 'Chemical inter- 
ference, 'Polychlorinated biphenyls, Electron 
capture gas chromatography, Chlorinated 
naphthalene, Aroclor 1254, Halowax 1014, DDE, 
DDD, Hexachlorobiphenyls, Metabolites, Hep- 
tachlorobiphenyls, p p' DDT, p p' DDD, Methox- 
ychlor, Mass spectra. 

The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in 
the environment are structurally similar to the 
chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and may inter- 
fere with the analysis of such pesticides. Compu- 
terized gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric 
techniques were used in the qualitative and quan- 
titative analysis of a standard chlorinated 
hydrocarbon pesticide mixture (heptachlor, aldrin, 
dieldrin, DDT, methoxychlor) which was mixed 
with varying concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (PCB) 
and/or Halowax 1014 (chlorinated naphthalene). A 
mixture of DDT, DDE, and PCB's was also 
analyzed. Gas chromatographic peaks were moni- 
tored with an automatic peak selector which can 
monitor up to eight ion peaks. In a 10-100 ng sam- 
ple, components of overlapping gas chromato- 
graphic peaks were identified by the mass spec- 
trum obtained. By peak monitoring, components 
of overlapping gas chromatographic peaks present 
in the nano- and picogram range can be identified 
and quantitated. (Jefferis-Battelle) 
W72-07688 



DETERMINATION OF SODIUM 

BOROHYDRIDE AND SODIUM SULFITE IN 
THE PRESENCE OF EACH OTHER IN PULP- 
ING LIQUORS, 

Cartiera Vita Mayer e C, Cairate (Italy). Research 

Div. 

L. S. Nahum. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 593-594, 

March 1972. 1 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Separation techniques, 'Pulp 
wastes, 'Paper industry, Sodium compounds, 
Chemical analysis, Sulfite liquors, Hydrogen ion 
concentration, Acidity, Alkalinity, Volumetric 
analysis, Oxidation. 

Identifiers: 'Sodium borohydride, 'Sodium 
sulfite, 'Fructose, Ketones, Precision, Chemical 
interference. 

A rapid method was developed for the separate 
determination of sodium borohydride and sodium 
sulfite in pulping liquors by oxidation with a 
known excess of iodine and back-titration with 
thiosulfate. In order to determine sodium sulfite 
concentrations, a ketone must destroy NaBH4 
quantitatively and not react with Na2S03. Of the 
twelve ketones tested, D-fructose gave the best 



40 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5A 



results-complete destruction of NaBH4. Standard 
solutions of NaBH4 and Na2S03 and samples of 
impregnating liquors were tested using the 
described procedures. Standard solution samples 
were tested both in the absence and in the 
presence of fructose and the results compared. 
Some samples were tested with iodate replacing 
iodine as the oxidant. Iodate was shown not to be 
suitable for the accurate determination of sodium 
borohydride in the presence of sodium sulfite. A 
series of 10-ml samples of poplar chip impregnat- 
ing liquors were analyzed by the iodine method, 
rhese samples were found to contain 0.050-0.187 
meq/ml NaBH4 and 0.015-0.025 meq/ml Na2S03. 
Each determination was repeated with seven and 
ten grams of fructose obtaining the same results 
within plus or minus 0.001 meq/ml. (Jefferis-Bat- 
:eUe) 
W72-07689 



RAPID PYROLYTIC METHOD TO DETER- 
MINE TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH, 

Dlin Corp., New Haven, Conn. Chemicals Group, 
it. J. Thomas, R. A. Hagstrom, and E. J. Kuchar. 
\nalytical Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, p 512-515, 
March 1972. 1 fig, 5 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: *Fish, 'Photometry, *Bioassay, 
'Pollutant identification, Chemical analysis, 
Separation techniques, Heavy metals, Ultraviolet 
adiation, Buffalo fishes, Carp, Shiners, Cat 
ishes, Channel catfish, Halides, Laboratory 
iquipment, Sunfishes, *Mercury, Nitrogen com- 
sounds, Sulfur compounds. 

Identifiers: *Pyrolysis, Sample preparation, 
Biological samples, Chemical interference. Error, 
VIethylmercury, Blue catfish, Crappies, Or- 
janomercurial compounds. 

rotal mercury in fish is pyrolytically converted to 
Omental form by burning a weighed, 
lomogenized fish tissue sample in a flowing air 
itream at 900 degrees C. Elemental mercury 
sapors are passed over copper oxide at 850 
iegrees C to ensure complete combustion. Possi- 
ble interfering gases (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) 
hat would absorb in the UV region of 253.7 nm are 
■emoved by silver wire heated at 450 degrees C, a 
:austic scrubber, and an ascarite filter. Halides 
hat could recombine with the mercury are also 
emoved by a heated silver wire. The flowing air 
stream containing elemental Hg is then passed 
hrough an ultraviolet photometer which is con- 
lected to a digital readout system and recorder, 
rhe amount of mercury in micrograms in a 
veighed fish sample is obtained from a standard 
:urve and the mercury concentration calculated in 
jpm. The relative error of this method was ap- 
jroximately plus or minus 10 percent for inorganic 
ind organic mercury over a linear response range 
)f 0.05 to 3.0 ppm at the sample size used. Approx- 
mately 8 minutes are required for a single deter- 
nination. When the pyrolytic method was com- 
pared with the methyl mercury and total mercury 
procedures, it was found to give more reasonable 
esults. (Jefferis-Battelle) 
W72-07690 



identification of the gas chromato- 
graphic dieldrin and endrin peaks by 
:hemical conversion, 

Agricultural Research Service, Gulfport, Miss. 
Plant Protection Div. 

D. W. Woodham, C. D. Loftis, and C. W. Collier, 
lournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 
!0, No. l,p 163-165, January/February 1972. 5 fig, 
10 ref. 

Descriptors: *Dieldrin, 'Endrin, 'Separation 
echniques, 'Pollutant identification. Gas chro- 
matography, Soil analysis, Sediments, Water anal- 
ysis. Grains (Crops), 'Chlorinated hydrocarbon 
jesticides. 

identifiers: 'Gas liquid chromatography, Chemi- 
:al interference. Detection limits, Chemical 
lerivatives. Conversion products, Boron 
trichloride, 2-chloroethanol, Sample preparation. 



When reacted with 10 percent boron trichloride in 
2-chloroethanol, analytically important derivatives 
of dieldrin and endrin can be formed. Such deriva- 
tives produce characteristic glc peaks with longer 
retention times. Their conversion reaction times 
are relatively short, and by virtue of their deriva- 
tives, dieldrin and endrin can be distinguished 
from pesticides such as o,p'-DDT; o,p'-TDE; p,p'- 
DDE; Endosulfan II; and Captan all of which have 
similar or identical retention times. Dieldrin and 
endrin conversion products have retention times 
beyond most common organochlorine pesticides 
and other interfering materials. Dieldrin and en- 
drin can be detected at the 0.05 ppm (0.05 ppb in 
water) level, and after sample concentration, a 
level of 0.01 ppm (0.01 ppb in water) can be 
reached. This method avoids disadvantages of 
other techniques such as thin layer chromatog- 
raphy, multiple glc, and hydrochloric acid deriva- 
tives. By this new method, other organochlorine 
pesticides tested are not destroyed in the reaction 
nor do they interfere with the conversion 
products, thereby allowing rapid separation and 
accurate identification of dieldrin and endrin from 
residues in soil, sediment, water, and grains. 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07691 



MODULAR MINI-COMPUTER PERMITS UNIT 
CONTROL. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 
W72-07692 



OIL DROP SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN 
HYDROCARBON - WATER SYSTEMS, 

Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo (Brazil). 
P. A. S. Podlech, and W. Borzani. 
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 14, p 43- 
59, 1972. 13 fig, 1 tab, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Oil-water interfaces, 'Oily water, 
Fuels, Kinetics, 'Analytical techniques, Labora- 
tory equipment, Physical properties, Fermenta- 
tion, Radioactivity techniques, Tracers. 
Identifiers: Diesel oil, Iodine-131, 'Hydrocarbon- 
water systems, 'Oil-drop size, Fermenters, Iodine 
radioisotopes. 



Oil drop size distribution in agitated hydrocarbon- 
water systems has been determined by labelling 
diesel oil with iodine-131, delivering different 
volumes into a 14— liter fermenter containing 10 
liters of distilled water, mixing with an impeller at 
various speeds, and monitoring distribution with a 
Geiger-Muller counter. Thus, an important 
parameter in the development of a complete 
kinetic model that correlates the fermentation rate 
and physical and geometrical conditions of the fer- 
menter has been analyzed. The influence of the 
counter position, oil concentration and rotation 
speed of impeller are variables considered. The 
following equation was proposed and tested previ- 
ously: F (oil fraction in mass percent) equals 100 
(1-10 to the alpha AH/sq r power). The experimen- 
tal results led to the conclusion that alpha can be 
adopted as the parameter that defines drop size 
distribution. Distribution curves provide informa- 
tion concerning the distribution functions. It ap- 
pears that an unsymmetrical distribution 
represents the drop size distribution better than 
the normal distribution law. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07693 



A PROGRESS REPORT ON MERCURY, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Chemical 
Sciences. 
J. M. Wood. 

Environment, Vol. 14, No. 1, p 33-39, Janua- 
ry/February 1972. 1 fig, 3 tab, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Chemical wastes, 'Industrial 
wastes. Water pollution, 'Water analysis, Water 
chemistry. Microorganisms, Bioassay, 'Methane 
bacteria, Water pollution effects. Water pollution 
sources, Sediments, Absorption, 'Mercury. 
Identifiers: 'Methylmercury, Dimethylmercury, 
Methylation, Vitamin B-12, Error, Organomercu- 



rial compounds, Atomic absorption spec- 
trophotometry, Vitamin synthesizing bacteria. 

Research shows that microorganisms such as 
Vitamin B sub 12 synthesizing and methane 
producing strains, are capable of methyl and 
dimethyl mercury conversion from inorganic mer- 
cury compounds. Hugh amounts of inorganic mer- 
cury, in sediments downstream from industrial 
polluters, provide substrate of these lethal mercu- 
ry compounds. A list of companies responsible for 
mercury pollution of waterways and a schematic 
flow chart for the mercury conversion are sup- 
plied. Tests show fish ingest and store mercury 
from microorganisms or by direct gill diffusion 
from the polluted water. Tables show the time 
required for loss of half of radioactively tagged 
methyl mercury from different species of fish in 
laboratory tests. Popular methods for total mercu- 
ry analysis are the flameless atomic absorption 
and neutron activation techniques. The U. S. Food 
and Drug Administration, Department of Agricul- 
ture, and the Federal Water Quality Administra- 
tion use the cheaper, faster, and easier to apply 
atomic absorption method. However, data must be 
multiplied by 105 to compensate for as much as 50 
percent error in the method. Curative methods to 
slow down methyl mercury formation include: 
area dredging, covering the sediments with 
flowspar trailings, and decreasing microbe popula- 
tion near pollution sources. Drawbacks are mix-up 
and spread of inorganic substrate by dredging 
and/or disruption of normal bio-environments by 
flowspar blankets. Water quality improvement by 
nitrogen compound and phosphate removal at 
treatment plants is a more satisfactory answer. 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07695 



A COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR IDENTIFYING 
MICROORGANISMS, 

QuincyColl.,111. 

W. Gasser, and K. M. Gehrt. 

BioScience, Vol. 21, No. 20, p 1044-1045, October 

15, 1971. 3 tab, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Pathogenic bacteria, 'Enteric bac- 
teria, 'Computer programs, Programming lan- 
guages, 'Pollutant identification, Microorganisms, 
Computer models, Automation, E. coli, Data 
processing, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, 

Streptococcus. 

Identifiers: Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeru- 
ginosa, Alcaligenes faecalis, Serratia, Serratia 
marcesens, Salmonella typhosa, Klebsiella, Kleb- 
siella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus, Staphylococ- 
cus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Diplococcus pneu- 
moniae, Streptococcus pyogenes. 

A computer program has been developed to identi- 
fy microorganisms from test results. Results from 
standard microbiological tests (e.g. gram stain, glu- 
cose fermentation) are used in the program. Where 
many organisms are identified from limited test 
results, results from additional chemical tests may 
be entered for complete identification. Some of 
the advantages of the program are: ability to han- 
dle several sets of input data, easy program 
modification, and the need for minimal pro- 
gramming knowledge. An identification matrix is 
included for E. coli, Proteus vulgarus, Pseu- 
domonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes faecalis, Ser- 
ratia marcesens, Salmonella typhosa, Klebsiella 
pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, sarcina lu- 
tea, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus 
pyogenes. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07696 



QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF 
NITRILOTRIACETIC ACID AND RELATED 
AMINOPOLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN INLAND 
WATERS, ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOG- 
RAPHY, 

Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
C. B. Warren, and E. J. Malec. 
Journal of Chromatography, Vol. 64, No. 2, p 219- 
237, February 2, 1972. 3 fig, 7 tab, 17 ref. 



41 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



Descriptors: Water pollution sources, 'Nitrogen 
compounds, Biodegradability, Amino acids, 'Pol- 
lutant identification, 'Detergents, Water quality, 
Waterways (Inland), Rivers, Streams, Water anal- 
ysis, Sewage effluents. Wells, Nitrates, Surfac- 
tants, Laboratory equipment, 'Gas chromatog- 
raphy. 

Identifiers: 'Nitrilotriacetate, 'Iminodiacetic acid, 
N-methyl-iminodiacetic acid, Glycine, Sarcosine, 
N-oxalyl-iminodiacetic acid, N-nitroso-im- 
modiacetic acid, N-butyl esters, N-trifluoroacetyl 
n-butyl esters, Derivatives, Quantitative analysis, 
Error, Sample preparation, Laboratory 
techniques, Mass spectra, Chromatograms. 

Due to the proposed use of NTA and related 
aminopolycarboxylic acids as detergent builders, 
several studies of their biodegradability have been 
initiated. Quantitative methods were developed 
for detecting nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), 
iminodiacetic acid (IDA), N-methyl-iminodiacetic 
acid (NMIDA), glycine (GLY), sarcosine (SARC), 
and N-oxalyl-iminodiacetic acid (N-oxalyl-IDA) in 
a variety of water samples and N-nitroso- 
iminodiacetic acid (N-nitroso-IDA) in river water. 
NTA, NMIDA, and N-oxalyl-IDA were converted 
to their corresponding n-butyl esters; IDA, GLY, 
and SARC were converted to N-trifluoroacetyl n- 
butyl ester derivatives; N-nitroso-IDA was con- 
verted to the N-trifluoroacetyl n-butyl ester 
derivative of IDA. These volatile derivatives were 
separated and analyzed on an ethylene glycol 
adipate gas chromatographic column. For quan- 
titative analysis, the amount of each amino acid in- 
jected was 3 to 200 ng, and the amount of each 
amino acid separated from the water sample was 
0.25 to 1000 micrograms. Response values for 
NTA, IDA, NMIDA, GLY, and SARC were 
reproducible and showed no statistical bias for 
river water sample concentrations of 20 to 0.025 
mg/1. Relative standard deviations ranged from 8 
to 13 percent. The response value for N-nitroso- 
IDA varied with concentration but was reproduci- 
ble at any given concentration. Each or all of the 
above amino acids could be detected in samples of 
river water, well water, water containing nitrate 
ions, water containing formaldehyde, primary 
sewage effluent, and secondary sewage effluent. 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07697 



THE INDIRECT DETERMINATION OF OR- 
GANIC COMPOUNDS BY ATOMIC ABSORP- 
TION SPECTROMETRY, 

Wayne State Univ., Detroit, Mich. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

H. K. L. Gupta, and D. F. Boltz. 

Microchemical Journal, Vol. 16, No. 4, p 571-576, 

December 1971. 5 tab, 22 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Organic compounds, 'Methodolo- 
gy, Organic acids, Chemical analysis, 'Spec- 
trophotometry. 

Identifiers: 'Atomic absorption. Silver nitrate. 
Iodoform, Theobromine sodium salicylate, Mer- 
captobenzothiazole. Potassium ethylxanthate, 
Mercaptans, Spectrophotometry, Laboratory 
techniques. Sample preparation. Chemical 
recovery, Benzoic acid, Diphenylacetic acid, 
Malonic acid, M-nitrobenzoic acid. Oxzlic acid, 
Phthalic acid, Sebacic acid. Succinic acid. Tartaric 
acid. 

Procedures have been developed for the indirect 
determination of iodoform, sodium salicylate, 
mercaptobenzothiazole, and potassium xanthate 
by precipitating silver compounds and determining 
excess silver by atomic absorption spectrometry. 
Recoveries ranged from 91.5 to 99.3 percent for 
iodoform, 45.4-45.6 percent for theobromine sodi- 
um salicylate, 99.0 to 100 percent for mercap- 
tobenzothiazole, and 100.2 to 100.6 percent for 
potassium ethylxanthate. Equivalent weights of 
benzoic, diphenylacetic, malonic, m-nitrobenzoic, 
oxalic, phthalic, sebacic, succinic, and tartaric 
acids were also determined with this method. 
(Snyder-Battelle) 
W72-07698 



ADAPTOR ALLOWING LIQUID SEPARATIONS 
IN VOLUMETRIC FLASKS, 

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 
Lower Hutt (New Zealand). Soil Bureau. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07B. 
W72-07699 



THE P-VALUE APPROACH TO QUANTITA- 
TIVE LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF 
PESTICIDES FROM WATER. 1. OR- 
GANOPHOSPHATES: CHOICE OF PH AND 
SOLVENT, 

Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, Pa. Dept. of Chemis- 
try. 

I. H. Suffet, and S. D. Faust. 

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol 
20, No 1, p 52-56, January/February 1972. 10 tab, 
26 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Pesticides, 'Separation techniques, 
'Pollutant identification, 'Solvents, 'Or- 
ganophosphorous pesticides, Aqueous solutions, 
Hydrogen ion concentration, Water temperature, 
Chromatography, Analytical techniques, Sample 
preservation, Ethers, Pesticide residues. Water 
analysis, Turbidity, Spectrophotometry, Ul- 
traviolet radiation, Spectroscopy, Water quality. 
Identifiers: Liquid-liquid extraction, p-value, 
Ionic strength, 'Diazinon, 'Parathion, 
'Malathion, 'Baytex, IMHP, Bayoxon, MMTP, 
Paraoxon, p-Nitrophenol, Malaoxon, Fenthion, 
Diethyl fumarate. Diethyl maleate, Gas liquid 
chromatography, Orthophosphates, Benzene, 
Ethyl acetate, Hexana, Butanol, Chloroform, 
Cleanup, Flame-ionization detector. Ultraviolet 
spectroscopy, Solvent extraction. 

The p-value approach to liquid-liquid extraction 
(LLE) for determining the pesticides Diazinon, 
Parathion, Malathion, and Baytex, as well as their 
oxon and hydrolysis products, in aqueous solu- 
tions is outlined. The p-value is the fraction of 
total solute that distributes itself in the nonpolar 
phase of an equivolume solvent pair. The p-value 
concept was used to determine the parameters of 
solvent choice for LLE of organophosphorus 
pesticides from water. These parameters include 
pH, ionic strength, temperature, and turbidity. 
Gas-liquid chromatography and ultraviolet spec- 
trophotometry were used in analyzing samples. 
Benzene, ethyl acetate, and ether were excellent 
solvents for extracting Diazinon and Diazoxon at 
pH 7.4. Chloroform was the best solvent for the 
Diazinon product IMHP. For the parathion 
system, ether was the best solvent at pH 3.1. At 
pH 6.0, the Malathion system is best extracted by 
ethyl acetate, followed by benzene and ether. The 
best solvents for the Baytex system at pH 3.4 are 
benzene, ether, and ethyl acetate. (Mortland-Bat- 
telle) 
W72-0770I 



ULTRARAPID EXTRACTION OF INSECTI- 
CIDES FROM SOIL USING A NEW UL- 
TRASONIC TECHNIQUE, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of En- 
tomology. 

R. E. Johnsen, and R. I. Starr. 
The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 
Vol 20, No 1, p 48-51, January/February 1972. 12 
tab, 18 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Separation techniques, Ultrasonics, 
'Pesticides, Pesticide residues. Soil analysis, Sol- 
vents, Analytical techniques. Laboratory equip- 
ment, DDT, Dieldrin, Heptachlor. 
Identifiers: 'Polytron, Ultrasonic generator. 
Acetone, Soxhlet, Gas chromatography, Cleanup, 
Heptachlor epoxide, Chlordane, Lindane, 
Methoxychlor, Roller methods, Blender methods, 
Sample preparation. 

Experimental results indicate that the Polytron, a 
high specific intensity ultrasonic generator, is 
faster, more reliable, and gives better qualitative 
results than other conventional methods for ex- 
traction of organochlorine pesticides from soils. 
Soil samples are prepared by saturating with water 



and adding 200 ml of solvent extraction. The 
Polytron generator, equipped with a saw tooth 
cutting head for reducing soil particles to a fine 
powder, is immersed in the sample and the soil is 
extracted for 30 sec. at full power. The factors 
evaluated included solvent type, soil moisture, ul- 
trasonic effect, extraction time, insecticide con- 
centration, soil and clay type, insecticide type, and 
effect of wet and dry cycles. Comparison was 
made to another ultrasonic technique, and to 
Soxhlet, roller, and blender extraction procedures. 
Acetone was found to be the best solvent. Soil 
moisture, type, and organic matter content were 
not critical factors in quantitative recovery. 
Polytron extraction for only 30 sec. gave generally 
better recovery values than did the other methods, 
which required times ranging from 20 min. for ul- 
trasound to 8 hr. for Soxhlet. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07702 



INTERACTION OF SODIUM NITRATE, OX- 
YGEN AND PH ON GROWTH OF 
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, 

Rutgers - The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J. 
Coll. of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07704 



NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF 

ARIZONA, CITROBACTER, AND 

PROVH)ENCIA, 

Cornell Univ., New York. Medical Coll. 

N. A. Machtiger, and W. M. O'Leary. 

Journal of Bacteriology, Vol 108, No 2, p 948-950, 

No vember 1 97 1 . 2 tab , 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Enteric bacteria, 'Nutrient require- 
ments, Cultures, Sodium chloride, Amino acids, 
Vitamins, Salts, Bacteria. 

Identifiers: 'Arizona (Microorganism), 

'Citrobacter, 'Providencia, Providencia alcalifa- 
ciens, Providencia stuartii, Paracolons, Glutamic 
acid. Pantothenic acid, Purine, Pyrimidine, Glu- 
cose, Niacin, Isoleucine, Leucine, Valine, 
Cystine, Media, Citrobacter freundii, Culture 
media. 

The nutritional requirements of the enteric bac- 
teria Arizona, Citrobacter, and Providencia are 
compared, and chemically defined media in which 
these organisms may be grown are reported. 
Citrobacter appeared to be nutritionally more de- 
manding than Arizona, with all strains tested 
requiring exogenous glutamate and pantothenate. 
Arizona strains grew quite well on a simple glu- 
cose-salt medium without organic supplements. 
Providencia required five amino acids (isoleucine, 
leucine, valine, glutamic acid, and cystine) in a 
medium including salts solution, glucose, and 
niacin, each autoclaved separately and added to 
the medium when cooled. It was necessary to au- 
toclave the cystine separately from the other 
amino acids. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07705 



A NOTE ON INEXPENSIVE TELEMETRY OF 
RIVER SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS, 

Queen's Univ., Kingston (Ontario). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07709 



GROWTH AND THE PRODUCTION OF EX- 
TRACELLULAR SUBSTANCES BY TWO 
STRAINS OF PHAEOCYSTIS POUGHETI, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07710 



ANALYTICAL MONITORS USING ELEC- 
TRODES OF SEMICONDUCTORS (GERMANI- 
UM, INDIUM-ANTIMONIDE, AND SILICON), 

Garrett Research and Development Co., Inc., La 
Verne, Calif.; and Occidental Petroleum Corp., La 
Verne, Calif. 
J. P. McKaveney, and C. J. Byrnes. 



42 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Identification of Pollutants — Group 5A 



\nalytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 2, p 290-294, 
February 1972. 7 fig, 15ref. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring, •Electrodes, Anodes, 
[ons, Metals, Acids, Oxidation, Analytical 
echniques, Laboratory equipment, Elec- 
rochemistry, Chemical analysis, Fluorine, Alu- 
ninum, Instrumentation, Heavy metals, Iron, 
fluorides. 

dentifiers: 'Germanium, *Indium-antimonide, 
'Silicon, *Ion selective electrodes, Semiconduc- 
ors, Hydrogen peroxide, Oxidants, MetaJ- 
luoride complexes, Sensors, Chemical inter- 
erence. 

nvestigations were conducted to expand the ap- 
ilication of germanium, indium-antimonide, and 
ilicon semiconductors as ion-selective electrodes. 
Calibration curves were established for each of the 
emiconductor materials in acid and oxidizing 
olutions using stainless steel or platinum 
athodes. The results show that germanium is a 
ighly sensitive monitor for acid and oxidants 
bromine) while indium-antimonide can be used 
or acid. Silicon, although highly useful for acid 
ensing, worked well as a monitor for oxidants 
hydrogen peroxide) as well as for metals forming 
luoride complexes in acid media. (Mackan-Bat- 
sUe) 
V72-077U 



INEAR GROWTH OF A TORULOPSIS SP. ON 
l-ALKANES, 

Edinburgh Univ. (Scotland). School of Agricul- 

jre. 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

Z72-07712 



, METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF EN- 
JCHMENT AND PURE CULTURES OF THER- 
IOPHILIC METHANE-FORMING BACTERIA 
ERMENTING ETHANOL AND METHANOL, 

.kademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Biok- 

imii. 

L S. Pantskhava, and V. V. Pchelkina. 

rikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya, Vol 5, 

to 3, p 235-238, May-June 1969. 2 fig, 8 ref. 

lescriptors: 'Methane bacteria, 'Thermophilic 

acteria, Anaerobic bacteria, Isolation, Separation 

:chniques. Methane, Cultures, Vitamin B, 

licrobiology. 

lentifiers: 'Methanolbacillus kuzneceovii, 

Vitamin B-12, Enrichment, Culture media, 

gars. 

pure culture of Methanolbacillas kuzneceovii, a 
ew thermophilic methane forming organism 
hich ferments methanol to methane and acetic 
:id, has been isolated by decimal dilution from a 
lixture of microbes which under thermophilic 
jndiuons decompose organic substance with the 
irmation of vitamin B-12. This technique pro- 
ides an organism which can be used in the study 
f the functions of B-12 during methane 
iosynthesis. The success of such studies is depen- 
snt upon isolation of pure cultures of thermophil- 

methane bacteria possessing the two following 
roperties: (1) its optimum temperature range is 
J-57C; (2) it must synthesize a significant quanti- 
' of corrinoids. A slightly modified medium of 
arker was used, and to increase corrinoid synthe- 
s, 80 mg of hydrated cobalt chloride was added 
i each liter of medium. Sodium bicarbonate was 
Ided as a source of C02. The procedure of isola- 
on was (a) the method of decimal dilution of the 
oculate in order to reveal single colonies, and (b) 
le method of spreading agar medium containing 
le diluted inoculate into narrow glass tubes. En- 
chment cultures showed nonmotile, single, 
ightly bent, fine, long rods, 5-6 by 0.5-0.7 
icrons in size. No spores were observed. It was a 
ram-negative, obligate anaerobe which 
:veloped at a pH of 7.0-8.0. Pure cultures con- 
ined round-ended, nonmotile, usually paired 
ipsulated rods of 0.5-0.7 by 1.2-1.62 microns. 
:ven-day old cultures showed circular spores of 
82 micron dia. A pH range of 4.5-7.5 was optimal 



for development, and optimum temperature was 
52.57 C. (Mackan-Battelle) 

W72-07713 



ORGANIC MATERIAL ANALYZER MONI- 
TORS SHORELINE SEWAGE DISPOSAL, 

Chemurgic Council, New York. 

J. W. Ticknor. 

Water and Sewage Works, Vol 119, No 3, p 50-51, 

March 1972. 3 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Chemical analysis, 'Monitoring, 
'Cycling nutrients, 'Food chains, 'Organic com- 
pounds, Shellfish, Instrumentation, Phytoplank- 
ton. Automation, Equipment, Analytical 
techniques, Sewage, Research equipment, Sewage 
effluents, Sewage treatment, Sewage disposal, 
Marine algae, Clams, Mussels, Oysters, Eutrophi- 
cation, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Carbon, 
Hydrogen, Marine animals, Nutrients, Mollusks, 
Cultures. 

Identifiers: Elemental analyzers, Macroinver- 
tebrates. 

Scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic In- 
stitution, Massachusetts, are working on a project 
concerned with the healthful disposal of treated 
sewage and providing nutrients for increased shell- 
fish culture along the eastern seaboard. Experi- 
mentation involves feeding treated sewage to algae 
and feeding the algae to shellfish (oysters, mus- 
sels, scallops) under controlled conditions. In 
order to determine what nutritive values the shellf- 
ish derive from the sewage-phytoplankton-sun- 
light system, the food chain is constantly moni- 
tored at selected points using a Perkin-Elmer 
Model 240 elemental analyzer. This instrument au- 
tomatically analyzes organic compounds for car- 
bon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content simultane- 
ously, performing a complete analysis within 13 
minutes. It is used, in this case, to determine levels 
and ratios of N and P present in algae, molluscs, 
and molluscs' detritus. The analytical method con- 
sists of: (1) burning the organic sample in an 02 at- 
mosphere aided by chemicals such as silver tung- 
state and magnesium oxide, (2) flushing the gase- 
ous combustion products with a helium stream 
through a reduction tube, and (3) removing H, C, 
and N as the gaseous products move through a se- 
ries of traps. The analyzer can be readily con- 
verted for oxygen analysis. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07715 



A KINETIC MODEL FOR MICROBIAL 
GROWTH ON SOLID HYDROCARBONS, 

Regional Research Lab., Jorhat (India). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07719 



AN IN SITU METHOD FOR THE MEASURE- 
MENT OF ZOOPLANKTON GRAZING RATES, 

Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Zoology. 

J. F. Haney. 

Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 16, No. 6, p 

970-977, November 1971. 6 fig, 20 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sampling, 'Zooplankton, 

'Radioisotopes, Grazing, Yeasts, Daphnia, 
Laboratory equipment, Water quality, Filtration, 
Tracers, 'On-site tests, Research equipment, Ab- 
sorption, 'Radioactivity techniques. 
Identifiers: Grazing chambers, P-32, Rhodotorula, 
Chydorus, Ceriodaphnia quadrangula, Daphnia 
galeata, Bosmina longirostis, Chydorus sphaer- 
icus, Diaptomus oregonensis. 

A radioisotope method is described for measuring 
the rate of ingestion of small particles by 
zooplankton under natural in situ conditions. 
Zooplankton are captured in a barrel-like ap- 
paratus, called a grazing chamber, which is 
lowered to a specified depth and then activated to 
close its 2 disk-like doors at the barrel ends. The 
sampler effectively traps a 2.1 volume of water 
containing zooplankton. After closure, an inner 
piston-like container is opened which rapidly 



disperses (2-3sec) a trace amount of P-32 labeled 
yeast (Rhodotorula). A grazing time of 5 minutes 
allows marked filtration and ingestion by the 
zooplankton, but is insufficient time for the 
labeled food to pass through the gut of the domi- 
nant cladoceran grazers. Uptake of the tagged 
yeast by the zooplankton is determined by strain- 
ing the sample through a 75 micron net and mea- 
suring radioactivity. The filtering rate of the com- 
munity and of individual species can be calculated 
from the uptake values. Results show the rate of 
uptake by entire zooplankton communities and by 
individual species of Daphnia galeata, Daphnia 
rosea, and Ceriodaphnia. The versatility, simplici- 
ty, naturalness, and sensitivity make this a useful 
method. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07720 



USE OF SHAKE CULTURES IN A SEMISOLID 
THIOGLYCOLATE MEDIUM FOR DIF- 
FERENTIATING STAPHYLOCOCCI FROM 
MICROCOCCI, 

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of 

Microbiology; and North Carolina State Univ., 

Raleigh. Dept. of Genetics. 

J. B. Evans, and W. E. Kloos. 

Applied Microbiology, Vol. 23, No. 2, p 326-331, 

February 1972. 9 fig, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Bacteria, 'Cultures, Separation 
techniques, Anaerobic bacteria, Aerobic bacteria, 
'Pathogenic bacteria. 

Identifiers: Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococ- 
cus epidermidis, Micrococcus saprophyticus, 
Micrococcus lactis, Micrococcus iuteus, 
Micrococcus roseus, Culture media, Shake cul- 
tures, Thioglycolate medium, DNA, Agars, Dif- 
ferential media, 'Micrococci, 'Staphylococci. 

The standard diagnostic test for differentiating 
staphylococci from micrococci is based on the 
ability of the former to produce acid anaerobically 
in a glucose-containing growth medium. This test 
has been modified to provide greater convenience, 
easier interpretation of results, and better correla- 
tion with deoxyribinucleic acid (DNA) base com- 
position. In the modified test, shake cultures in 
Brewer's fluid thioglycolate medium with 0.3 per- 
cent agar added are observed for growth in the 
anaerobic zone of the tubes. This test was applied 
to 125 strains of staphylococci and microcci, and 
all except two strains gave results that were con- 
sistent with other criteria. Of particular interest 
were eight strains of Micrococcus saprophyticus 
and three strains of M. lactis that have a DNA 
composition of 30 to 37 percent guanine plus 
cytosine (GC). All 1 1 of these cultures produced 
anaerobic growth and thus would be classified as 
staphylococci. Strains of M. lactis that have a high 
GC content in their DNA grew only aerobically. 
Some cultures of staphylococci produced charac- 
teristic band patterns of anaerobic growth and 
other cultures produced only a few anaerobic colo- 
nies from an inoculum of 1,000,000 to 10,000,000 
cells. These observations suggest some interesting 
genetic and metabolic capabilities in such cultures. 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07721 



BACTERICIDAL PROPERTIES OF CHLOR- 
SULFAMATES, 

Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Lawrence. 

Environmental Health Research. 

J. E. Delaney, and J. C. Morris. 

Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 

American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 98, No. 

SA 1, p 23-36, February 1972. 5 fig, 8 tab, 1 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Bactericides, *E. coli, 'Streptococ- 
cus, Water purification, 'Disinfection, Water 
chemistry, 'Chlorination, Water quality control, 
Aquatic microbiology. Swimming pools. Nitrogen 
compounds, Pathogenic bacteria, Cultures. 
Identifiers: Staphylococcus aureus, 'Chlorsulfa- 
mates, Dichlosulfamates, Monochlorsulfamate, 
Swimming pool water, Monochloramine, Survival. 



43 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5A — Identification of Pollutants 



Experimental results show that the use of chlor- 
sulfamates to establish a satisfactory bactericidal 
environment in swimming pool water is highly im- 
practical. This determination was made by expos- 
ing cultures of E. coli. Streptococcus faecalis, and 
Staphylococcus aureus, as representative of typi- 
cal fecal and skin bacteria, to solutions of potassi- 
um dichlorsulfamate in oxidizing chlorine for con- 
trolled periods of time and pH levels. Contact 
times for 99 percent kill effectiveness at the dif- 
ferent pH levels indicate that as the concentration 
of dichlorsulfamate is increased towards 8 mg/1 
chlorine and the pH increased towards 8, the ger- 
micidal effectiveness also increases. Monochlor- 
sulfamate is less effective than dichlorsulfamate 
and both are less effective than free chlorine or 
chloramide. Approximately 1.000 mg/1 chlorine in 
the form of dichlorsulfamate would have to be 
established to achieve a 99 percent kill of E. coli in 
1 min in the pH 7-8 range. Thus, the low bacter- 
icidal potencies of mono and dichlorsulfamates 
counter-indicate the use of sulfamation as a 
chlorine stabilizer and sulfamic acid as a pH regu- 
lator in pool water. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07722 



METHANOBACTERIUM THERMOAU- 

TOTROPHICUS SP. N., AN ANAEROBIC, AU- 
OTROPHIC, EXTREME THERMOPHILE, 

inois Univ., Urbana, Dept. of Microbiology. 
J. G. Zeikus, and R. S. Wolfe. 
Journal of Bacteriology, Vol. 109, No. 2, p 707- 
713, February 1972. 6 fig, 1 tab, 17 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Methane bacteria, 'Thermophide 
bacteria, *Sewage bacteria, 'Anaerobic bacteria. 
Water pollution sources. Microbiology, Aquatic 
bacteria. Sludge, Cultures, Isolation, Sewage. 
Identifiers: 'Autotrophic bacteria, Methanobac- 
terium thermoautotrophicus. Enrichment, Culture 
media, Methanobacterium. 

A new methanogenic bacterium, Methanobacteri- 
um thermoautotrophicus sp. n., was isolated using 
fresh fermenting sewage sludge for enrichment 
cultures. Growth media and maintenance media 
were prepared and sterilized under a strictly 
anaerobic C02 or hydrogen and C02 (80:20) at- 
mosphere by a modification of the Hungate 
technique as described by Bryant and Robinson. 
Final pH of the sterile medium was 7.2. The 
modified culture technique was also used in isola- 
tion, maintenance and subculture of organisms. 
Cultures were incubated statically in test tubes in 
an upright position to facilitate determination of 
methane. Growth was measured colorimetrically 
at 660 nm for DNA composition tests, the bacteria 
were passed through a French pressure cell at 1800 
psi and analyzed by the method of Schildkraut, et 
al. Ribosomes were isolated, purified by the 
method of Zeikus, et al. and analyzed in a Gilford 
spectrophotometer. All samples had mutual ab- 
sorbances of 0.40 to 0.50 at 260 nm. Methane was 
detected by packard gas chromatograph equip- 
ment with a Silica gel column connected to a 
hydrogen flame detector. Isolates were gram-posi- 
tive, non-motile, irregularly curved rods of 
frequent long filaments. The organism is an au- 
totroph and a strict anaerobe, with a pH optimum 
of 7.2-7.6. Optimum growth temperature is 65 C 
with a max. at 70 C. Ribosomes were stable to 75 C 
and had a Tm of 82 C. Ribosomes upon complete 
thermal denaturation, showed only a 20 percent 
hyperchromic increase. Methane formation is tem- 
perature dependent and requires hydrogen and 
carbon dioxide; methyl cobalamin served as 
methyl donor. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07723 



A DOUBLE SAMPLING SCHEME FOR ESTI- 
MATING FROM MISCLASSIFIED MUL- 
TINOMIAL DATA WITH APPLICATIONS TO 
SAMPLING INSPECTION, 

New York Univ., N.Y. Dept. of Quantitative Anal- 
ysis. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 07C. 

W72-07725 



BACTERIOPHAGE AND THE TOXIGENICITY 
OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULEVUM TYPE D, 

National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Wash. 
Pacific Fishery Products Technology Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07726 



MOLECULAR WEIGHT CHROMATOGRAPHY, 

Du Pont de Nemours (E. I.) and Co., Wilmington, 

Del. Central Research Dept. 

R. S. Swingle. 

Industrial Research, Vol. 14, No. 2, p 40-42, 

February 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Gas chromatography, 'Pollutant 
identification, Laboratory equipment, Chemical 
analysis, Standards. 

Identifiers: 'Molecular weight chromatography. 
Absolute weight, Molecular weight, Carrier gases, 
SF6, Fluorocyclobutane, 'Halogenated com- 
pounds, Perfluoro-n-hexyl iodide, Precision, 
Laboratory techniques, Carbon dioxide, Sulfur 
hexafluoride. 

Molecular weight chromatography (MWC) com- 
bines a modified dual column gas chromatograph 
with 2 gas density detectors so that both molecular 
and absolute weights can be determined. The com- 
bination of MW and retention time allows qualita- 
tive identification of unknown species. Test sam- 
ples are split and simultaneously analyzed on 2 
matching columns with different carrier gases of 
widely differing MW's such as SF6 (MW 146) and 
C02 (MW 44). Receptor signals can be computer 
processed for gases SF6 and C02, the 1 percent 
standard deviation indicates a deviationof less 
than plus or minus 1 mass unit at mass 200 and 
below and plus or minus 4 mass units at mass 300. 
Errors can be shifted to lower values using heavier 
carrier gases such as fluorocyclobutane (MW 200). 
An accuracy of about plus or minus 0.5 percent 
has been obtained for peaks slightly skewed and of 
normal magnitudes. Standards of high molecular 
wt are used to minimize errors in determining 
response ration. Polyhalogenated compounds such 
as perfluoro-n-hexyl iodide are ideal. (Mackan- 
Battelle) 
W72-07727 



AN EVALUATION OF WATER-QUALITY 
RECORDS FOR TEXAS STREAMS, 

Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 
J. F. Blakey, R. O. Hawkinson, and T. D. Steele. 
Geological Survey Open-file Report (Texas Dis- 
trict), 1972. 54 p, 12 fig, 5 tab, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water quality, 'Streams, 
'Discharge (Water), 'Chemical analysis, 'Texas, 
Water anslysis, Water properties, Streamflow, 
Flow rates, Correlation analysis. Regression anal- 
ysis, Specific conductivity. Evaluation, Analytical 
techniques. Computer programs, Forecasting, 
Basic data collections. 

Identifiers: 'Streamflow-water quality relation- 
ships. 

Chemical data for 12 streamflow-sampling stations 
in Texas, each having from 8 to 24 years of availa- 
ble historical records, were analyzed to determine 
relationships between concentrations of the major 
inorganic constituents and specific conductance or 
stream discharge. Regression equations for each 
station were derived by using data for an identical 
5-year period; the remaining record served as inde- 
pendent test data for checking the adequacy of the 
functions on the basis of continued specific-con- 
ductance determinations as an index variable. 
Daily solute concentrations and loads at a sam- 
pling site were simulated, and monthly and annual 
averages were computed by using daily records of 
specific conductance in conjunction with the 
regression equations. Simulated annual mean con- 
centrations of most individual solutes and dis- 
solved solids averaged within 10-20 percent of 
comparable concentrations determined from the 
composited chemical analyses, although syste- 
matic biases were detected in results for some of 
the relationships used in the simulation. 
(Woodard-USGS) 



W72-07744 



WATER QUALITY AT SELECTED LOCATIONS 

IN THE SAN ANTONIO AREA, TEXAS- 

--PROGRESS REPORT, 1972, 

Geological Survey, San Antonio, Tex. Water 

Resources Div. 

R. D. Reeves, and J. F. Blakey. 

Geological Survey Progress Report, 1972. 27 p, 1 

fig, 2 tab, 1 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water quality, 'Groundwater, 
'Water wells, 'Surface waters, 'Texas, Water 
analysis, Water properties, Chemical analysis, 
Aquifers, Limestones, Water pollution control, 
Basic data collections, Discharge (Water). 
Identifiers: 'San Antonio area (Tex). 

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with 
the Edwards Underground Water District and the 
Texas Water Development Board, is conducting a 
continuing investigation of water quality in the 
aquifer formed by the Edwards and associated 
limestones in the San Antonio area. The program 
was initiated in 1968 to collect historical reference 
data for determining changes in water quality and 
to detect any current pollution of the groundwater. 
Water-quality data collected at 204 sites (wells, 
springs, and surface waters) from September 1969 
to August 1971 are presented, including some data 
from selected analyses made prior to 1969. A map, 
scale 4 mi to the in, shows the sampling locations. 
(Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07755 



POLLUTION MONITORING AND PREVEN- 
TION BY USE OF BIVARIATE CONTROL 
CHARTS, 

Canadian Industries Ltd., Montreal (Quebec). 
T. W. Beak, C. De Courval, and N. E. Cooke. 
Sewage and Industrial Wastes, Vol. 31, No. 12, p 
1383-1394, December, 1959. 13 fig, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring, 'Baseline studies, 
Biological communities, 'Bioindicators, 'Indica- 
tors, Water pollution, Aquatic environment, Path 
of pollutants, 'Pollutant identification. Water 
quality, Aquatic life, 'Benthos, Ecotypes, Water 
pollution effects, Water pollution control. Pollu- 
tion abatement, 'Lake Ontario, 'Warning 
systems. 
Identifiers: 'Bivariate control charts. 

The problem of preventing pollution of the waters 
of Lake Ontario adjacent to the site of a large 
chemical plant is discussed. Sampling of several 
groups of benthos according to a predetermined 
pattern was carried out so that variations caused 
by chance, season, and difference between sam- 
pling locations could be treated statistically. 
Bivariate control charts were constructed to ena- 
ble all of these variations to be adequately as- 
sessed by simply plotting the results of the survey 
on the chart. This system of surveys and charts is 
very sensitive and can detect the onset of an ad- 
verse situation long before a trained observer 
would suspect that any trouble was developing. 
The system calls for sampling of representative 
benthos four times per year. (LeGore-Washington) 
W72-07793 



ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN 
DENMARK IN 1970, 

Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Roskilde, 

Health Physics Dept. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07820 



STUDIES ON ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOAC- 
TIVITY IN FINLAND 1968-1970, ANNUAL RE- 
PORT, 

Institute of Radiation Physics, Helsinki (Finland). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07823 



44 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Sources of Pollution — Group 5B 



EXPERIENCE IN THE USE OF AN ANTICOIN- 
CIDENCE SHIELDED GE (LI) GAMMA-RAY 
iPECTROMETER FOR LOW LEVEL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL RADIONUCLHJE ANALYSIS, 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Radiation 

!ab. 

'. L. Phelps, and K. O. Hamby. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 

ion Service as UCRL-73521 , $3.00 in paper copy, 

0.95 in microfiche. October 25, 1971 28 p, 9 fig, 3 

jb, 27 ref . 

)escriptors: * Radioactivity techniques, 'Pollutant 
lientification, 'Monitoring, Test procedures, 
.aboratory tests, Technology, Environment, 
lackground radiation, Time lag, Radioisotopes, 
nstrumentation. Methodology, Fallout, Gamma 
ays, *Pollutant identification. 

;nvironmental samples in a 200 cu cm Al can were 
ssayed using an 18 cu cm planar detector. The 
bove-sample location of the detector was not op- 
mum for liquid or disc samples. The sensitivity of 
lis (Compton-suppressed) method was about 0.01 
icoCi for Cs-137 in a 296 g soil sample with a 3800 
linute analysis time. Comparing anticoincidence 
nd coincidence spectra often improved resolu- 
on. Fallout radionuclides quanitiated in air sarn- 
ies included Ce-144, Ce-141, Sb-125, Ru-103, Ru- 
06, Cs-137, Zr-95, and Mn-54. Cosmic-ray-in- 
uced Be-7 was also found. (Bopp-ORNL) 
/72-07824 



ORTABLE GE (LI) DETECTOR FOR FIELD 
IEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE 
NVIRONMENT, 

alifornia Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Radiation 

ab. 

. L. Phelps, L. R. Anspaugh, J. J. Koranda, and 

i. W. Huckabay. 

.vailable from the National Technical Informa- 

on Service as UCRL-73561 , $3.00 in paper copy, 

0.95 in microfiche. November 15, 1971. 24 p, 7 

g, 5 tab, 25 ref. 

lescriptors: 'Radioactivity techniques, 'Pollutant 
lentification, 'Monitoring, Test procedures, 
echnology, Environment, Background radiation, 
ime lag, Radioisotopes, Instrumentation, 
[ethodology, Fallout, Gamma rays, On-site tests. 

i-situ spectroscopy required determination of the 
:tivity distribution with soil depth to permit 
etailed interpretation. However the counting time 
)r the gross in-situ measurement was about 30 
linutes as compared with 1400 minutes when 
:presentative samples were analyzed in the 
boratory by a Ge (Li) anticoincidence shielded 
jectrometer. Application to monitoring the ef- 
uent gas from an operating B WR reactor showed 
le major peaks from Xe-135, Xe-138 and Xe- 
55m after a counting time of 20 min, and Kr-88 
fter an additional 100 min. (Bopp-ORNL) 
-'72-07825 



ROCEEDINGS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLU- 
ONIUM SYMPOSIUM. 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
'72-07830 



NALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE 
ETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM IN EN- 
IRONMENTAL SAMPLES, 

nvironmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, 
ev. Western Environmental Research Lab. 
or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
'72-07836 



AMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF SOILS FOR 
LUTONIUM, 

astern Environmental Radiation Lab., Mont- 

jmery, Ala. 

or primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

'72-07837 



COMMONALITY IN WATER, SOIL, AIR, 
VEGETATION, AND BIOLOGICAL SAMPLE 
ANALYSIS FOR PLUTONHJM, 

Trapelo/West, Richmond, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07838 



PLUTONIUM IN SURFACE SOILS IN THE 
HANFORD PLANT ENVmONS, 

Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, Wash. Pacific 

Northwest Labs. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07839 



MEASUREMENT OF PLUTONIUM IN SOIL 
AROUND THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 

Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, 
Nev. Western Environmental Research Lab. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07840 



SECOND ANNUAL REPORT, ENVIRONMEN- 
TAL STUDIES, MAINE YANKEE ATOMIC 
POWER COMPANY. 

Maine Yankee Atomic Power Co., Westboro, 
Mass. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as Docket 50309-45, $6.00 in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. Docket 50309-45, 1971. 
364 p. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring, 'Surveys, 'Measure- 
ment, 'Data collections, 'Environment, 'Radioac- 
tivity, 'Radioactivity effects, Rivers, Effluent, 
Radioecology, Aquatic populations, Hydrologic 
aspects, Nutrients, Chemicals, Plankton, Benthos, 
Algae, Fish, Water pollution, Water pollution 
sources. 

Identifiers: Concentration, Radiation safety, 
Radiation control. 

The environmental survey of the Montsweag Bay- 
Back River area was initiated as a full-scale in- 
tegrated program in October, 1969. Portions of the 
program had been started as early as the summer 
of 1968, but sampling was not conducted on a 
regular schedule until the fall and spring of 1969- 
1970. Initial efforts involved assembling and test- 
ing equipment, evaluating sampling procedures, 
and selecting permanent sampling stations. Almost 
all portions of the program have now been opera- 
tive for a year or more and some conclusions can 
be drawn from the findings. Hydrology and 
nutrient chemistry, planton, benthos, some com- 
mercial invertebrates, finfish, and marine algae 
are discussed. (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07841 



DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEM FOR TRACE 
ELEMENT ANALYSIS IN THE ENVIRONMENT 
BY CHARGED PARTICLE X-RAY 

FLUORESCENCE, 

Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, N. Y. 
B. M. Gordon, and H. W. Kraner. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as BNL-16182, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Paper presented at the Inter- 
national Meeting on Chemical Analysis by 
Charged Particle Bombardment, Sept. 5-8, 1971. 
Namur, Belgium, 1971. 295 p, 11 ref, CONF- 
710925-1. 

Descriptors: 'Water analysis, 'Analytical 
technique, *X-ray fluorescence, Radioactivity 
techniques. Sampling, Environment, 'Pollutant 
identification, 'Trace elements, Ions. 
Identifiers: Charged particle accelerators. 

Chemical preparation with the attendant possibili- 
ty of losses and contamination may not be 
required with this technique which is suitable for 
small samples. Analysis of the x-ray spectrum of 
the heavy elements is eased by the unique patterns 
of the L peaks. Use of a chromium absorber per- 
mitted determination of Cr and Mn in a sample 



containing a large amount of iron. A 5 mg sample 
of sea water, evaporated on 0.0075 mm thick Kap- 
ton and bombarded with 3.5 Mev protons, showed 
x-ray spectrum peaks from 250 picograms of I and 
40 nanograms of Sr. (Bopp-ORNL) 
W72-07844 

5B. Sources of Pollution 



MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF GROUND- 
WATER TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES 
AT HANFORD (WASHINGTON), 

Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, Wash. Pacific 
Northwest Labs. 

D. B. Cearlock, R. C. Routson, and C. A. Bryan. 
Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va. 22151 as 
BNWL-SA-3494, $3.00 paper copy, $0.95 
microfiche. Report BNWL-SA-3494, August 1970. 
24 p, 5 f ig, 5 tab. AEC Contract AT (45- 1 - 1 830). 

Descriptors: 'Path of pollutants, 'Simulation anal- 
ysis, 'Computer programs, 'Groundwater move- 
ment, 'Dispersion, Diffusion, Adsorption, 
Radioisotopes, Radioactive wastes, Hybrid com- 
puters. 
Identifiers: Interactive computer systems. 

A mathematical model for predicting the distribu- 
tion and movement of radiocontaminants in 
heterogeneous subsurface environments is being 
developed. It is based on the transport equation, 
which incorporates fluid movement and 
radionuclide reaction components into one interre- 
lated equation. The transport equation provides 
the analytical tool with which the time-dependent, 
concentration distribution of radionuclides in satu- 
rated and unsaturated soils can be predicted. Op- 
timum computational capability can be achieved 
through the interactive system being developed for 
groundwater systems analysis. The system con- 
sists of an interactive light-pen display, a disc 
memory unit, and graphical digitizer connected to 
a small computer. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07289 



THE ROLE OF THE INDIAN MONSOONS IN 
THE INTERHEMISPHERIC TRANSPORT OF 
RADIOACTIVE DEBRIS FROM NUCLEAR 
TESTS, 

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). 

Air Monitoring Section. 

S. Gopalakrishnan, and C. Rangarajan. 

Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 77, No 6, p 

1012-1016, February 20, 1972. 4 fig, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear explosions, 'Fallout, 'Indi- 
an Ocena, 'Monsoons, Air pollution. 
Radioisotopes, Trace elements. Winds, Wet 
seasons, Air circulation, Meteoric water, Travel- 
time, Meteology, Radioactive wastes. 
Identifiers: Polynesia, French nuclear tests. Fis- 
sion products, Barium 140, Zirconium 95. 

Measurements of the concentrations of short-lived 
fission products, Ba-140 and Zr-95, from the 
summer 1968, 1970, and 1971 French tests in 
Polynesia are presented. The debris reached the 
west coast of India in 15-22 days after the burst for 
the three test series, which strikingly confirms 
previous findings based on the 1968 and earlier test 
debris. A comparative study of the levels of short- 
lived fission products at various stations in the 
northern and southern hemispheres following the 
French tests is also presented. The results of this 
comparison show that the rapid transport of air 
masses across the equator by the southerly jet 
results in levels in India (west coast) that are up to 
an order of magnitude higher compared to levels at 
the sam e latitude in other meridians. The above 
radioactive data are consistent with recent 
meteorological studies on the magnitude of inter- 
hemispheric exchange in the west Indian Ocean 
during monsoon periods. (Lang-USGS) 
W72-07291 



45 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5B — Sources of Pollution 



COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC ACIDS DIS- 
SOLVED IN SURFACE WATERS (O SOSTAVE 
ORGANICHESKIKH KISLOT, RAST- 

VORENNYKH V POVERKHNOSTNYKH 
VODAKH), 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 
(USSR). 

A. N. Khomenko, and I. A. Goncharova. 
In: Formirovaniye khimicheskogo sostava, 
zagryazneniye i samoochishcheniye poverkhnost- 
nykh vod. Metody analiza prirodnykh vod; 
Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy, Vol 55, Leningrad, 
p 32-44, 1971. 2 fig, 9 tab, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, *Water analysis, 
•Chemical analysis, 'Organic acids, 'Surface 
waters, Rivers, Reservoirs, Lakes, Water level 
fluctuations. Volatility, Organic matter, Carbon, 
Seasonal, Chromatography. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Water samples, Volatile 
acids, Nonvolatile acids, Mineralization, Chro- 
matograms. 

Investigations were conducted in 1969 to continue 
research begun in 1965-66 to obtain data on con- 
tent, distribution, and dynamics of organic acids in 
waters of a number of major rivers, reservoirs, 
and lakes of the USSR. Concentration of organic 
acids in river waters in 1969 varied between 0.047 
and 0.157 meq/liter; concentration of organic acids 
in reservoir waters was 0.03-0. 1 2 meq/liter and that 
in lake waters, 0.05-0.095 meg/liter. Nonvolatile 
acids represented 20%-30% of the total acid con- 
tent and included adipic, pyroracemic, succinic, 
lactic, oxalic, malonic, aconitic, citric, tartaric, 
and malic acids, determined in amounts ranging 
from < 0.0001 to 0.012 meq/liter. Concentration of 
nonvolatile acids in river waters was l%-20% of 
the total organic-carbon content, while that in 
reservoir and lake waters was 2%-ll% and 3%- 
7%, respectively. (See also W72-07295) (Josefson- 
USGS) 
W72-07298 



CONCENTRATION AND DYNAMICS OF OR- 
GANIC ACIDS IN MINERAL WATERS OF THE 
LAKE BAIKAL REGION (SODERZHANIYE I 
DINAMIKA ORGANICHESKIKH KISLOT V 
MINERAL'NYKH VODAKH PRIBAYKAL'YA), 
Irkutskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet (USSR). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07299 



HYDROCHEMICAL MAP OF THE OXIDATION 
CAPACITY OF RIVER WATERS OF THE 
ASIATIC PART OF THE USSR (GIDROK- 
HIMICHESKAYA KARTA OKISLYAYEMOSTI 
VODY REK AZIATSKOY TERRITORII SSSR), 
Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 
(USSR). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02K. 
W72-0730O 



BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOT WASTE MANAGE- 
MENT PROGRAM, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 
Okla. 

J. L. Witherow, and M. R. Scalf. 
Mimeo, April 1971, 2 fig, 1 tab, 11 ref. EPA Pro- 
gram 13040—04/71. 

Descriptors: 'Farm wastes, 'Water pollution 
sources, 'Regulation, Cattle, Kansas, Texas, 
Oklahoma, Feed lots, Livestock, Confinement 
pens. 

The Environmental Protection Agency's beef cat- 
tle feedlot waste research has an objective to 
develop technically and economically feasible 
systems to abate the pollutional effects of con- 
fined beef production. Surveys show that the 
number of 1,000 head feedlots and the total 
number of cattle on feed are increasing while the 
number of small feedlots is decreasing. This 
change is in conjunction with a shift of feedlots 
from the midwest corn belt to the high plains area 



and the Southwest. A breakdown by states is given 
for the number of cattle on feed and the size of 
feedlots. Pollutional damages from large feedlots 
are cited. Implementing waste management 
systems in Kansas, Texas, and Oklahoma is by 
recent laws and specific regulation adopted by 
agencies of these states. The design requirements 
are described. Lack of understanding by the 
feedlot operator and the number of enforcement 
personnel are major obstacles in implementation. 
Pollution control and labor cost may result in total 
environmentally controlled cattle feedlots becom- 
ing common during this decade. (EPA abstract) 
W72-07323 



ANIMAL FEEDLOT WASTE PROGRAM 
RESEARCH NEEDS, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 

Okla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 

W72-07324 



PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND 

MICROBIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING 
THE DISCHARGE OF WATER INTO DRAIN 
TH.E, 

California Univ., Davis. Water Resources Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W72-07353 



REAGENTS FOR DETERMINATIONS OF 
TRACE IMPURITDIS IN WATER, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Water Resources Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07354 



FATE OF DIQUAT IN THE AQUATIC EN- 
VIRONMENT, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Water Resources Center. 
R. C. Hiltibran, D. L. Underwood, and J. S. Fickle. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 598, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Illinois Water Resources 
Center Research, Urbana, Report No. 52, Februa- 
ry 1972. 45 p, 5 fig, 6 tab. OWRR A-035-ILL (1). 

Descriptors: 'Diquat, Aquatic plants, 'Cation 
exchange. Sago pondweed, Adsorption, Distribu- 
tion, 'Absorption, Organic matter, Sands, Silts, 
Clays, Time, Path of pollutants, Illinois, 'Herbi- 
cides, 'Aquatic weed control, Lakes. 
Identifiers: 'Bluegill, 'Hydrosoil, American pond- 
weed, Recovery, Desorption, 'Allerton Lake (El), 
♦Big Pond (IU). 

In laboratory studies, an average of 1.5 ppm of 
diquat remained 65 days after the application of 5 
ppm of diquat, and an average of 0.12 ppm 
remained 28 days after the introduction of 1 ppm 
of diquat. In fall field studies, 0.32 ppm of diquat 
remained 24 hours after the application of 1 ppm 
of diquat. In spring field studies, 0.31 and 2.4 ppm 
of diquat remained 8 days after the application of 1 
and 5 ppm of diquat. Sago pondweed did not trans- 
locate either the foliar or root applied C14 diquat; 
the foliar applied C14 diquat was translocated in 
American pondweed, but the root applied diquat 
was not. Bluegill removed diquat from water, and 
C14 was detected in the 8 tissues analyzed for C14 
content. The hydrosoil from Allerton Lake ex- 
hibited greater cation exchange capacity and 
bound more diquat than the hydrosoils from five 
other bodies of water. The hydrosoil from Big 
Pond contained more organic matter, silt, and 
clay, and bound less diquat than the hydrosoil 
from Allerton Lake. The hydrosoils from the other 
bodies of water varied in their organic matter con- 
tent, silt, and clay content, and bound less diquat 
than the hydrosoil from Allerton Lake or Big 
Pond. 
W72-07355 



TRACE ELEMENTS IN BLACK SEA 
SAPROPEL MUDS AND THEIR INTERACTION 



WITH ORGANIC INTERACTION WITH OR- 
GANIC MATTER (RASSEYANNYYE ELEMEN- 
TY V SAPROPELEVYKH ILAKH CHERNOGO 
MORYA I IKH VZAIMOSVYAZ' S OR- 
GANICHESKIM VESHCHESTVOM), 
Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Oke- 
anologii. 

1. 1. Volkov, and L. S. Fomina. 
Litologiya i Poleznyye Iskopayemyye, No 6, p 3- 
15, November-December 1971. 9 fig, 4 tab, 27 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Sediments, 'Mud, 
'Trace elements, 'Organic matter, Carbon, Calci- 
um carbonate, Metals, Copper, Nickel, Cobalt, 
Molybdenum, Pyrite, Hydrogen sulfide, Humic 
acids, Fulvic acids, Detritus, Plankton, Deep 
water, Cores, Water pollution sources, Path of 
pollutants. 

Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Black Sea, 'Sapropel, 
'Ooze, 'Vanadium, Bitumens. 

Core samples of Holocene, ancient, and New Eux- 
inic Black Sea sediments were collected to study 
the vertical distribution of trace elements in 
sapropel muds and to determine the interaction of 
these elements with organic matter. Maximum 
concentrations of Cu, Ni, Co, Mo, and V were ob- 
served in sapropel muds of ancient Black Sea sedi- 
ments. Concentration of Cu, Ni, Mo, and V in the 
muds correlates with the organic carbon concen- 
tration; the Co content correlates with the sulfur 
content of pyrite. A small percentage of trace ele- 
ments was found in bitumens; a larger percentage 
was associated with humic substances of sedi- 
ments, primarily fulvic acids. On the basis of 
average concentration of organically associated 
elements, the metals were distributed in the fol- 
lowing order: V = 22%; Cu = 16%; Ni = 7%; and 
Co = 2%. High concentrations of trace elements in 
sapropel are the result of extraction of dissolved 
metals from sea water by organic detritus during 
sedimentation. Concentration of metals in live 
planktonic organisms is of secondary importance. 
The conclusions derived may be useful in deter- 
mining the role of organic matter in concentrating 
metals in deep waters of ancient and Holocene 
sediments of the hydrogen sulfide zone of the 
Black Sea. (Josef son-USGS) 
W72-07456 



HYDROCHEMISTRY OF THE WATER COOL- 
ING THE KURAKHOVKA POWER PLANT, 

Akademiya Nauk URSR, Kiev. Instytut 

Hidrobiologii. 

S. I. Abremskaya. 

Hydrobiological Journal, Vol 7, No 2, p 81-88, 

1971. 5 fig, 4 tab, 9 ref. (Trans, from 

Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal, Vol 7, No 2, 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, 'Water tempera- 
ture, 'Water cooling, 'Hydroelectric plants, 
'Reservoirs, Heated water, Mine water. Salts, 
Ions, Inorganic compounds, Organic matter, Dis- 
solved oxygen, Oxidation, Biochemical oxygen 
demand, Degradation (Decomposition), 

Photosynthesis, Microbiology, Geomorphology, 
Thermal pollution, Seasonal. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Ukraine, Donbas basin, 
Cooling basins, Biogenous substances. 

The effect of discharge of heated water from a 
thermal powerplant on the ion and salt composi- 
tion of water in the reservoir cooling the Kurak- 
hovka powerplant, located in the Donbas region of 
the Eastern Ukraine, is examined. The reservoir 
covers an area of about 12 sq km and has a capaci- 
ty of 51 million cu m. Ion and salt composition of 
the reservoir water is determined by basin 
physiography, water sources, and discharge of 
large quantities of mineralized mine water into the 
reservoir. The water is supersaturated with calci- 
um carbonate, which makes for scale formation on 
condenser pipes. Heating affects the concentra- 
tion and distribution of biogenous and organic sub- 
stances. Lengthening of the algal growing season 
and intensification of photosynthesis are caused 
by the discharge of heated water. This increases 
the concentration of dissolved gas and contributes 



46 






WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Sources of Pollution — Group 5B 



o organic-matter accumulation. Heating the reser- 
roir water also stimulates microbiological 
irocesses, intensifies degradation and chemical 
ixidation of organic matter, and promotes seif-pu- 
ification of the reservoir. (Josef son-USGS) 
V72-07457 



;HEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER IN 
TREAMS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 

Jeological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

I. B. Wilder, and L. J. Slack. 

'or sale by USGS, Washington, DC, 20242, $1.00. 

Jeological Survey Hydrologic Investigations 

LtlasHA-439, 1971. 2 sheets, 12 fig. 

tescriptors: 'Hydrologic data, *Water quality, 
Streams, 'North Carolina, 'Reviews, Basic data 
ollections. Chemical analysis, Water pollution, 
latural streams, Water chemistry, Inorganic com- 
ounds, Time series analysis, Hydrographs, Cor- 
;lauon analysis, Regression analysis, 
jentifiers: 'Interpretive summary, Illustrations, 
[ydrologic atlas. 

his hydrologic atlas provides an interpretive sum- 
lary of water quality in streams of North Carolina 
rom data collected 1943-67. The changes in the 
uality of water with time are emphasized. Dis- 
olved solids in overland runoff not affected by 
uman activities range from about 15 mg/liter in 
le western Piedmont and mountains to about 70 
ig/liter in a part of the Coastal Plain. The dis- 
slved-solids content of groundwater inflow 
inges from about 10 mg/liter in the western part 
f the State to about 150 mg/liter along a part of 
le southeastern coast. The additional dissolved 
lorganic matter introduced by pollution is not 
igh enough to create serious problems in most 
treams of the State. Near large population centers 
nd industrial developments, the amounts of dis- 
alved solids added by municipal and industrial 
dilution exceed the amounts dissolved naturally. 
Woodard-USGS) 
/72-07460 



ATE-PLEISTOCENE AND HOLOCENE HIS- 
ORY OF THE BLACK SEA AS INDICATED BY 
TABLE-ISOTOPE STUDIES, 

/oods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 
or primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 
/72-07468 



IN DETERMINATION OF BOD AND PARAME- 
ERS IN POLLUTED STREAM MODELS FROM 
O MEASUREMENTS ONLY, 

urdue Univ., Lafayette, Ind. School of Electrical 

ngineering. 

.. J. Koivo, and G. R. Phillips. 

/ater Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 478- 

86, April 1972. 3 fig, 8 ref , 2 append. 

•escriptors: 'Biochemical oxygen demand, *Dis- 

Dlved oxygen, 'Water quality, 'Water analysis, 

Water measurement, Monitoring, Pollutant 

lentification, Dissolved oxygen analyzers, Equa- 

ons. 

lentifiers: 'Streeter-Phelps equation. 

he BOD concentration, the BOD removal coeffi- 
ient, and the average daily photosynthesis minus 
:spiration term of a polluted stream model can be 
etermined by using only measurements of the DO 
oncentration taken at discrete locations and the 
alues of the remaining parameters. The mathe- 
latical model used is a modified Streeter-Phelps 
:lationship describing the average daily DO and 
OD concentrations for a polluted stream under 
teady state conditions. The procedure provides a 
:ast squares fit to the DO measurements and is il- 
istrated by pertinent numerical examples. (K- 
app-USGS) 
/72-07470 



REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF STREAMFLOW 
CHEMICAL QUALITY IN TEXAS, 

Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. Water 

Resources Div. 

T. D. Steele, and M. E. Jennings. 

Water Resources Research, Vol 8, No 2, p 460- 

477, April 1972. 10 fig, 7 tab, 18 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Regional analysis, 'Water quality, 
'Texas, 'Statistical methods, 'Regression analy- 
sis, Variability, Correlation analysis, Hydrologic 
data, Water chemistry, Sampling, Surface waters. 

Thirty-one streamflow water quality stations in 
Texas, with long-term historical records ranging 
from 7 to 28 years, were selected for statistical 
analyses of the annual mean concentrations of the 
major chemical constituents. A statewide multiple 
regression analysis using frequency characteristics 
of annual mean water quality constituents as de- 
pendent variables and selected basin charac- 
teristics as independent variables was investigated 
as a means of regionalizing information on annual 
water quality characteristics. For the two different 
regression models investigated, a single indepen- 
dent variable, generally stream discharge or 
average basin rainfall, explained a significant part 
of the variance of the dependent water quality 
variables. Areal analysis of residuals of the state- 
wide regression models indicated two distinct re- 
gional patterns. Correlation coefficients for the 
concentration-rainfall regional models ranged 
from 0.80 to 0.97 and the standard errors of esti- 
mate were between 26 and 99% of the means of the 
dependent variables. An analysis of various con- 
centration-conductance relationships for the state- 
wide data also gave favorable results, and pro- 
vided an alternate method for obtaining estimates 
of streamflow chemical quality characteristics. (K- 
napp-USGS) 
W72-07476 



WATER RELATIONS, SALT BALANCE, AND 
NITRATE LEACHING LOSSES OF A 960-ACRE 
CITRUS WATERSHED, 

California Univ., Riverside; and California Univ., 

Riverside. Dept. of Agriculture. 

F. T. Bingham, S. Davis, and E. Shade. 

Soil Science, Vol 1 12, No 6, p 410-417, 1971. 2 fig, 

6 tab, Href. 

Descriptors: 'Irrigation, 'Salt balance, 'Nitrates, 

'Leaching, Salinity, Management, Evapotrans- 

piration, Nitrogen, Calif ronia, Watersheds 

(Basins), Runoff, Citrus fruits. 

Identifiers: 'Southern California, Lake Mathews 

(Calif). 

Irrigation management of a 960-acre citrus 
watershed with moderately saline water, resultant 
soil salinity and effluent or drainage salt losses, 
was studied relevant to evapotranspiration and 
nitrogen requirements of mature orange trees in 
the inland region of southern Califronia. 
Evapotranspiration losses were found to be 23 to 
27 inches/acre per year by inflow-outflow mea- 
surements. No significant salinization is develop- 
ing even though the irrigation water is relatively 
saline. Salts accumulating in the soil profile are, in 
the main, gypsum and lime. The effluent losses are 
substantial, representing 40 to 50% of the volume 
of water entering the watershed. Nitrate concen- 
trations in effluent waters range up to 87 mg 
nitrate/liter and average 50 to 60 mg nitrate/liter; 
this nitrate loss is about 45% of the nitrogen ap- 
plied each year as fertilizer. A survey of other ir- 
rigated lands in the region showed comparable 
nitrate losses. The hazard of drainage waters from 
cultivated and ferilized fields percolating into 
groundwater basins is revealed. Climatological 
data for the study period are summarized and the 
salt balance of the watershed tabulated. (Jones- 
Wisconsin) 
W72-07498 



THE EFFECT OF A POWER PLANT ON THE 
DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF 



ZOOPLANKTON NEAR THE PLANT'S THER- 
MAL OUTFALL, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Water Resources 

Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07523 



THE EFFECTS OF HEATED WASTE WATERS 
UPON MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 
Blacksburg. Water Resources Research Center. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07526 



METHOD FOR COMPARATTVE STUDIES OF 
HUMIC MATERIALS IN THE NATURAL 
WATERS OF THE AMAZON REGION, (IN 
PORTUGUESE), 

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, 

Manaus (Brazil). 

Umberto De Menezes, Santos, and Antonio Dos 

Santos. 

Bol Inpa (Inst Nac Pesqui Amaz) Pesqui 

Florestais. 7. 1-4. 1970. JJlus. (English summary). 

Identifiers: Amazon, Brazil, Humic materials, 

Method. 

A method is given for extracting the humic sub- 
stance from leaves in decomposition stages, in 
order to establish a standard pattern of humic 
material for similar research on humus found in 
natural waters. -Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W72-07568 



FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCUMULATION 
OF NITRATE IN SOIL, WATER, AND PLANTS, 

Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, HI. Soil 

and Water Conservation Research Div. 

F. G. Viets, Jr., and R. H. Hageman. 

Available from GPO, Washington, D.C. 20402 

Price $0.65. Agriculture Handbook No. 413, 63 p, 1 

fig, 21 tab, 221 ref, November 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution sources, 'Nitrates, 
'Fertilizers, 'Water pollution effects, 'Agricul- 
ture, Reviews, Groundwater, Soils, Surface 
waters, Evaluation, Soil-water-plant relationships, 
Publications, Bibliographies. 
Identifiers: 'Nitrate accumulation. 

A review of nitrate accumulation studies indicates 
that there are no widespread upward trends of 
nitrate concentrations in surface or groundwater. 
Absence of general trends, however, does not 
mean that nitrate is not accumulating in the shal- 
low groundwaters of some areas with highly inten- 
sive agriculture and an expanding suburban popu- 
lation lacking sanitary sewer systems. Areas of 
nitrate accumulation occur in the San Joaquin Val- 
ley and some coastal valleys of California, the 
North Centra] States of the United States, the 
coastal areas of Israel, and in northern Europe. 
The nitrate has multiple sources, some ancient and 
some new. Their relative contributions are largely 
unknown. Since nitrate in groundwater has many 
sources and its movement to and residence time in 
the groundwater depends on the hydrology of the 
area, each basin or watershed must be examined 
as an entity. Nitrate in groundwater is only one of 
the aspects of sanitary engineering and water-re- 
lated pollution control measures that must be con- 
sidered on a district basis. Certainly, Statewide or 
Nationwide controls on use of fertilizer are not 
justified. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07610 



OCCURRENCE OF ALKYLMERCURY COM- 
POUND IN CAUSTIC SODA FACTORY, 

Kurume Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine. 

S. Yamaguchi, H. Matsumoto, M. Hoshide, S. 

Matsuo, and S. Kaku. 

Arch Environ Health. 23 (3) 1971. 196-201. 

Identifiers: Alkyl, Caustic, Compound, Factory, 

Mercury, Sludge, Soda. 



47 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5B — Sources of Pollution 



A compound resembling methyl mercury is found 
in the area surrounding a caustic soda factory 
where only metallic Hg is used in the manufactur- 
ing process. Most of methyl mercury occurs in the 
sludge of a treatment pit for effluent water that 
contains inorganic Hg. Chemical characteristics 
identifying the physical properties and toxicity of 
the compound all indicate the probability that the 
substance is methyl mercury .--Copyright 1971, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07620 



ENRICHMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND OR- 
GANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE SURFACE 
MICROLAYER OF NARRAGANSETT BAY, 
RHODE ISLAND, 

Rhode Island Univ., Kingston. Graduate School of 

Oceanography. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07640 



WATER USES AND WASTES IN THE TEXTILE 
INDUSTRY, 

Clemson Univ., S.C. 

J. J. Porter, D. W. Lyons, and W. F. Nolan. 
Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 6, 
No. 1 , p 36-41, 4 fig, 3 tab, January 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution sources, 'Textiles, 
*Biodegradation, 'Industrial wastes, 'Biochemi- 
cal oxygen demand, 'Chemical wastes, Cotton, 
Suspended load, Detergents, Effluents, Organic 
wastes, Plastics, Industrial water. Industrial 
production, Organic compounds, Organic acids, 
Inorganic compounds. Enzymes, Sodium com- 
pounds. Water pollution effects, Emulsions, Urea, 
Hydrogen ion concentration. Industrial produc- 
tion. 

Identifiers: Wool, Synthetic fibers. Nylon, Lint, 
Textile industry. Polymers, Polyvinyl alcohol, 
Carboxymethyl cellulose, Polyaerylic acid. Cotton 
wax, Caustic soda, Soda ash, Sodium 
hypochlorite, Sodium chlorite, Dyes, Polyesters, 
Acrylus, Cellulose acetate, Modacrylies, 
Polyakylene glycals, Formaldehyde, Melamine, 
Gloxal compounds, Polyaerylic acid, Polyvinyl 
acetate. Chlorinated solvents. Hydrogen peroxide, 
Sodium hydroxide. Pine oil, Triaziridyl phosphine 
oxide. 

Since textile industries are concentrated in the 
southeastern U.S. and depend heavily on inland 
water supplies, it is important to characterize and 
control the wastes from textile processes. With the 
rapid increase in use of synthetic fibers, additional 
suspended loads which are largely not biodegrada- 
ble are added to the waste effluent. In addition, 
chemical compounds such as sizes, bleaches, 
dyes, optical brighleners. and fire retardant 
materials are being used in large quantities and 
contribute significantly to BOD. Estimates of the 
total pH, BOD, and solids which will be added to 
effluents up to 1982 are included. (Snyder-Bat- 
telle) 
W72-07650 



CONTINUOUS CULTURE OF PSEUDOMONAS 
FLUORESCENS WITH SODIUM MALEATE AS 
A CARBON SOURCE, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. School of Chemical 

Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07659 



COMPOSITION OF PHYTOPLANKTON OFF 
THE SOUTHEASTERN COAST OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 

Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, Va. 

H.G.Marshall. 

Bulletin of Marine Science, Vol 21, No 4, p 806- 

825, December 1971. 1 fig, 12 tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Phytoplankton, 'Systematics, 
'Diatoms, Sea water, Seasonal, Fluctuations, 
Continental shelf. Vertical distribution, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Sampling, Microscopy, 



Electron microscopy, Pyrrophyta, Distribution 
patterns. Water temperature, Water quality, 
Plankton, Analytical techniques, Algae. 
Identifiers: Coccolithophores, Silicoflagellates, 
Sargasso Sea, Shelf waters, Gulf stream. Cape 
Hatteras, Nansen bottle, Species diversity, Sam- 
ple preservation, Counting. 

Phytoplankton composition off the southeastern 
coast of the United States was studied during a 42- 
month period from 1964 to 1968. Collections were 
made using Nansen bottles at nine depths from 
to 300 feet in Continental Shelf waters, the Gulf 
Stream, and the Sargasso Sea. A 500-ml water 
sample was preserved for analysis immediately 
after sampling using neutralized formalin. The su- 
pernatant liquid was siphoned off 4-6 weeks later 
to obtain a 10 - 40-ml concentrate. Microscopic 
techniques were then used to count phytoplank- 
ton. Considerable species diversity and seasonal 
fluctuations were noted. Diatoms were predomi- 
nant in shelf waters and to the western boundary 
of the Gulf Stream, but their numbers declined 
rapidlv into the Sargasso Sea. Skeletonema 
costatum and Rhizosolenea alata were the major 
species found. Coccolithophores, pyrr- 
hophyceans, and silicoflagellates were found in 
greatest numbers in the Gulf Stream. In the Sar- 
gasso Sea, coccolithophores and pyrrohophyceans 
predominated. However, the total concentration 
of phytoplankton and the number of species were 
less in the Sargasso Sea than in the shelf waters or 
Gulf Stream. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07663 



BACTERIAL DIEOFF IN PONDS, 

Texas Univ., Houston. School of Public Health. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07664 



FAST REACTION FLOW SYSTEM USING 
CRYSTAL-MEMBRANE ION-SELECTIVE 

ELECTRODES, 

State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

H. I. Thompson, and G. A. Rechnitz. 

Analytical Chemistry, Vol 44, No 2, p 300-305, 

February 1972. 4 fig, 3 tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring, 'Chemical reactions, 
'Rates, Kinetics, Electrodes, Equipment, Flow 
rates. Ions, Fluorides, Theoretical analysis. 
Evaluation, Analytical techniques. 
Identifiers: 'Ion-selective electrodes, 'Crystal- 
membrane electrodes, 'Continuous flow system, 
Sensors, Continuous flow technique, Sensitivity, 
Iron III, Fluoride electrode, Ferric ion, Rate con- 
stants, Stopped-flow technique. 

A rapid-mixing, continuous flow system using ion- 
selective membrane electrodes as sensors is 
designed and evaluated for the study of fast solu- 
tion reactions. A study of a model reaction (iron 
Ill-fluoride complex formation reaction) using the 
fluoride electrode as sensor and its theoretical 
evaluation shows that this system is capable of 
measuring reactions with rate constants as large as 
ten to the eighth power per mole per second. This 
system extends the applicability of ion electrodes 
in kinetic measurements and is constructed to be 
compatible with commercially available elec- 
trodes. Possibilities for future development in- 
clude simultaneous sensing of several ions by 
using a number of electrodes in the reaction 
stream and the conversion of the system to 
stopped-flow operation. (Holoman-Battelle) 
W72-07677 



SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC MICRODETER- 

MINATION OF SULFATE, 

Clemson Univ., S.C. Dept. of Chemistry. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07686 



OrL DROP SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN 
HYDROCARBON - WATER SYSTEMS, 

Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo (Brazil). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07693 



A PROGRESS REPORT ON MERCURY, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Chemical 

Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07695 



QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF 
NITRILOTRIACETIC ACH> AND RELATED 
AMINOPOLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN INLAND 
WATERS, ANALYSIS BY GAS CHROMATOG- 
RAPHY, 

Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Mo. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07697 



COMPARATTVE METABOLISM OF DDT, 
METHYLCHLOR, AND ETHOXYCHLOR IN 
MOUSE, INSECTS, AND IN A MODEL 
ECOSYSTEM, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Entomology; and 
Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Zoology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07703 



GROWTH OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ON 
SHORT-CHAIN FATTY ACH>S: NATURE OF 
THE UPTAKE SYSTEM, 

Indiana Univ., Indianapolis. Dept. of Microbiolo- 
gy- 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07706 



METHANOBACTERIUM THERMOAU- 
TOTROPHICUS SP. N., AN ANAEROBIC, AU- 
TOTROPHIC, EXTREME THERMOPHILE, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana, Dept. of Microbiology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07723 



MOVEMENT OF PESTICIDES BY RUNOFF 
AND EROSION, 

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Dept. of Agricultural 
Engineering. 
C. T. Haan. 

American Society of Agricultural Engineers 
Transactions, Vol 14, No 3, p 445-447, 449, May- 
June 1971. 3 fig, 6 tab, 7 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Path of pollutants, 'Pesticides, 
'Erosion, 'Overland flow, Pesticide residues, Al- 
drin, Dieldrin, DDT, Laboratory tests, Adsorp- 
tion, Soils, Soil erosion. 

The movement of aldrin, dieldrin and DDT by ru- 
noff and erosion was studied on ten small, fallow, 
field plots under controlled conditions. The con- 
centrations of the pesticides in the eroded soil was 
on the order of 1 to 30 ppm while that in the ru- 
noff water was only 1 to 70 ppb. The sediment car- 
ried more than twice as much pesticide from the 
plot as did the water. These concentrations were 
present immediately below a fallow area sprayed 
with the pesticide. Applying' aldrin, dieldrin or 
DDT to the soil surface shortly before a rainfall 
produces no more potential for pesticides in the 
runoff water and eroded soil than applying the 
pesticide several days before a rainfall. (Knapp- 
USGS) 
W72-07731 



ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AND THE 
MICROFLORA IN THE UNDERGROUND 
WATERS OF THE BUKHARO-KHIVINSK 
PETROLEUM AND GAS REGION, (IN RUS- 
SIAN), 

V. N. Golubovich, V. D. Latushkin, and V. M. 
Shvets. 



48 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Sources of Pollution — Group 5B 



Temat Sb Vses Nauch-Issled Inst Gidrogeol Inzh 
Geol.26. 70-104. 1970. 

Identifiers: Bacteria, Bukharo, Distribution, 
Flora, Gas, Khivinsk, Micro, Organic, Petroleum, 
Substances, Underground, Waters. 

Organic C and N, organic acids, phenols, and dif- 
ferent groups of microflora in the waters of 
petroleum- and gas-bearing structures, empty 
structures, the area supplying the underground 
waters, and regional unproductive deposits. The 
quantitative content of organic acids of the 
microflora in each of these groups of underground 
waters is given. In waters of the source areas the 
most widespread were denitrifying and cellulose 
bacteria. Considerably weaker was the develop- 
ment of thionic and heptane-oxidizing bacteria (1 
scale point). The highest rate of development of 
heptane-oxidizing bacteria occurred in un- 
derground waters of gas deposits. Methane-form- 
ing bacteria, isolated on Barker's medium with 
ethanol, are characteristic of the underground 
waters outside the gas-bearing areas. Unlike this 
group, the methane-forming bacteria growing on a 
medium containing C02 and H2 were widespread 
in waters both inside and outside the gas-bearing 
area. Hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria were found 
very rarely. The thionic bacteria of deep un- 
derground waters are distributed very widely and 
the rate of their development is much higher than 
in the area of the source of the waters. The 
development of naphthalene-oxidizing bacteria in 
the underground waters of the Bukharo-Khivinsk 
region, as in other districts, is evidently associated 
with petroleum beds. However, to solve the 
problem of whether the group naphthalene-oxidiz- 
ing bacteria may serve as an indicator of petrole- 
um in waters, the species must be determined in 
the cultures isolated. The qualitative composition 
of the microflora of the underground waters of 
layers not bearing gas or petroleum but within gas 
and petroleum deposits is the same as that of the 
underground waters of empty structures. It in- 
cludes denitrifying, cellulose, methane-forming 
(on a medium containing C02 and H2), thionic, 
and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. The rate of 
development of heptane-oxidizing bacteria is low.- 
•Copyright 1971, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07747 



POTENTIAL POLLUTION OF OGALLALA BY 
RECHARGING PLAYA LAKE WATER - PESTI- 
CIDES, 

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Water Resources 
Center. 

D. M. Wells, E. W. Huddleston, and R. G. Rekers. 
Copy available from GPO Sup Doc, Washington, 
D.C. 20402, $0.40; microfiche from NTIS as PB- 
208 813, $0.95. Environmental Protection Agency 
Water Pollution Control Research Series, October 
1970. 36 p, 9 fig, 3 tab. EPA Program 16060 DCO 
10/70. 

Descriptors: *Water pollution sources, "Lakes, 
•Groundwater recharge, *Water quality, 'Texas, 
Sediments, Pollutant identification, Sampling, 
Data collections, Analytical techniques, Gas chro- 
matography, Herbicides, Insecticides, Rainfall, 
Runoff. 
Identifiers: 'Lubbock County (Tex). 

Twenty-four playa lakes in Lubbock County, Tex- 
as, were sampled on a routine basis following ru- 
noff-producing rainfall for a period of approxi- 
mately eighteen months to determine whether or 
not recharging of water collected in these lakes 
might be a hazard to the quality of water contained 
in the underlying Ogallala aquifer. In addition, fif- 
teen lakes lying within a triangle bounded by Plain- 
view, Canyon, and Hereford, Texas, were sam- 
pled during the summer of 1969 to provide addi- 
tional data regarding the extent of the potential 
problem. Based on results of the detailed analyses 
of approximately 220 samples and an equal 
number of sediment samples collected from the 
lakes, the quality of water in High Plains playa 
lakes is superior to the quality of water contained 
in the underlying aquifer in terms of the amount of 
dissolved materials. The amounts of suspended 



solids, organic material, and microorganisms are 
subject to wide variation and are highly dependent 
upon the recent history or treatment of the 
drainage basin. The compound most commonly 
found in sediment samples was Dieldrin, with Al- 
drin being next most common, and DDT found in 
only a few sediment samples. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07761 



STORM WATER PROBLEMS AND CONTROL 
IN SANITARY SEWERS, OAKLAND AND 
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA. 

Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 

W72-07785 



THE OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF 
POLYCHLORINATED BD?HENYLS IN THE EN- 
VmONMENT, 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Laurel, 

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07794 



RADIOISOTOPE TRACER TECHNIQUES IN 

THE INVESTIGATION OF DISPERSION OF 

SEWAGE AND DISAPPEARANCE RATE OF 

ENTERIC ORGANISMS IN COASTAL 

WATERS, 

Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq 

Nuclear Research Centre. 

C. Gilath, S. Blit, Y. Yoshpe-Purer, and H. L. 

Shuval. 

Nuclear Techniques in Environmental Pollution, 

International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 

1971, IAEA-SM-142a/44, p 673-688, 10 fig, 1 tab, 

lOref. 

Descriptors: 'Waste dilution, 'Outfall sewers, 
'Path of pollutants, Tracking techniques, Tracers, 
Radioisotopes, Dispersion, Bacteria, Salinity, 
Sampling, Analytical techniques, Public health. 
Recreation, 'Waste disposal. 
Identifiers: 'Diffusers. 

Sewage dispersion and bacteria die-away were in- 
vestigated at the Reading Outfall on the Israeli 
Mediterranean coast in attempts to improve the 
disposal of sewage at sea. Both the instantaneous 
and continuous injection methods of radioactive 
tracer introduction were used and their relative 
merits examined. Samples of sea water were then 
taken in the vicinity of the outfall and dilution 
maps, incorporating both the sample readings and 
visual observations from the shore, were con- 
structed. The ratio of diluted sewage flux to the ac- 
tual bacterial flux determined at different regions 
of the cloud was used to obtain the bacteria disap- 
pearance as a function of sewage travel time in the 
sea. It was determined that the pulse injection 
method is of limited usefulness in investigating 
sewage fields, since proper conditions for its use 
are presented only in the absence of an actual 
sewage field. The continuous injection method 
was demonstrated to provide useful results over a 
wide range of environmental conditions. Utiliza- 
tion of the techniques developed permitted predic- 
tion of dispersion and bacteria concentrations at 
nearby bathing beaches, and will provide rational 
assessments of proposed future modifications. 
(Lb wry-Texas) 
W72-07803 



EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE ON 
THE QUALITY OF SURFACE RUNOFF, 

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Dept. of Agricultural 

Engineering. 

J. I. Sewell, and J. M. Alphin. 

Mimeographed paper presented at the Southeast 

Region Meeting of the American Society of 

Agricultural Engineers and Southern Section, Soil 

Conservation Society of America in Richmond, 

Virginia, February 14, 1972. 8 p, 3 tab, 7 ref. 

OWRRA-021-Tenn(l). 



Descriptors: 'Water quality, Feedlots, Lagoons, 
'Tennessee, 'Farm wastes, On-site investigations, 
Water pollution sources, 'Land use, Nitrates, 
Phosphates, Dissolved oxygen, Coliforms, Bac- 
teria. 

Surface water samples form twenty-four sites at 
four locations in Tennessee were analyzed to 
determine the effects of agricultural land use on 
the quality of surface runoff. The results showed 
that bacterial counts and chemical concentrations 
of surface water samples were dependent on land- 
use activities; however, the most important fac- 
tors affecting the measured levels of these 
parameters were the location of the sampling 
points with reference to the source of the pollu- 
tants, dilution of the pollutants, and the time dur- 
ing the runoff cycle at which samples were taken. 
Concentrations of livestock increased the BOD, 
orthophosphates, and especially the bacterial 
counts of surface runoff samples from the areas 
affected. Of thirteen agricultural sites examined 
on flowing streams, none had dissolved oxygen or 
total nitrogen levels which failed to meet FWPCA 
standards for public water supplies, and only one 
site failed to meet the bacterial criteria. 
W72-07818 



ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN 
DENMARK IN 1970, 

Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Roskilde, 
Health Physics Dept. 
A. Aarkrog, and J. Lippert. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as RISO-245, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Risoe Report 245, June 1971. 
95 p, 17 ref , 3 append. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring, 'Fallout, 'Radioactivi- 
ty, 'Measurement, 'Data Collection, Strontium, 
Cesium, Sampling, Precipitation (Atmospheric), 
Soil contamination, Groundwater, Surface waters, 
Sea water, Milk, Foods, Diets, Food chains. 
Identifiers: Concentration, Whole body counter, 
Body burden, 'Denmark. 

The measurement of fall-out radioactivity in 
Denmark in 1970 is discussed. Sr-90 was deter- 
mined in samples from all over the country of 
precipitation, soil, ground water, surface water, 
sea water, grass, dried milk, fresh milk, grain, 
bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, total diet, drink- 
ing water and human bone. Furthermore Sr-90 
was determined in local samples of air, rain water, 
grass, sea plants, fish, and meat. Cs-137 was deter- 
mined in soil, milk, grain products, potatoes, 
vegetables, fruit, total diet, and meat, and Cs-137 
was measured by wholebody counting in persons 
from a control group. Estimates of the mean con- 
tents of radiostrontium and radiocaesium in the 
human diet in Denmark in 1970 are given. (Houser- 
ORNL) 
W72-07820 



EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF 

SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI IN BRACKISH 
WATERS, 

Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass. 

Eli Chernin, and Carol Bower. 

Parasitology. 63 (1): 1971. 31-36. 

Identifiers: Biomphalaria-Glabrata, Brackish, 

Schistosoma-Mansoni, Transmission, Waters. 

In the laboratory, transmission of S. mansoni to 
and from Biomphalaria glabrata can occur in artifi- 
cial sea water at or below a concentration of 
12.5%. Miracidia can also emerge and infect snails 
in 25% sea water, but this concentration is inimical 
to the survival of the snails or their eggs. The 
parasite thus appears to be better adapted to 
brackish water than is the intermediate host. 
Epidemiological studies are needed to assess the 
limits imposed by brackish waters on the natural 
transmission of schistosomiasis.-Copyright 1971, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07821 



49 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY AAANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5B — Sources of Pollution 



RELATIONS AMONG RADIONUCLIDE CON- 
TENT AND PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND 
MINERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COLUM- 
BIA RIVER SEDIMENTS, 

Geological Survey, Portland, Oregon. Water 
Resources Div. 

J. L. Glenn, and R. O. Van Atta. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as TID-25786, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Geological Survey Open-file 
Report, 1971. 131 p, 20 fig, 25 tab, 62 ref. 

Descriptors: "Radioisotopes, *Nuclear power- 
plants, 'Effluents, 'Water cooling, *Water pollu- 
tion, *Water pollution sources, 'Columbia River, 
Sediments, Sediment distribution. Sediment trans- 
port, Sorption, Ion exchange, Beds (Stream), Ca- 
tion exchange. Minerals, Gases, Carbon cycle, 
Hydrologic models. 
Identifiers: Quantative model, Qualitative model. 

The radionuclides discussed were produced by 
neutron activation of elements in Columbia River 
water that was used to cool the once-through 
nuclear reactors in the Hanford area near Pasco, 
Wash., prior to their final shutdown early in 1971. 
After return of the low-level radioactive cooling 
waters to the Columbia River, some radionuclides 
were attached to sediment particles and some par- 
ticles incorporated in the streambed. Data are 
presented on radionuclides in size separates of 
streambed sediments and relations among 
radionuclide content, particle size, cation 
exchange capacity, carbon and nitrogen content, 
and mineralogy aredescribed. Results from addi- 
tional streambed sediment-radionuclide studies 
and results from radionuclide transport determina- 
tions can be used to further develop qualitative 
and quantitative models. (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07822 



STUDIES ON ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOAC- 
TIVITY IN FINLAND 1968-1970, ANNUAL RE- 
PORT, 

Institute of Radiation Physics, Helsinki (Finland). 
Anneli Salo, L. Blomqvist, M. Asikainen, O. 
Castren, and O. Paakkola. 

Available from NTIS as SFL-A-17, $3.00 in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. June 1971. 65 p. 

Descriptors: 'Environment, 'Surveys, 'Measure- 
ment, 'Fallout, 'Surface waters, 'Water pollu- 
tion, Water pollution sources, Regions, Strontium, 
Cesium, Potassium, Milk, Food chains, Popula- 
tion, Air pollution. 

Identifiers: Concentration, Population exposure, 
Drinking water, Surface air. 

The results of strontium-90 and caesium- 137 
analyses of total deposition (1968-70), surface 
water (1968-69) and drinking water (up to 1968) are 
given. The downward trend of the annual 
depositon of strontium-90 and caesium- 137 turned 
into an upward trend in 1970. In 1969 strontium-90 
and caesium- 137 concentrations in surface water 
were on average 1 pCi/1 and 0.25 pCi/1 respective- 
ly, the regional differences corresponding to those 
of the previous years. According to the results of a 
five year period of analyses, the removal of stron- 
tium-90 and caesium-137 from lakewater by a con- 
ventional surface water purification process seems 
to be very slight, or even non-existant. The 
radionuclide concentration isalso given for surface 
air and milk. (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07823 



CONCENTRATIONS OF PU, CO AND AG 
RADIONUCLIDES IN SELECTED PACIFIC 
SEAWEEDS, 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, 

Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07826 



A SIMULTANEOUS STUDY ON THE 
TRANSFER OF RADIOIODINE FROM 



PASTURE TO MDLK AND FROM A SINGLE 
ORAL INTAKE TO MILK, 

Research Inst, of National Defence, Stockholm 
(Sweden). 

H-A Auraldsson, L. Ekman, A. Ariksson, and U. 
Grettz. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as FOA-4-4478, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. November 1971. 7 p. 

Descriptors: 'Iodine radioisotopes, 'Radioecolo- 
gy, 'Pollutants, 'Cattle, 'Pastures, Fallout, 
Digestion, Milk, Bioassay, Analytical technique, 
Population, Seasonal, Fluctuation, Strontium, 
Path of pollutant. 

Identifiers: Deposition, Particles, Concentration, 
Population exposure, Comparison. 

The relationship between a given deposition of 
1311 on pasture and its concentration in milk from 
cows grazing on contaminated pasture has been 
studied. The fraction of deposited 1311 consumed 
by the cows can be calculated by comparison with 
a single oral dose administration experiment. As 
the secretion of iodine in milk varies with time of 
season a simultaneous study of the transfer of 
iodine from pasture to milk and from a single oral 
intake to milk was performed using different 
iodine isotopes. It was found that 2% of the 
deposited iodine was consumed by the grazing 
cows. In earlier experiments 6% was found to be 
consumed. The lower retention can be explained 
by the characteristics of the grass with considera- 
ble straw shooting. Considerable volatilization of 
1311 occurred in connection with deposition. Ap- 
proximately 60% disappeared during 18 hours 
after deposition and another 6% during the actual 
grazing period of three days. (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07827 



CONTRIBUTION TO THE SELECTION OF 
RADIOACTIVE TRACERS FOR HYDROLOGY, 

Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 
Paris (France); and Commission of the European 
Communities, Brussels (Belgium). 
A. Lallemand, and G. Grison. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as LIB Trans-298, $3.00 in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. 1970. 12 p, 7 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Radioactivity techniques, 'Tracers, 
'Hydrogeology, Conferences, Radioisotopes, 
Technical feasibility, Foreign research, Soil types, 
Sands, Clays, Ion exchange, Percolation, Water 
types, Water properties. 

S-35, H-3 and Br-82 give the best recovery, inde- 
pendent of soil and water conditions. 1-131 is 
satisfactory with clays; Cr-51, with clays and 
dolomitic and silaceous sands; Na-24, with sands 
and clays; Ag-1 10, with clays; and C-14, with chal- 
ky sands. Other tracers are generally of more 
limited applicability. The information is presented 
in greater detail in EUR-4222f (a document of the 
same title, but in French, by A. Lallemand. 123 p, 
44 ref; available from the National Technical In- 
formation Service as N69-35940.) (See also W71- 
04883) (Bopp-ORNL) 
W72-07829 



PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLU- 
TONIUM SYMPOSHJM. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as LA-4756, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Symposium held at the Los 
Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the University of 
California, New Mexico, August 4-5, 1971. Report 
LA-4756. 119 p. 

Descriptors: 'Environment, Monitoring, 'Mea- 
surement, 'Data collections, 'Air environment, 
'Aquatic environment, 'Soil environment, 
Radioactivity effects, Radioisotopes, Animal 
populations, Aquatic populations, Plant popula- 
tions, Food chains, 'Path of pollutants. Water pol- 
lution, Water pollution sources, 'Pollutant 
identification. 
Identifiers: 'Plutonium, Concentration. 



This symposium was held to discuss the distribu- 
tion and measurement of plutonium in the environ- 
ment. The subject matter has been divided into 
three broad categories, the first dealing with dis- 
tribution or how plutonium has entered the en- 
vironment, the second dealing with methodology 
or the means by which one obtains environmental 
samples and analyzes them, and the third with the 
results obtained from such measurements and the 
interpretation which can be inferred from them. 
Reports cover the various aspects of the environ- 
mental condition as it relates to the atmosphere, 
surface waters, and soil and its subsequent 
pathway to man. (See W72-07831 thru W72-07840) 
(Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07830 



PLUTONIUM DISTRD3UTION AS A PROBLEM 
IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, 

Los Alamos Scientific Lab., N. Mex. 
W. H. Langham. 

In; Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Aug. 4-5, 
1971. p. 3-11, 6fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear powerplants, 'Effluents, 
'Radioisotopes, 'Radioactivity effects, 'Environ- 
ment, Air environment, Aquatic environment, Soil 
environment, Ecology, Animal populations, 
Aquatic populations, Plant populations, Water 
pollution, Water pollution sources, 'Path of pollu- 
tants. 
Identifiers: Concentration, 'Plutonium. 

The potential uses of plutonium in future peace- 
time technology are numerous and if realized will 
result in a production rate of thousands of kg per 
year by the end of the century. The technology of 
plutonium production and processing is already 
established. Whether plutonium attains its pre- 
dicted role in the future power economy may de- 
pend entirely on whether economically competi- 
tive methods of preventing its distribution in the 
environment can be attained. Because of its solu- 
bility and other carac tens tics, it is not readily 
taken into the ecological chain. No natural bacteri- 
al or other environmental entity has been observed 
that converts plutonium to a solubilized form that 
readily enters the ecological cycle; however, this 
possibility is worthy of further investigation. Con- 
trol of plutonium as an enviromental contaminant 
involves control of distribution from production 
reactors, processing plants, storage sites, and in- 
advertent releases during transportation and use. 
An all improtant factor in the alleviation of plu- 
tonium distribution as a problem in environmental 
science is continuous surveillance with sensitive 
and standardized methods of monitoring not only 
operational discharges but environmental distribu- 
tion as well. (See also W72-07830) (Houser- 
ORNL) 
W72-07831 



WORLDWTDE PLUTONIUM FALLOUT FROM 
WEAPONS TESTS, 

New York Operations Office (AEC), N. Y. Health 
and Safety Lab. 
John H. Harley. 

In; Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, New Mexico Aug. 4-5, 1971, 
p 13-19, 4 fig, 4 tab, 19ref. 

Descriptors: 'Environment, 'Environmental ef- 
fects, 'Radioisotopes, Nuclear explosions, Civil 
defense, Fallout, Movement, Air pollution, Water 
pollution, Soil contamination, Europe, Foreign 
countries, Path of pollutants. 
Identifiers: Concentration, 'Plutonium, France, 
China, SNAP generator. 

The testing of nuclear weapons up to the beginning 
of the moratorium distributed about 300 kCi of 
239Pu over the surface of the earth. Tests by 
France and Communist China have probably 
added about 5% to that. The concentrations of plu- 
tonium have been measured in the stratosphere 
and surface air. Over the past 10 years, data on 
deposition rate and cumulative deposit are very 



50 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Sources of Pollution — Group 5B 



scarce and information on the plutonium in the 
biosphere is even scarcer. The introduction of 17 
kCi of 238Pu from a SNAP generator has in- 
creased our interest in the fate of plutonium. Addi- 
tional measurements are being carried out and the 
Health and Safety Laboratory has performed a 
worldwide soil sampling to evaluate distribution of 
238Pu. Comparable data on 239Pu will also be ob- 
tained. Details of deposition and concentration for 
recent years are given in graphic and tabular form. 
(See also W72-07830) (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07832 



DISTRIBUTION OF PLUTONIUM FROM AC- 
CIDENTS AND FIELD EXPERIMENTS, 

Los Alamos Scientific Lab., N. Mex. 
Harry S. Jordan. 

In: Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, New Mexico Aug. 4-5, 1971, 
p. 21-24, Href. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear explosions, 'Radioactivity, 
•Radioactivity effects, 'Environment, 'Air pollu- 
tion, Water pollution, Soil contamination, Fallout, 
Distribution pattern, Meteorology, Research and 
development. Safety, Hazards, Accidents, Public 
health, 'Path of pollutants. 

Identifiers: Concentration, 'Plutonium, Weapons 
testing. 

Studies of plutonium in the environment from ac- 
cidents involving nuclear weapons and from ex- 
periments in the field to study health and safety 
aspects of operational weapons are worthy of 
careful evaluation. Plutonium fallout from weapon 
testing is diminishing and, for the immediate fu- 
ture, the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty 
would indicate that additions to the inventory will 
only be caused by testing at a reduced rate by na- 
tions not signing the treaty. Plutonium from rou- 
tine operations of plutonium facilities has never 
been a serious problem, and the current AEC drive 
to reduce plutonium contaminated effluent to the 
lowest practical concentration should reduce this 
source of plutonium to a negligible level. How- 
ever, the probability of an accidental release of 
plutonium from present usages can never be zero. 
(See also W72-07830) (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07833 



INDUSTRIAL-TYPE OPERATIONS AS A 
SOURCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLUTONIUM, 

Dow Chemical Co., Golden, Colo. Rocky Flats 
Div. 

S. E. Hammond. 

In: Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Aug. 4-5, 
1971. p. 25-35, 13 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Industrial production, 'Industrial 
wastes, 'Effluents, Fallout, 'Meteorology, 'Mea- 
surement, Discharge measurement, Accidents, 
Soil contamination, Water pollution sources, 
Public health, Radioactivity, Uranium, Air pollu- 
tion, Colorado. 

Identifiers: 'Plutonium, Concentration, 'Golden 
(Colo). 

From 1953 through 1970, the Rocky Flats plant has 
released upper limits of 41 mCi of plutonium as 
airborne effluents and 90 mCi of plutonium 
through liquid effluents. Methods and limitations 
of these measurements are described. In addition 
to these controlled releases, accidental releases to 
the environment occurred during a fire in 1957 and 
from wind transference of contaminated soil prior 
to 1970. These incidents are described and esti- 
mates of amounts of plutonium involved made by 
various investigators discussed. Data are given for 
alpha releases, concentrations of integrated air- 
borne alpha emitters, effluent concentration, 
sampling, and instrumentation for recent years. 
(See also W72-07830) (House-ORNL) 
W72-07834 



DETERMINING THE ACCUMULATED 

DEPOSIT OF RADIONUCLIDES BY SOIL SAM- 
PLING AND ANALYSIS, 

New York Operations Office (AEC), N. Y. Health 
and Safety Lab. 
E. P. Hardy, and P. W. Krey. 
In: Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Aug. 4-5, 
1971 , p. 37-42, 1 fig, 8 tab, 6 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear explosions, 'Industrial 
production, 'Effluents, 'Accidents, 'Fallout, 
'Meteorology, 'Soil contamination sampling, 
Analytical technique, Measurement, Strontium. 
Identifiers: Deposition, 'Plutonium, Concentra- 
tion. 

The Health and Safety Laboratory has measured 
90Sr and plutonium isotopes in soil samples to 
determine global and regional deposition patterns 
and inventories. Site selection and representivity, 
sampling, and analytical precision and accuracy 
are discussed. It is shown that the precision of 
replicate aliquoting and analysis is the determining 
factor in the overall error associated with soil 
sampling. Data are given for some radionuclide 
concentrations in soils at various locations. (See 
also W72-07830) (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07835 



ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE 
DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM IN EN- 
VIRONMENTAL SAMPLES, 

Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, 
Nev. Western Environmental Research Lab. 
N. A. Talvitie. 

In: Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, Mexico, Aug. 4-5, 1971. p. 
43-46, 2 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Environment, 'Air pollution, 
'Water pollution, 'Soil contamination, 'Analyti- 
cal techniques, Accidents, Fallout, Sampling, 
Colorado, Nevada, 'Pollutant identification. 
Identifiers: Rocky Flats area, Nevada test site, 
Bikini Island, Concentration, 'Plutonium. 

The Technical Services Program of the Western 
Environmental Research Laboratory has analyzed 
environmental and biological samples for a 
number of plutonium studies. Among these were 
analyses of air, water, and soil samples as 
assistance to the State of Colorado in studies of 
the Rocky Flats area; of air and soil samples col- 
lected at Bikini Island; and of air, water, soil, 
precipitation, and vegetation samples collected in 
the offsite areas surrounding the Nevada Test Site. 
Although the analysis of sea water is primarily a 
readiness program for incidents involving plutoni- 
um-containing devices, the laboratory has pro- 
vided analyses following one such incident. The 
analytical process applied to samples consists of 
the following operations, which can be performed 
independently: sample control, preanalysis 
preparation, dissolution and concentration opera- 
tions, ion exchange separation, electrodeposition, 
alpha spectrometry, and computer computation of 
results. Aside from the considerations of accuracy 
and economy, the objective of selection and 
development of techniques has been to provide a 
single process for all types of environmental and 
biological samples. Some of the techniques have 
been reported previously and are presented as 
summaries. Techniques that differ from these are 
presented in detail. (See also W72-07830) (Houser- 
ORNL) 
W72-07836 



SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF SOILS FOR 
PLUTONIUM, 

Eastern Environmental Radiation Lab., Mont- 
gomery, Ala. 

F. E. Butler, R. Lieberman, A. B. Strong, and U. 
R. Moss. 

In: Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Aug. 4-5, 
1971 , p. 47-50, 1 fig, 3 tab, 4 ref. 



Descriptors: 'Sampling, 'Analytical techniques, 
'Soil analysis, Assay, Measurement, Evaluation, 
'Pollutant identification, Soil contamination, 
Separating techniques. 
Identifiers: Concentration, 'Plutonium. 

Progress is described in analysis of soils artificially 
spiked with plutonium, soils containing particulate 
plutonium deposited from a processing plant, and 
soils containing fallout plutonium. The emphasis is 
on distribution of the actinide determined after 
both fusion and acid leaching techniques. (See also 
W72-07830) (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07837 



COMMONALITY IN WATER, SOIL, AIR, 
VEGETATION, AND BIOLOGICAL SAMPLE 
ANALYSIS FOR PLUTONIUM, 

Trapelo/West, Richmond, Calif. 
A. Wessman, W. J. Major, K. D. Lee, and L. 
Leventhal. 

In: Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium Los Alamos, New Mexico Aug. 4-5, 1971 
p. 73-79, 6 fig, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Analytical techniques, 'Sampling, 
'Soil analysis, 'Soil contamination, 'Assay, 
'Measurement, Air pollution, Vegetation, Biocon- 
trol, Biology, Biological treatment, Biota, Ion 
exchange, Anion exchange, 'Pollutant identifica- 
tion. 
Identifiers: Concentration, 'Plutonium. 

Procedural changes have been made to obtain 
commonality in methods for analyzing Pu in dif- 
ferent matrices. Procedures used for Pu environ- 
mental samples such as water, soil, air, vegetation, 
and biological and marine samples are discussed. 
Initial steps involve total dissolution, leaching or 
ashing, and equilibration with tracer 236Pu. Tracer 
is used in all cases since it results in the most relia- 
ble data. An anion exchange procedure is the basic 
part of the purification. An efficient electrodeposi- 
tion step permits plating in ten minutes. Radioac- 
tivity measurements are made using either Frisch 
Grid Ionization Chambers or surface-barrier de- 
tectors. Specific problems likely to be encountered 
in plutonium analysis are discussed. Also 
problems encountered in measuring and stating 
error limits at very low levels so that they may be 
used practically are discussed. (See also W72- 
07830) (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07838 



PLUTONIUM IN SURFACE SOILS IN THE 
HANFORD PLANT ENVIRONS, 

Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, Wash. Pacific 
Northwest Labs. 

J. P. Corley, D. M. Robertson, and F. P. Brauer. 
In: Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Aug. 4-5, 
1971, p. 85-88. 

Descriptors: 'Sampling, 'Analytical techniques, 
'Measurement, 'Soil contamination, Analysis, 
Monitoring, Public health, Effluents, Fallout, In- 
dustry nuclear, Accidents, 'Pollutant identifica- 
tion, Washington. 
Identifiers: Concentration, Hanford site, 'Plutoni- 



Surface soil sampling from February, 1970 
through April, 1971 on and around the Atomic 
Energy Commission's Hanford Reservation is 
described. The sample sites selected were from 
less than 1 mile to as far as 30 miles from major 
plutonium-handling facilities, including sites 
around the perimeter of the AEC controlled land. 
The top one-half inch of soil was sampled. Vegeta- 
tive litter and rootmat were avoided as much as 
possible. Portions of the mixed soil samples were 
dried and analyzed for plutonium content, using 
acid leaching, solvent extraction, and alpha count- 
ing. (See also W72-07830) (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07839 



51 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5B — Sources of Pollution 



MEASUREMENT OF PLUTONIUM IN SOIL 
AROUND THE NEVADA TEST SITE, 

Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, 
Nev. Western Environmental Research Lab. 
W. Bliss, and L. Dunn. 

In: Proceedings of Environmental Plutonium Sym- 
posium, Los Alamos, New Mexico, Aug. 4-5, 
1971, p. 89-92, 1 fig, 1 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Monitoring, *Measurement, *Fal- 

lout, *Sites, *Nuclear powerplants, 'Industrial 

wastes, 'Effluents, 'Nuclear explosions, 'Soil 

contamination, Sampling, Analytical techniques, 

Testing, Soil analysis, 'Pollutant identification, 

Nevada. 

Identifiers: Concentration, Nevada test site, *Plu- 



Experiments conducted at the Atomic Energy 
Commission's Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 
1963, using plutonium in both critical and sub-criti- 
cal configurations, have resulted in distribution of 
plutonium beyond the boundaries of the Test Site. 
The Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory 
of the Environmental Protection Agency is con- 
ducting a survey to assess the distribution and con- 
centration of plutonium in the off-site environ- 
ment. Special sampling methods were devised 
since desert soil is too coarse and dry for auger 
and cookie cutter sampling techniques. Soil sam- 
ple analyses are performed by a dis-solution, ion 
exchange, and electrodeposition procedure fol- 
lowed by alpha spectroscopy. Plutonium has been 
detected in four locations around the Nevada Test 
Site. These locations correspond to fall-out areas 
previously identified for the various test series. 
Plutonium concentrations in the top 3 cm of soil 
were 10 to 100 times greater than the concentration 
in soils from areas not subject to contamination by 
these series. Concentration figures are given for 
various locations around the test site. (See also 
W72-07830) (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07840 



SECOND ANNUAL REPORT, ENVIRONMEN- 
TAL STUDIES, MAINE YANKEE ATOMIC 
POWER COMPANY. 

Maine Yankee Atomic Power Co., Westboro, 

Mass. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07841 



REDUCTION OF TRITIUM FROM UN- 
DERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVES, 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Radiation 

Lab. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W72-07842 



A SYSTEM FOR CORRELATIONG TRITIUM 
OXIDE TRANSPORT IN VEGETATION WITH 
MICROMETEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES, 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Radiation 
Lab. 

B. Clegg, J. Koranda, and G. Hadley. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as UCRL-73373, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Preprint presented at the 
IEEE 1971 Nuclear Science Symposium, San 
Francisco, California, Nov. 3-5, 1971, Conf. 
711111-20, November 2, 1971. 6 p. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear power, 'Radioactivity, 
♦Tritium, 'Transfer, 'Distribution, 'Meteorology, 
Water, 'Path of Pollutants, Environment, Soil- 
water-plant relationships, Measurement, Public 
health. 
Identifiers: Transport, Concentration. 

Likely increases of atomic power production will 
result in releases of more tritium (3H) to the en- 
vironment. This low energy beta emitter having a 
half -life of 12.4 years is an internal biological 
hazard. In the most common biologically impor- 
tant form of tritiated water (THO), tritium moves 
through the biosphere essentially along water 



pathways. Knowledge of these pathways in the 
predictable terms of environmental conditions is 
required for calculating the radiological hazard to 
man. The study of tritium in the biosphere is then 
actually the study of the properties of water trans- 
port through the air-water, soil, plant interfaces. 
Recently a tritium tracer technique has been per- 
fected in a tropical ecosystem which has effective- 
ly enabled transpiration and soil water transport to 
be made without prejudicing the local environ- 
ment. These same tritium tracer techniques are 
being extended to an arid location. Data logging 
detail is given. (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07843 



RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDD2S IN UTAH SUB- 
SEQUENT TO THE BANEBERRY EVENT, 

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 

W72-07845 

5C. Effects of PoUution 



AN EXPERIMENT ON THE CULTURE OF 
TILAPIA ESCULENTA (GRAHAM) AND 
TILAPIA ZDLLD (GERVAIS) (CICHLIDAE) IN 
FISH PONDS, 

Fourah Bay Coll., Freetown (Sierra Leone). 

A. I. Payne. 

J Fish Biol. 3 (3): 325-340. 1971. JJJus. 

Identifiers: Blooms, Cichlidae, Culture, Fish, 

Phytoplankton, Ponds, Tilapia-Esculenta, Tilapia- 

Zillii. 

Segregated populations of T. zillii and T. esculenta 
were kept in artificial ponds. Supplementary food 
was given and phytoplankton was encouraged by 
the addition of super-phosphate and ammonium 
sulphate fertilizers. The fry were cropped regu- 
larly in an attempt to control population size. A 
control population T. zillii was also established in 
which none of these procedures were carried out. 
The growth of T. esculenta was found to be depen- 
dent upon the phytoplankton density of the pond 
while T. zillii successfully utilized the supplemen- 
tary food and grew well. The T. esculenta popula- 
tion also produced more fry than the T. zillii popu- 
lation. The comparative advantages of plank- 
tivorous/brooders and herbivorous/guarders in 
fish culture are considered. Despite the fecundity 
of the species used a population of known com- 
position was maintained by manual cropping of the 
fry. The addition of ammonium sulphate to the 
ponds caused blooms of phytoplankton which in 
turn had effects upon the base reserves and pH of 
the water, and probably caused some reduction of 
02 concentration beneath surface scums. This last 
point is used to explain the changes in phosphate 
and calcium content of the water also observed. 
The low 02 concentration frequently noted in the 
mornings probably affected the feeding behavior 
of the fishes, and was low enough to have affected 
metabolism directly. -Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07280 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WATERS OF 
SOME LAKES OF DAGESTAN (K- 
HIMICHESKIY SOSTAV VODY NEKOTORYKH 
OZER DAGESTANA), 

Gidrokhimicheskii Institut, Novocherkassk 

(USSR). 

Yu. I. Volovik, and A. A. Zenin. 

In: Formirovaniye khimicheskogo sostava, 

zagryazneniye i samochishcheniye poverkhost- 

nykh vod. Metody analiza prirodnykh vod; 

Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy, Vol 55, Leningrad, 

p3-27, 1971. 3 fig, 12 tab, lOref. 

Descriptors: 'Lakes, 'Water chemistry, 'Chemi- 
cal analysis, 'Water properties, Water tempera- 
ture. Salinity, Nitrogen compounds, Phosphorus, 
Iron, Silica, Organic matter, Gases, Oxidation, 
Dissolved oxygen, Oxygen sag, Stratification, 
Eutrophication, Vegetation, Deep water, 
Seasonal. 



Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Dagestan, 'Biogenous sub- 
stances, Mineralization. 

Investigations were conducted in 1962-66 to study 
the chemical composition of waters of 5 lakes in 
the Dagestan ASSR-Upper Arakum, Lower 
Arakum, Mekteb, and Ak-Gel ' located on a 
lowland near the shore of the Caspian Sea, and 
Lake Eyzenam (Kazenoyam) located high in the 
mountains. Salinity of water of the Arakum Lakes 
varies between 590 and 1 ,033 mg/liter and that of 
Lakes Mekteb and Ak-Gel' between 385 and 1 ,024 
mg/liter and 739 and 1,217 mg/liter, respectively. 
Salinity of water of Lake Eyzenam varies between 
163 and 239 mg/liter. Concentration of biogenous 
substances in the lake waters undergoes seasonal 
change, with the concentration dropping to almost 
zero during the growing period and reaching max- 
imum values in winter. Concentration of organic 
substances in waters of the Arakum Lakes and 
Lake Mekteb is extremely high (permanganate ox- 
idation-35.4 to 40.0 mg 0/liter). Concentration of 
organic substances in the water of Lake Ak-Gel' is 
half that of Lake Mekteb (permanganate oxida- 
tion- 18.4 mg 0/liter) and is lowest in the water of 
Lake Eyzenam (permanganate oxidation— 3.6 mg 
0/liter). Excessive vegetation in the Arakum Lakes 
and Lake Mekteb results in oxygen depletion, with 
oxygen content dropping to almost zero in the 
deep waters. The rich oxygen content in waters of 
Lake Ak-Gel' and especially Lake Eyzenam 
prevents eutrophication. (See also W72-07295) 
(Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07296 



CONCENTRATION AND DYNAMICS OF OR- 
GANIC ACDDS IN MINERAL WATERS OF THE 
LAKE BAIKAL REGION (SODERZHANIYE I 
DINAMIKA ORGANICHESKIKH KISLOT V 
MINERAL'NYKH VODAKH PRIBAYKAL'YA), 
Irkutskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet (USSR). 
P. F. Bochkarev, G. M. Ganovicheva, B. I. 
Pisarskiy, and G. M. Shpeyzer. 
In: Formirovaniye khimicheskogo sostava, 
zagryazneniye i samoochishcheniye poverkhnost- 
nykh vod. Metody analiza prirodnykh vod; 
Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy, Vol 55, Leningrad, 
p 45-55, 1971. 1 fig, 4 tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water chemistry, 'Organic acids, 
'Water types, 'Mineral water, Thermal water, 
Thermal springs, Geochemistry, Biochemistry, 
Organic matter, Gases, Salts, Brines, Ions, 
Precipitation (Atmospheric), Soils, Aquifers, 
Groundwater, Infiltration, Sampling, Seasonal. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, 'Lake Baikal, 'Mineral 
springs, 'Spas, Magma, Mineralization. 

Mineral-charged thermal waters of the Lake 
Baikal region, which includes the southern part of 
the Irkutsk Oblast and the extreme western and 
northern parts of the Buryat ASSR (total area- 
137,000 sq km), are divided into three types: (1) 
carbonic acid, (2) methane, and (3) nitrogen. Or- 
ganic acids are present in all 3 types of waters ex- 
amined. Average annual concentrations of organic 
acids in the waters vary widely, with minimum 
concentrations typical of carbonic acid waters of 
the Arshan spa (0.04-0.05 meq/liter), nitrogen ther- 
mal springs of the Nilova Pustyn' spa (0.05 
meq/liter), and iron-bearing waters (0.05 
meq/liter). Somewhat higher average annual con- 
centrations were observed in brines (0.11-0.12 
meq/liter) and methane thermal waters (0.13 
meq/liter). The maximum average annual concen- 
tration of organic acids was established for 
nitrogen thermal springs of the Pitatelevskoye 
deposit (0.25 meq/liter). Organic -acid concentra- 
tions were observed to increase in the period 
between April and late fall (November). Sources 
of organic-matter enrichment include atmospheric 
precipitation, soils, water-bearing rocks, and mag- 
ma. Organic matter functions as a source of 
mineral-water nutrients through infiltration, 
chemical oxidation, and biochemical processes. 
(See also W72-07295) (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07299 



52 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL HEATING ON THE 
CALCIUM CARBONATE BALANCE OF A 
COOLING RESERVOIR OF A LITHUANIAN 
HYDROELECTRIC POWERPLANT (O 

VLIYANH ISKUSSTVENNOGO PODOGREVA 
NA KARBONATNO-KAL'TSIYEVOYE RAV- 
NOVESIYE VODOKHRANILISHCHA-O- 

KHLADITELYA LITOVSKOY CRES), 
Akademiya Nauk Litovskoi SSR, Vilnius. Institut 
Khimii i Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii. 
G. A. Laumyanskas, and Yu. Yu. Snukishkis. 
In: Formirovaniye khimicheskogo sostava, 
zagryazneniye i samoochishcheniye poverkhnost- 
nykh vod. Metody analiza prirodnykh vod; 
Gidrokhimicheskiye Materialy , Vol 55, Leningrad, 
p 69-78, 1971 . 4 fig, 3 tab, 8 ref . 

Descriptors: *Water chemistry, *Calcium car- 
bonate, 'Heated water, 'Reservoirs, ♦Hydroelec- 
tric plants, Water cooling, Saturation, Supersatu- 
ration, Stratification, Mixing, Aeration, Oxida- 
tion, Photosynthesis, Carbon dioxide, Organic 
matter, Calcite, Salinity, Seasonal. 
Identifiers: "USSR, 'Lithuanian SSR, Mineraliza- 
tion. 

The effect of discharge of heated water on the cal- 
cium carbonate balance of a reservoir that cools 
water from a Lithuanian powerplant is examined. 
Artificial heating of the reservoir by waters of the 
powerplant increases calcium carbonate saturation 
of the water and contributes to precipitation of 
calcite. In reservoir reaches with retarded aeration 
of water masses, surface waters are 10-fold super- 
saturated with calcium carbonate during thermal 
stagnation; concentration of chemically active C02 
in bottom layers increases to 8.8 mg/liter. As a 
result, calcium carbonate migrates from upper 
layers of water and is dissolved in bottom layers, 
thus promoting horizontal stratification of water 
salinity. (See also W72-07295) (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07301 



PLANKTON STUDIES IN A CARIBBEAN 
ESTUARINE ENVIRONMENT, 

University of the West Indies, St. Augustine 

(Trinidad). Dept. of Biological Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02L. 

W72-07326 



AQUATIC PLANTS FROM MINNESOTA, PART 
2 - TOXICITY, ANTI-NEOPLASTIC, AND 
COAGULANT EFFECTS, 

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Water Resources 
Research Center. 
K. Lee Su, and E. John Staba. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 609, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Minnesota Water Resources 
Research Center Bull. 47, February 1972. 24 p, 4 
fig, 5 tab, 73 ref. OWRR A-025-MINN (3). 

Descriptors: 'Aquatic plants, 'Minnesota, 'Tox- 
icity, Coagulation, Water pollution effects, 'Algal 
toxins. 

Identifiers: 'Prothrombin time, 'Pharmacological 
properties, Anticancer, Antineoplastics. 

Toxicity, antineoplastic, coagulant and anticoagu- 
lant effects of the following 22 Minnesotan aquatic 
plants were evaluated in terms of pharmacological 
properties: Anacharis canadensis, Calla polustris, 
Carex lacustris, Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara 
vulgaris, Eleocharis smallii, Lemna minor, 
Myriophyllum exalbescens, Nuphar variegatum, 
Nymphaea tuberosa, Potamogeton amplifohus, P. 
natans, P. pectinatum, P. richardsonu, P. 
zosteriformis, Sagittaria cuneata, S. latifolia, 
Sparganium eurycarpum, S. fluctuans, Typha an- 
gustifolia, Vallisneria americana, and Zizania 
aquetica. Toxicity of skellysolve F, chloroform, 
80% ethanol and water extracts of these aquatic 
plants were evaluated in a number of animal ex- 
periments in Swiss Webster mice. Antineoplastic 
experiments involved amelanoma tumor cells. In 
vivo prothrombin time (PT) and partial throm- 
boplastin time (PTT) were assayed in anti-coagula- 



tion experiments. The toxicity of the aquatic 
plants in general was found to be relatively low. 
The LD50 for the most toxic one, i.e., N. tuberosa 
(stem), in mice was 3 gm of dry plant material/kg 
(ca. 25.4 gm of wet plant material/kg). Only 
Nuphar variegatum indicated an anticancer possi- 
bility, the remaining aquatic plants had no signifi- 
cant inhibition activity at the doses selected. Nor- 
mal partial thromboplastin time for mice was 51 
seconds and only the prolongation of PTT (longer 
than 61 seconds) was observed in 50% of the 
aquatic plants tested. Among these plants, the 
most significant increase of PTT (more than 20 
minutes) was observed in Carex lacustris, 
Myriophylum exalbescens, Nuphar variegatum 
and Nymphaea tuberosa. (See also W72-05877) 
W72-07360 



HISTOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL 
CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF EXPERIMENTAL 
ANIMALS WITH THE PROLONGED USE OF 
WATER CONTAINING DIFFERENT CONCEN- 
TRATIONS OF FLUORINE (IN RUSSIAN), 
R. D. Gabovich, A. F. Kiseleva, and V. I. 
Tsipriyan. 

Gig Naselennykh Mest Resp Mezhved Sb. 9. 102- 
107. 1970. 

Identifiers: Acid, Alkaline, Animals, Biochemical, 
Dehydrase, Dehydrogenase, Diaphorase, 
Fluorine, Histochemical, Hydrase, Lactate, 
Liver, NAD, NADP, Phosphatase, Phosphor- 
ylase, Pyruvate, Rat, Succinate. 

After 2 yr use of drinking water with an F content 
of 0.2, 1.2, and 15 mg/1, rats showed a reduction in 
the content in the liver of glycogen and 
lipoproteins, a change in the activity of succinate 
dehydrase, the cytochrome system, NAD- and 
NADP diaphorase, acid and alkaline phosphatase, 
phosphorylase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 
phosphopyruvate hydrase. The consumption of 
water with an F content of 1 .2 mg/1 caused reactive 
changes in the peripheral portions of the lobes of 
the liver.-- Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07396 



CRASPEDACUSTA SOWERBYI LANKESTER 
(COELENTERATA: LIMNOMEDUSAE) IN NEW 
ZEALAND LAKES, 

Marine Dept., Rotorua (New Zealand). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02H. 

W72-07398 



ALGAE CONTROL, 

Wisconsin Committee on Water Pollution, Madis- 
on. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W72-07442 



EFFECT OF MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESSES 
ON THE OXYGEN BEHAVIOR IN LAKES OF 
THE AMU-DAR'YA DELTA, 

Interdisciplinary Inst, of Natural Sciences, Nukus 

(USSR). 

L. G. Konstantinova. 

Hydrobiological Journal, Vol 7, No 2, p 91-94, 

1971. 4 tab, 14 ref. (Trans. from 

Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal, Vol 7, No 2, 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Lakes, 'Hydrobiology, 

'Microbiology, 'Oxygen, Biochemistry, Microor- 
ganisms, Bacteria, Microbial degradation, Decom- 
posing organic matter, Hydrogen sulfide, Anaero- 
bic conditions, Water chemistry, Water analysis, 
Freshwater, Saline water, Water pollution effects. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, *Amu-Dar'ya River, 'Ooze, 
'Saprophytes, Water exchange. 

The intensity of microbiological processes in 
oozes and waters of lakes of the Amu-Dar'ya delta 
was examined to determine the effect of these 
processes on the behavior of oxygen in the dif- 
ferent lakes. The water bodies studied included the 
freshwater lakes Dautkul', KhodzhakuT, Mashan- 



kuT, ShegekuT, Koksu, and the saline lakes 
AshchikuT and Karateren'. The lake oozes consist 
of a wide variety of organic matter-decomposing 
bacteria and contain all of the groups of microor- 
ganisms which affect the behavior of oxygen. 
Sulfate-reducing bacteria are found in great num- 
bers in wet oozes of Lakes Dautkul' and 
Karateren'. Ooze microflora may become ac- 
tivated during low flow in the Amu-Dar'ya delta 
when the exchange of water in the lakes is 
disrupted. This leads to total oxygen consumption 
and to formationanaerobic conditions, especially 
in winter. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07458 



TRANSFORMATION OF IRON DURING BAC- 
TERIAL DECOMPOSITION OF PLANKTONIC 
ORGANIC MATTER, 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Oke- 

anologii. 

Yu. I. Sorokin, and Yu. A. Bogdanov. 

Hydrobiological Journal, Vol 7, No 2, p 89-90, 

1971. 1 fig, 4 ref. (Trans, from Gidrobiologicheskiy 

Zhurnal, Vol 7, No 2, 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Hydrobiology, 'Iron, 'Microbial 
degradation, 'Organic matter, 'Phytoplankton, 
Sea water, Cyanophyta, Iron compounds, Iron ox- 
ides, Analytical techniques, Water pollution ef- 
fects. 
Identifiers: 'USSR, Biosynthesis, Mineralization. 

The transformation of iron bound to phytoplank- 
tonic organic matter during its decomposition by 
bacteria is examined. Liberation of mineral iron 
and accumulation of hydroxide occurs simultane- 
ously with mineralization of the phytoplanktonic 
matter. Organic iron complexes are the result of 
biosynthesis of the cellular substance of 
phytoplankton. After the organism dies, part of 
these complexes is mineralized; part dissolves, 
replenishing the supply of dissolved iron; and part 
is taken up by bacterial flora during biosynthesis 
of cytochromes. The fraction of suspended or- 
ganic iron is made up of organic iron bound to in- 
completely oxidized residues of phytoplankton 
and bacterial cells. (Josefson-USGS) 
W72-07459 



CHEMICAL CHANGES, INCLUDING NITRATE 
REDUCTION IN DARWIN BAY, GALAPAGOS 
ARCHIPELAGO, OVER A 2-MONTH PERIOD, 
1969, 

Washington Univ., Seattle. Dept. of Ocenaog- 

raphy. 

F. A. Richards, and W. W. Broenkow. 

Limnology and Ocenaography, Vol 16, No 5, p 

758-765, 1971. 2 fig, 26 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Chemical properties, 'Nitrates, 
'Denitrification, 'Hydrogen sulfide, Bays, Stag- 
nant water, Sediment-water interfaces, Anaerobic 
bacteria, Sea water, Salinity, Temperature, Dis- 
solved oxygen, Phosphates, Nitrites, Ammonia, 
Silicates, Sulfates, Depth, Oxidation. 
Identifiers: 'Darwin Bay (Isla Genovesa), 
Galapagos Islands. 

Darwin Bay, Galapagos Islands, is the flooded cal- 
dera of the largest crater on Isla Genovesa. It 
opens to the open sea over a shallow sill which 
prevents lateral exchanges and permanent thermal 
stratification of the upper layers and restricts ver- 
tical convection. Water deeper than about 40 m is 
effectively isolated by the pynocline and can be 
replaced only by denser water from above sill 
depth offshore. Between periods of replenish- 
ment, biochemical oxygen utilization consumes 
dissolved oxygen to levels where anaerobic bac- 
teria can begin to utilize oxygen bound in nitrate or 
sulfate ions; anoxic conditions develop; nitrate 
and nitrite disappear; and hydrogen sulfide accu- 
mulates as a by-product of bacterial sulfate reduc- 
tion. Observations in March and May 1969 show 
that nitrate reduction occurred in the deeper stag- 
nant water and at the sediment- water interface. 
Apparently about 50% of the organic material 



53 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C — Effects of Pollution 



produced in the water column is oxidized by 
nitrate-reducing bacteria in the water column 
below 40 m and in the sediment. At the observed 
rates, it would require no more than 4 to 6 months 
to reduce completely the nitrate in the water 
column at the beginning of nitrate reduction. 
(Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07494 



NITROGEN FIXATION IN AN ESTUARINE EN- 
VIRONMENT: THE WACCASASSA ON THE 
FLORIDA GULF COAST, 

Florida Univ., Gainesville. Dept. of Environmen- 
tal Engineering. 

R. H.Brooks, Jr., P. L. Brezonik, H. D. Putnam, 
and M. A. Keirn. 

Limnology and Oceanography, Vol 16, No 5, p 
701-710, 1971. 7 fig, 2 tab, 26 ref. 

Descriptors: *Nitrogen fixation, *Estuaries, 
•Florida, 'Sediments, Bacteria, Clostridium, Sea 
water, Bottom sediments, On-site tests, Am- 
monia, Bays. 

Identifiers: 'Waccasassa estuary, Clostridium 
pasteurianum. Acetylene reduction, Ethylene 
production. 

The reported occurrence of nitrogen fixation in na- 
ture allowing continuation of organic production 
when fixed nitrogen supplies are depleted, has 
been extended by studying the sediments of the 
Waccasassa estuary, a shallow embayment on the 
Florida Gulf Coast by the acetylene reduction 
method. Fixation was found within the top 2-5 cm 
stratum of sediments. Much lower rates of 
nitrogen fixation were found at greater depths in 
the sediment, and no fixation was observed in the 
flocculent unconsolidated 1-2 cm at the sediment 
surface. All evidence indicates that the reduction 
of acetylene to ethylene is a biological 
phenomenon, directly related to the activity of 
nitrogen-fixing organisms in the sediments. 
Nitrogen-free media produced growths of Gram- 
positive spore-forming rods from sediments under 
nitrogen atmosphere. A pure culture similar to 
Clostridum was isolated on nitrogen-free media 
from Waccasassa sediments and was shown capa- 
ble of nitrogen fixation by the acetylene reduction 
method. The phenomenon is probably not impor- 
tant as a nitrogen source to the overlying waters 
because of the low rates found and the location of 
activity in compacted sediments. (Jones-Wiscon- 
sin) 
W72-07495 



STUDIES ON THE REGULATION OF ALGAL 
GROWTH BY GIBBERELLIN, 

Western Australia Univ., Nedlands. 

R. C. Jennings. 

Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol 24, 

p 1115-1 124, 1971. 3 fig, 4 tab, 18ref. 

Descriptors: *Algae, 'Plant growth, Rhodophyta, 
Inhibitors, Plant tissues, Bioassay, Phaephyta. 
Identifiers: 'Biosynthesis, 'GibbereUin, Hypnea 
musciformis, Gracilaria verucosa, Ecklonia 
radiata, Growth regulation. 

That endogenous gibberellins may be involved in 
growth regulation of brown alga, Ecklonis radiata, 
and the green alga, Enteromorpha prolifera, 
prompted studies of red algae, Hypnea muscifor- 
mis and Gracilaria verucosa. CCC and Amo-1618, 
at relatively high concentrations only, inhibited 
growth of excised branch apices of H muscifor- 
mis. Neither GA-3 nor GA-7 stimulated growth of 
the alga in presence or absence of these com- 
pounds, and gibberellin-like material extracted 
from H musciformis failed to stimulate growth. 
Both gibberellis stimulated growth of slow-grow- 
ing, but not fast-growing, branch apices of 
Gracilaria verucosa. It is concluded that en- 
dogenous gibberellins may not regulate growth of 
H musciformis, but this may be a species pecu- 
liarity and not a general phenomenon in red algae. 
CCC inhibited gametophyte growth of Ecklonia 
radiata, and GA-3 significantly overcame this in- 



hibition in a manner compatible with the concept 
of CCC inhibiting gibberellin bisoynthesis. The 
complement of acidic, ethyl acetate-soluble gib- 
berellins, extracted from those regions of E 
radiata sporophytes active in cell division, was 
chromatographically similar but differed from 
those extracted from a relatively quiescent region 
of the alga. These data support conclusions that 
endogenous gibberellins are involved in growth 
regulation of E radiata. (Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07496 



EXTRUSION OF CARBON ACCOMPANYING 
UPTAKE OF AMINO ACIDS BY MARINE 
PHYTOPLANKTERS, 

Califronia Univ., Irvine. Dept. of Developmental 

and Cell Biology. 

C. G. Stephens, and B. B. North. 

Limnology and Oceanography, Vol 16, No 5, p 

752-757, 1971. 4 fig, ! tab, 22 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Analytical techniques, 'Carbon, 
'Amino acids, 'Marine algae, Phytoplankton, 
Nitrogen, Absorption, Sea water. 
Identifiers: Platymonas, Nitzschia ovalis, Carbon 
extrusion, Carbon-14, Nitrogen source. 

To gain information about concentrations of free 
amino acids in the ocean, short-term uptake mea- 
surements with C-14-labeled amino acids of cell 
nitrogen, dissolved C-14, and dissolved amino 
nitrogen were made. It is indicated that ambient 
amino acids enter phytoplankton cells, the amino 
nitrogen is retained, and some carbon is returned 
to the medium. Platymonas and Nitzschia ovalis 
were used throughout. The distribution of C-14 
was followed by determining radio-activity in 
medium samples and in cell samples collected on 
Millipore filters. Uptake of the nitrogenous por- 
tion of the amino acid molecule could be followed 
directly in two ways. Chromatography and au- 
toradiography of a portion of the eluent produced 
a single spot at the proper position for the amino 
acid concerned. Results imply that radiochemical 
measurements of uptake rates using C-14-labeled 
amino acids may produce serious underestimates 
of actual uptake rates, particularly with long incu- 
bation times. Also, it is consistent with the 
hypothesis that amino acids may be a significant 
nitrogen source for phytoplankters in the ocean. 
These observations make it necessary to re-evalu- 
ate procedures for study of amino acid uptake by 
algae. (Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07497 



ENERGETICS AND POPULATION DYNAMICS 
OF DIAPTOMUS GRACILIS, 

Westfield Coll., London (England). Dept. of 

Zoology. 

H. V. Kirby. 

Ecological Monographs, Vol 41, No 4, p 311-327, 

1971. 12 fig, 7 tab, 42 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Energy budget, 'Energy conver- 
sion, 'Population, 'Dynamics, Reservoirs, 
Seasonal, Standing crop, Biomass, Reproduction, 
Productivity, Feeding rates, Respiration, 
Phytoplankton, Biochemistry, Copepods, 
Metabolism. Zooplankton, Daphnia, Chlorophyll, 
Mathematical studies, Mortality. 
Identifiers: 'Diaptomus gracilis, Thames Valley 
(England), Filtering rate, Calorific value. 

To describe the pathways of energy flow through a 
population of Diaptomus gracilis and simultane- 
ously investigate population dynamics, two popu- 
lations of D gracilis were studied in two Thames 
Valley reservoirs. Seasonal changes in the stand- 
ing crop biomass are given. Although the popula- 
tion overwintered primarily as adults, reproduc- 
tion was continuous throughout the year. Produc- 
tion was estimated for both reservoirs from the 
mortality rate. The feeding rate and the rate of as- 
similation varied with the species of phytoplank- 
ton used as food. Filtering rates varied from 0. 1 ml 
copepod/day on bacteria to a high of 2.54 on 
Diplosphaeria, the latter also having an assimila- 



tion efficiency of 78% by D gracilis. Respiratory 
rates varied with the season. When the metabolic 
rate was plotted aganist body weight, evidence of 
three regression lines during the year was found, 
the lowest slope in the winter and the highest in the 
late spring and early summer. When the regression 
of oxygen consumption on weight and temperature 
was calculated, it was necessary to calculate two 
lines, one for the fall-winter period and one for the 
spring-summer. (Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07499 



SPECIES DIVERSITY AND WATER QUALITY 
IN GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS, 

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of 

Zoology; and North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. 

Dept. of Botany. 

B. J. Copeland, and T. J. Bechtel. 

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Vol 1, p 89-105, 

1971. 5 fig, 6 tab, 19ref. 

Descriptors: 'Ecological distribution, 'Bays, 
'Water pollution effects, Phytoplankton, Popula- 
tions, Zooplankton, Benthos, Nekton, Waste 
water (Pollution), Toxicity, Cyanophyta, Plant 
growth, Waste dilution, Model studies, Estuaries, 
Management. 

Identifiers: 'Species diversity, 'Galveston Bay 
(Texas), Diversity index, Houston Ship Channel 
(Texas), Trinity River (Texas). 

Phytoplankton, zooplankton, nekton, and 
benthos, and the water quality of Galveston Bay, 
Texas, were quantitatively compared to provide 
ecological cause and effect relationships for future 
waste input. Percent waste water or the toxicity of 
the water at a given sampling station were found to 
be inversely correlated with species diversity. To 
calculate percent waste water, a computerized 
dispersion model was used. Toxicity was mea- 
sured by subjecting a blue-green alga (Coc- 
cochloris elebans) to water samples and by utiliz- 
ing growth depression as the toxicity criterion. 
Waters from the Houston Ship Channel and the 
Trinity River were found significantly toxic and 
the dispersion model was used to determine dis- 
tribution of toxicity in each bay area. Evidence 
that toxicity was dispersed with input waters was 
experimentally verified. Those areas receiving the 
greatest amount of toxic effluent exhibited the 
lowest mean annual diversities. Predictive equa- 
tions were generated, indicating that diversity at 
any point in the bay can be computed from the 
Houston Ship Channel diversity and the dispersion 
model. Computations were accomplished whereby 
dilution and/or treatment of waste inflows could 
be estimated to achieve a desired or acceptable 
species diversity level. (Jones- Wisconsin) 
W72-07500 



PRODUCTION OF BENTHIC MICROALGAE IN 
THE LITTORAL ZONE OF A EUTROPHIC 
LAKE, 

Copenhagen Univ., Hillerod (Denmark). Fresh- 
water-biological Lab. 
C. Hunding. 
Oikos, Vol 22, No 3, p 389-397, 1971 . 8 fig, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Primary productivity, 'Benthic 
flora, Microorganisms, Algae, Lakes, Eutrophica- 
tion, Littoral, Sands, Shallow water, Periphyton, 
Sediments, Diatoms, Light intensity, 
Photosynthesis, Sessile algae, Temperature, 
Depth, Light penetration. 

Identifiers: Lake Fureso (Denmark), Cocconeis, 
Rhoicosphenia, Achanthes, Fragilaria con- 
struents, Navicula, Nitzschia, Epipytic algae. 

Effect of varying light intensity and temperature 
on microbenthic community flora were studied 
throughout the year simultaneously with primary 
production, which was measured on benthic 
microalgae of the sandy littoral zone in Danish 
eutrophic Lake Fureso by the C-14 method. An- 
nual potential gross production was calculated 
showing highest values in July and annual true 
gross production estimated. Dark fixation was 



54 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



relatively high. Although the four stations differed 
somewhat in wave action, no significant dif- 
ferences between production were noted. Daily 
production for all stations was averaged. Sessile 
algae accounted for the bulk of primary produc- 
tion (70 to 90%). Algae were mainly pennate 
liatoms. Diatoms with intact chromatophores 
were found down to a 10 cm depth in sediment. 
BVhen cells from the anaerobic zone were brought 
nto light, photosynthesis started immediately. 
During summer, light intensity value was 9 to 10 
vhile the autumn value was 3 to 5 klux. Photoin- 
ubition was demonstrated for the autumn popula- 
ion at light intensities exceeding 25 to 30 klux. It 
teems to be characteristic for benthic algae that 
ight saturated photosynthesis takes place over a 
vide range of light intensities. Benthic sessile 
liatom populations appear rather stable. (Jones- 
Visconsin) 
V72-07501 



COMPARISON OF PHYTOPLANKTON 

'RODUCTION BETWEEN NATURAL AND AL- 
FRED AREAS IN WEST BAY, TEXAS, 

•Jational Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston, 

rex. Biological Lab. 

. Corliss, and L. Trent. 

: ishery Bulletin, Vol 69, No 4, p 829-832, 1971. 2 

ig, 3 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: *Phytoplankton, 'Productivity, 
Landfills, 'Estuaries, Texas, Dredging, Marshes, 
Jays, Canals, Bulkheads, Carbon, On-site in- 
'estigations. Respiration, Eutrophication. 
identifiers: 'Natural areas, 'Housing develop- 
nent, 'West Bay (Tex), Gulf of Mexico. 

-arge areas of shallow bays and marshes are being 
Iredged, bulkheaded, and filled for waterfront 
lousing sites along the Gulf of Mexico coast. The 
ffects of these environmental changes on produc- 
ivity of phytoplankton, attached algae, sea 
trasses, and emergent vegetation needs clarifica- 
ion. The objective of this study was to compare 
ihytoplankton production in housing development 
anals, natural marsh areas, and the open bay in a 
hallow Texas estuary. The developed area, which 
ncluded about 45 hectares of emergent marsh 
egetation, intertidal mud flats, and subtidal water 
rea prior to alteration, was reduced to about 32 
tectares of subtidal water by dredging and filling. 
Vverage gross production of phytoplankton 
mgC/1 per day) in the altered area (canals) was 8% 
tigher than in the marsh and 48% higher than in 
he bay during June, July, and August 1969. Gross 
ind net production were significantly higher in the 
anals and marsh than in the bay; differences 
letween the canals and marsh were not significant. 
Jones-Wisconsin) 
V72-07502 



.IMITING NUTRIENT ELEMENTS IN FIL- 
rERED LAKE ERIE WATER, 

Cincinnati Univ., Ohio. Tanners' Council Lab. 
V. Lange. 

Vater Research, Vol 5, No 11, p 1031-1048, 1971. 
fig, 11 tab, 23 ref. 

Jescriptors: 'Essential nutrients, 'Lake Erie, 

Bioassays, 'Nitrates, Cultures, Chlorophyta, 

'hosphorus, Cobalt, Productivity, Iron, Toxicity, 

Eutrophication, Phytoplankton, Scenedesmus, 

Diatoms. 

dentifiers: 'Limiting nutrients. 

to study eutrophication control by limiting 
lutrient additions, a laboratory program was con- 
lucted with individual nutrient agents added to a 
eries of filtered water samples from Lake Erie to 
imulate effect of influx of various nutrients, 
jrowth responses of four algal species were deter- 
nined for individual nutrient agents and combina- 
ions of nutrients relative to unenriched controls. 
Jiweekly bioassays were made. Each sample dur- 
ng the 1969 growing season was inoculated singly 
vith each of three blue-green and one green algal 
:pecies. Portions of each inoculated water sample 



were enriched with one of 16 essential nutrient ele- 
ments. Cell numbers were determined in the 4th 
week after exposure under controlled culture con- 
ditions. Comparative cell counts showed nitrate- 
nitrogen was the nutrient most frequently required 
and was limiting for these algal species in about 2/3 
of the samples. Phosphorus, cobalt, and chelated 
iron were limiting for about 1/3 of their cultures. 
To achieve maximum growth stimulation generally 
required a combination of several nutrient ele- 
ments. An Aphanizomenon bloom occurred natu- 
rally in Lake Erie at the sampling site. After its 
collapse from nutrient deficiency, the water sam- 
ples were toxic to certain test species. (Jones- 
Wisconsin) 
W72-07504 



PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTH AND COMPOSI- 
TION IN SHIPBOARD CULTURES SUPPLIED 
WITH NITRATE, AMMONIUM, OR UREA AS 
THE NITROGEN SOURCE, 

California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst, of 

Marine Resources. 

R. W. Eppley. 

Limnology and Oceanography, Vol 16, No 5, p 

741-751, 1971. 5 fig, 7 tab, 49 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Productivity, 'Phytoplankton, 'Sea 
water, 'Cultures, 'Marine plants, Plant growth, 
Ammonium compounds, Nitrogen, California, 
Ureas, Laboratory tests, Phosphates, Silicates, 
Vitamin B, Chelation, On-site investigations, 
Diatoms, Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll, 

Phosphorus, Carbon, Chlorella. 
Identifiers: Diel periodicity. 

To avoid advective and turbulent movement of 
water masses, patchy phytoplankton distribution, 
and relatively low concentration of plant cells in 
the sea, 200-Liter shipboard cultures of coastal sur- 
face seawater off southern California were inocu- 
lated with a natural phytoplankton community 
present in the seawater and enriched with 
phosphate, silicate, vitamins B-12, B-l, and biotin, 
a chelated trace metal mixture, and with nitrogen 
as nitrate, ammonium, or urea. The cultures were 
incubated on deck in daylight. Samples were taken 
every 6 hours after cultures were established. Diel 
periodicity was noted in diatom cell division, in 
nitrate and ammonium assimilation rate, in 
phosphate assimilation rate, and in photosynthetic 
rate measured at intervals under constant artificial 
irradiance, but not in the rate of chlorophyll a 
synthesis. Chemical composition of the crops was 
influenced by the nitrogen source and by diel 
periodicity in assimilation rates. Most of the 
vitamin B-l content of the crop was synthesized 
by the organisms, only a small proportion being 
supplied initially from the medium. Some species 
known to require vitamins continued to grow after 
vitamin depletion from the medium, their require- 
ments apparently satisfied by vitamins released by 
other species. (Jones- Wisconsin) 
W72-07506 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS CHARA, SERIES 
GYMNOBASALIA (SUBSECTION WILL- 
DENOWIA RDW), 

Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. Dept. of Biology; 

and Florida Univ., Gainesville. Dept. of Botany; 

and Louisville Univ., Ky. Dept. of Biology. 

V. W. Proctor, D. G. Griffin, III, and A. T. 

Hotchkiss. 

American Journal of Botany, Vol 58, No 10, p 894- 

901, 1971. 2 fig, 27 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Systematics, 'Chara, Classification, 
Distribution, Plant morphology. 
Identifiers: 'Gymnobasalia. 

Most algae are classified by morphological and 
physiological data. The possibility of evaluating at- 
tempted crosses between designated clones Gym- 
nobasalia arose with the realization that most 
members of the genus Chara could be maintained 
indefinitely in the sexually mature state under 
laboratory conditions, and later that monoecious 



plants could be physically emasculated. A brief 
synopsis of Gymnobasalia is presented and 
changes in nomenclature are suggested; all involve 
validation of earlier names— no new combinations 
are proposed. The series Gymnobasalia, a sharply 
differentiated subgeneric complex within the 
genus Chara, consists of at least seven morpholog- 
ically distinct species all reproductively isolated 
from one another; even limited hybridization 
between the seven was not evident. The two dioe- 
cious members occupy restricted, and possibly 
partially overlapping ranges in South America. 
Monoecious members are generally more widely 
distributed but appear to have originated in Cen- 
tral or South America. The holotype of C 
zeylanica Klein ex Willdenow was tetrascutate. 
For the abundant and widely distributed monoe- 
cious-conjoined, octuscutate member previously 
shown to be distinct from C zeylanica, the earlier 
name C haitensis Turpin is here validated. Chara 
foliolosa Muhlenberg ex Willdenow is considered 
conspecific with, but holds no priority over C 
Sejuncta Braun. (Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07507 



A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF A 
POTENTIAL NEW ALGICIDE, 

Hatfield Polytechnic (England). Dept. of Biologi- 
cal Sciences. 
K. H. Goulding. 

Proceedings 6th British Insecticide and Fungicide 
Conference, p 621 -629, 1971. 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Algicides, 'Algal control, Water 

pollution, Eutrophication, Nutrients, Chlorella, 

Chlamydomonas, Diatoms, Silicates, Cyanophyta, 

Toxicity, Costs, Carbon dioxide. 

Identifiers: 'Daconil, 'Chlorophthalonil, 

Ulothrix, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Microcystis, Al- 

gistat. 

Since the problem of increased algal growth in- 
volves such a wide range of species any successful 
algicide should have the widest range of effective- 
ness; it must be particularly active against blue- 
green algae. A large number of criteria should be 
satisfied before an algicide is used on a wide scale 
and should really act more as an algistatic agent 
slowing down growth and spreading out an algal 
'bloom' over a longer time period. If this could be 
achieved water treatment plants could cope with 
the algal problems. Some of the work so far car- 
ried out in examining the algicidal properties of the 
compound chlorophthalonil indicates the potential 
of this compound. It is effective against a range of 
algae including Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, 
Ulothrix, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, and Microcystis 
at low concentrations-often less than 0.001 ppm. 
The effect is generally less after 300 hours than 
after 150 hours and is dependent upon the size of 
the initial cell inoculum. The work carried out 
evaluates chlorophythalonil with a list of criteria 
for an ideal algicide. (Jones- Wisconsin) 
W72-07508 



LIBERATION OF EXTRACELLULAR 

PRODUCTS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY TROPI- 
CAL PHYTOPLANKTON, 

Department of Marine Biology and Oceanog- 
raphy, Ernakulam (India); and Westfield Coll., 
London (England). Dept. of Botany. 
S. Samuel, N. M. Shah, and G. E. Fogg. 
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of 
the United Kingdom, Vol 51, p 793-798, 1971. 4 
tab, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Photosynthesis, 'Phytoplankton, 
•Tropical regions, Marine plants, Shores, 
Chlorophyll, Sea water, Brackish water, Chlorel- 
la, Light intensity, Temperature, Bacteria. 
Identifiers: 'Excretion, 'Extracellular products, 
Flagellates. 

Healthy freshwater phytoplankton cells normally 
liberate a substantial proportion of photosynthetic 
products directly into the surrounding water. 
Using C-14 as a tracer in experiments of 2 to 3 



55 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C — Effects of Pollution 



hour duration, it has been demonstrated, both with 
individual species in culture and natural popula- 
tions, that marine phytoplankton from tropical 
inshore waters, as in fresh waters, release 
products of photosynthesis in soluble extracellular 
form. The relative extent of this excretion varied 
between 1 to 20% of total carbon fixed but on any 
particular occasion the amount of extracellular 
products was approximately proportional to the 
amount of photosynthesis which had taken place. 
An inverse relationship between relative extent of 
excretion and phytoplankton abundance as mea- 
sured by chlorophyll a concentration was found in 
agreement with the results of previous workers. 
The relative extent of excretion did not appear to 
differ greatly in brackish water of 12.3 salinity 
from that in ordinary sea water. (Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07509 



MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON NITROGEN 
FIXATION IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS--VI. 
ON THE IN SITU NITROGEN FIXATION IN 
WATER REGIONS, 

Mie Prefectural Univ., Tsu (Japan). Faculty of 
Fisheries; and Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst, 
for Food Science. 

Isao Sugahara, Tomoji Sawada, and Akira Kawai. 
Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific 
Fisheries, Vol 37, Noll, p 1093-1099, 1971. 7 fig, 1 
tab, 7 ref . 

Descriptors: 'Microbiology, 'Nitrogen fixation, 
•Aquatic environment. Methodology, Nitrogen 
fixing bacteria, Fresh water, Microorganisms, 
Bottom sediments, Temperature, Depth, Light in- 
tensity. Diurnal, Cyanophyta. 
Identifiers: Acetylene method, Maizuru Bay 
(Japan), Lake Biwa (Japan). 

Rate of nitrogen fixation was estimated in various 
water environments using a modified acetylene 
method. The rate of nitrogen fixation ranges from 
0.3 to 4.5 mg N/hr per cubic meter of fresh water 
as well as coastal sea water. In surface water, the 
highest rate was observed during daytime and the 
lowest at night, constrasting with the almost equal 
rate in water at 2 m depth. This may suggest that 
nitrogen fixation depends upon light intensity to 
some extent; photosynthetic microorganisms, 
other than nitrogen fixing bacteria or blue green 
algae also may take part in fresh water environ- 
ments. Considerably high values were observed in 
fish culture ponds. The rate estimated in seawater 
of Maisuru Bay was similar to that in fresh water. 
In general, about 30 to 50% of total activity of 
nitrogen fixation in fresh water environments may 
be attributable to microorganisms attached on the 
suspending particles or microorganisms larger 
than 5 microns. In fresh water regions, nitrogen 
fixation proceeds actively in bottom sediments 
rather than in the water. (Jones- Wisconsin) 
W72-07511 



RESEMBLANCE OF GROWTH SUBSTANCES 
TO METAL CHELATORS WITH RESPECT TO 
THEIR ACTIONS ON DUCKWEED GROWTH, 

Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Biological Inst. 

Yukito Oota, and Takahiko Tsudzuki. 

Plant and Cell Physiology, Vol 12, p 619-631, 1971. 

13 fig, 1 tab, 15 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Plant growth substances, 'Chela- 
tion, 'Plant growth, 'Aquatic weed control, 
Copper, Iron, Ions, Photoperiodism, Spec- 
trophotometry, Biorthyms, Light intensity, 
Flowering, Color. 

Identifiers: 'Duckweed, Metal chelators, IAA, 
KIN, GA, Ferric ions, Cupric ions. 

Aseptic cultures of Lemna gibba G3 were used for 
growth experiments. At both the outset and end of 
the experimental culture period, the numbers of 
fronds, granular bodies and flowers were respec- 
tively counted under a dissecting microscope. Ac- 
tion patterns of IAA, KIN, and GA on the growth 
of the duckweed are similar to those reported for 
agents chelating both cupric and ferric ions. Rela- 



tively high doses of growth substances, that is 
0.000001 molar IAA or KIM and 0.0001 molar GA, 
inhibit development of photoperiodically induced 
flower buds and antagonistically promote frond 
multiplication; whereas, at relatively low doses, 
that is, 0.000000001 molar IAA or KIM and 
0.00001 molar GA, they accelerate the process oc- 
curring in the latter half of the induction period to 
enhance flower induction. Complex forming abili- 
ties of IAA, KIN and GA with cupric and ferric 
ions are demonstrated spectrophotometrically. 
Moreover, the ferrous ion-dependent oscillatory 
change in productive and vegetative photophilies 
of duckweed is eliminated by KIN but not by IAA 
and GA. Of the three growth substances tried, 
KIN alone shows an affinity for ferrous ions. 
(Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07512 



MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON NITROGEN 
FIXATION IN AQUATIC EN\TRONMENTS--I. 
ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN FIX- 
ING BACTERIA IN FRESH WATER REGIONS, 

Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst, for Food 

Science; and Mie Prefectural Univ., Tsu (Japan). 

Faculty of Fisheries. 

Akira Kawai, and Isao Sugahara. 

Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific 

Fisheries, Vol 37, No 8, p 740-746, 1971. 3 fig, 5 

tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Nitrogen cycle, 'Microbiology, 
'Nitrogen fixing bacteria. Distribution, Cycles, 
Denitrvfication, Productivity, Bottom sediments, 
Eutrophication, Mud, Aerobic conditions, 
Anaerobic conditions, Decomposing organic 
matter. 

Identifiers: Lake Biwa (Japan), Lake Yunoko 
(Japan), Heterotrophic bacteria. 

A study was made of the occurrence and 
abundance of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in 
oligotrophic fresh water Lake Biwa, the largest 
Japanese lake, and at Lake Yunoko, a small 
eutrophic lake. Water and muds were sampled, 
dissolved oxygen, pH value, ammonia, nitrites, 
nitrates, inorganic phosphates, and sugar content 
were determined. Nitrogen fixing bacteria and 
total heterotrophic bacteria were cultivated and 
enumerated. In Lake Biwa, total heterotrophic 
bacterial number was usually about 1000 to 
100,000 cells ml while nitrogen fixing bacteria 
were few, 10 to 100 cells/ml or lower; in surface 
layer of bottom mud, total heterotrophic bacteria 
were usually 100,000 to 1,000,000 cells/g and 
nitrogen fixing bacteria are 100 to 10,000 cells/g. In 
Lake Yunoko the nitrogen fixing bacteria are 
about 10 cells/ml at each depth; in the surface 
layer of the mud, they were about 1000 cells/g and 
about 100 cells/g in the 10-12 cm layer. Correlation 
between nitrogen fixing bacterial number and the 
COD value was observed in Lake Yunoko. Clear 
relationship was not found between nitrogen fixing 
bacterial number and other environmental factors 
in the two lakes. (Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07513 



ALGAL GROWTH EXCITERS, 

Kappe Associates, Inc., Rockville, Md. 

D. S. Kappe, and S. E. Kappe. 

Water and Sewage Works. Vol 1 18, No 8, p 245- 

248, 1971. Href. 

Descriptors: 'Algal control, 'Essential nutrients, 
'Deficient nutrients, 'Aquatic algae, 'Carbon 
dioxide, Nuisance algae, Eutrophication, 
Phosphates, Phosphorus, Carbon, Organic matter. 
Manganese, Iron, Sulfur, Potassium, Molyb- 
denum, Detergents, Sewage treatment. Car- 
bonates, Bicarbonates, Hardness (Water), Al- 
kalinity, Enzymes, Temperature, Photosynthesis, 
Decomposing organic matter. Light intensity. Cal- 
cium, Cyanophyta, Scenedesmus, Sodium, Man- 
ganese, Chlorophyll, Potassium, Copper, Algi- 
cides. Cobalt. 

Identifiers: Lake Tahoe (Calif), Zinc, Ascorbic 
acid, Pyridoxine, Indal compounds. 



No apparent consistent relationship appears to 
exist between lake eutrophication and phosphorus 
retention capacity and eutrophication cannot be 
explained solely on the basis of sediments' capaci- 
ty to retain phosphorus. Current findings indicate 
that eutrophication is more directly related to 
bicarbonate-carbonate alkalinities of water than to 
phosphate concentrations and disclose that water 
temperature plays an important part in the algal 
cycle; that the bicarbonate-carbonate alkalinity of 
water is essential to algal growth; the concentra- 
tions of nutrients are critical for photosynthesis; 
the intensity of sunlight, the clarity of water, and 
the ability of algae to adsorb and absorb energy 
from sunlight have a great effect on algal growth; 
and that algal growth is controlled and stimulated 
by many metal-activated enzymes. The current 
concept is that although nitrogen and phosphorus 
are major factors in the eutrophic condition that 
leads to algal blooms, their presence is not always 
the critical factor. Nitrogen is the critical limiting 
factor to algal growth and eutrophication in coastal 
marine waters and removal of phosphates from de- 
tergents is not likely to slow eutrophication. 
Photosynthetic bacteria, photochemical bacteria, 
and other autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria 
could be the primary reactors that produce 
nutrients and essential elements directly or in- 
directly in a form responsible for algal growth. 
Phosphorus cannot be the growth limiting nutrient 
in all waters. (Auen-Wisconsin) 
W72-07514 



CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PROTEIN 
FROM GAS-VACUOLE MEMBRANES OF THE 
BLUE-GREEN ALGA, MICROCYSTIS AERU- 
GINOSA, 

Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. MSU/AEC 

Plant Research Lab. 

D. D. Jones, and M. Jost. 

Planta (Berl.), Vol 100, p 277-287, 1971. 5 fig, 1 

tab, 26 ref. AEC AT- (1 l-D-1338. 

Descriptors: 'Proteins, 'Cyanophyta, 'Mem- 
branes, Electrophoresis, Chemical analysis. Sol- 
vents, Analytical techniques, Spectroscopy, Solu- 
bility, Amino acids, Laboratory tests, Syste- 
matics. 

Identifiers: *Gas-vacuole membranes, 'Micro- 
cystis aeruginosa, Formic acid. 

Protein which constitutes the gas-vacuoles of the 
blue-green alga. Microcystis aeruginosa, has been 
isolated in a high degree of purity. The gas-vacuole 
membranes seem to have stringent criteria for 
architectural exactness. The investigation of the 
membrane structure and formation was made to 
determine whether the membrane is made up of 
one or several proteins. Gel electrophoresis and 
end-group analysis indicate that the gas-vacuole 
membranes consist of a single specie protein. 
Strongly protic solvents such as formic acid are 
the only reagents causing appreciable solubiliza- 
tion of the membrane protein. Infrared spectrosco- 
py shows that the membrane protein has both 
alpha-helix or random-coil conformation, and 
beta-conformation. That lipids are not associated 
with gas-vacuole membranes is substantiated. The 
pronounced beta-conformation of the gas-vacuole 
membrane protein undoubtedly accounts for the 
insolubility of the protein in aqueous media and 
may contribute to exclusion of water from the or- 
ganelle. Exposure to formic acid causes an almost 
complete transition to the beta-conformation, as 
seen by an increase of the respective infrared 
spectra bands. (Jones-Wisconsin) 
W72-07515 



NUTRDINT LIMITING FACTORS IN AN ARC- 
TIC TUNDRA POND, 

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). Dept. of Biolo- 
gy- 

J. Kalff. 

Ecology, Vol 52, No 4, p 655-659, 1971. 4 fig, 2 
tab, 24 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Deficient elements, 'Nutrients, 
'Photosynthesis, 'Nutrient requirements, 'Bioas- 



56 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



ay, Ponds, Phytoplankton, Alaska, Cultures, 
'hosphates, Nitrates, Ammonia, Trace elements, 
.ight intensity, Sulfates, Carbon, On-site tests, 
dentifiers: Barrow (Alaska), Growth factor, 
'itamin B-12. 

ome of the nutrients that might limit phytoplank- 
>n photosynthesis in a Barrow, Alaska, arctic 
indra pond were evaluated at regular intervals by 
-14 enrichment bioassay. The phytoplankton, 
leir production, and the chemical characteristics 
f the water have been previously described, 
hort-term incubations, possible by use of the C- 
l technique, prevent the deleterious bottle effects 
tat result when long term changes in cell number 
r chlorophyll concentration are used as an assay. 
he relationship between rates of phytoplankton 
liotosynthesis and nutrient and growth factor 
;ficiencies was investigated. Phosphate, nitrate, 
id ammonia deficiencies limited photosynthesis 
:ter the onset of a period of high sustained 
•owth. Toward the end of this period, additional 
ificiencies for one or more trace elements and 
owth factors with vitamin B-12 being one defi- 
ent growth factor, were noted. No nutrient and 
owth factor deficiencies were found during the 
lbsequent period of low carbon incorporation. 
iterations between nutrients as well as between 
jtrients and light were found to complicate the 
cognition of nutrient deficiencies. The utility of 
ie enrichment bioassay in determining nutrient 
id growth factor deficiencies is discussed. 
ones-Wisconsin) 
'72-07516 



0RMULATION OF A SYNTHETIC SEA- 
'ATER FOR BIOASSAYS WITH MYTILUS 
DULIS EMBRYOS, 

regon State Univ., Newport. Marine Science 

enter; and Oregon State Univ., CorvaUis. Dept. 

: Agricultural Chemistry. 

obert C. Courtright, Wilbur P. Breese, and Hugo 

rueger. 

'ater Research, Vol 5, p 877-888, 1971. 3 fig, 3 

b, 7 ref . 

escriptors: *Sea water, 'Bioassay, 'Mussels, 
_aboratory tests, Cultures, Salinity, Embrionic 
owth stage. Shellfish, Larvae, Pulp wastes, 
.>dium chloride. 

lentifiers: 'Synthetic sea water, *Mytilus edulis, 
alcification, Monochrysis lutheri, BioSea, Leslie 
larse hide salt, L factor. 

reliable, reproducible, and effective synthetic 
:awater is necessary for evaluation of problems 
the embryology, growth, development, 
lysiology, and culture of shell fish. Seawater of 
> per thousand per mil salinity is favorable for 
:velopment of Mytilus edulis embryos. A new 
irmula (BioSea) was designed which would allow 
irmal growth and development of Mytilus to the 
idled veliger stage. The essential inorganic com- 
)unds were Leslie coarse hide salt, U.S. P. grade 
>dium bicarbonate and potassium chloride, re- 
sent anhydrous magnesium sulfate and reagent 
ilcium chloride. Leslie coarse hide salt contained 
isential materials (L factor) necessary for calcifi- 
ition of mussel larvae. Seawater contained four 
mes as much of the essential L factor as BioSea. 
rowth and development of Mytilus were im- 
oved by adding alkaline phosphatase, carbonic 
lhydrase, purine (free base), DL-lysine, and DL- 
ipartic acid to BioSea. Mussel bioassays of Kraft 
iH effluents in BioSea gave data equivalent to as- 
lys carried out in seawater. It is suggested that 
ioSea be used as a standard medium for bioas- 
lys of the effectiveness of marine waters for 
:veloping Mytilus. Several recurring pathological 
inditions of the larvae, embryos, trochphores 
ere noted. (Jones-Wisconsin) 
'72-07517 



HE EFFECT OF A POWER PLANT ON THE 
ISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF 



ZOOPLANKTON NEAR THE PLANT'S THER- 
MAL OUTFALL, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Water Resources 
Center. 

G. A. Brauer, W. H. Neill, and J. J. Magnuson. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 695, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Wisconsin Water Resources 
Center, Madison, Partial Technical Completion 
Report, 1972. 33 p, 7 fig, 2 tab, 19 ref. OWRR B- 
028-WIS (2). 

Descriptors: *Zooplankton, *Daphnia, 'Distribu- 
tion, 'Thermal pollution, Outlets, Intakes, 
Sampling, Littoral, Wisconsin, Water pollution ef- 
fects. Lakes. 

Identifiers: 'Diaptomus, 'Species composition, 
'Abundance, 'Madison (Wise), 'Lake Monona 
(Wise). 

The influence of the thermal outfall jets from the 
Blount Street Power Station (Madison, Wisconsin) 
on the distribution and abundance of zooplankton 
in Lake Monona was studied. Sampling on 13 days 
in the summer and fall of 1969 and 1970 at 9 littoral 
outfall area stations and two control stations 
showed that Diaptomus, Daphnia, and cyclopoid 
copepods were two to seven times more abundant 
in the water near the outfalls than in the control 
areas. Zooplankton density maxima occurred in or 
very near the discharge currents suggesting that 
the animals were being brought into the system 
rather than being produced in situ. When the plant 
shut down one of its two jets during low power 
load, high outfall zooplankton densities fell to nor- 
mal control area values within several hours. Six 
to eight hours after resumption of operation, the 
densities around the jet increased approximately 
five fold. High densities were caused by input 
from the jets, which had a zooplankton composi- 
tion very similar to that near the plant's intakes 
(110 m offshore, drawing water from 3 or 4 m over 
an 8 m bottom). None of the species avoided the 
intakes. Low densities of zooplankton in the lit- 
toral control areas resulted from shoreline 
avoidance, a phenomenon displayed by many true 
planktonic species. High abundance in the outfall 
area compared to the control areas reflected the 
high relative abundance of zooplankton at the in- 
takes. 
W72-07523 



THERMAL EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICAL 
PRODUCTION IN NUTRIENT RICH PONDS, 

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Water Resources 
Center. 
H. F. Siewert. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 696, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Wisconsin Water Resources 
Center, Madison, Technical Completion Report, 
1972. 43 p, 13 fig, 2 tab, 22 ref. OWRR A-020-WIS 
(1) and OWRR A-032-WIS (1). 

Descriptors: Fish, Water chemistry, 'Plant 
growth, 'Chara, 'Fishkill, 'Nutrients, 'Sunfishes, 
Oxygen, Alkalinity, Conductivity, Hydrogen sul- 
fide, Stratification, Wisconsin, 'Heated water, 
'Water pollution effects, 'Growth rates, Tem- 
perature. 
Identifiers: 'Thermal addition, Food supply. 

Physical, chemical, and biological differences 
between two similar ponds were studied. One 
pond was heated to 5 deg C above ambient tem- 
perature, while the other served as a reference. 
Two hundred and fifty green sunfish, Lepomis 
cyanellus, were planted in each pond. The young- 
of-the-year grew at a higher rate in the heated 
pond. The heated pond permitted Chara to grow 
year round at an accelerated rate. It produced 
more oxygen during the day and lost more oxygen 
during the night than did the reference pond. The 
latter showed greater annual fluctuations of total 
alkalinity and conductivity. Concentration of 
hydrogen sulfide in the lower half of the water 
column, caused by stratification within the 
reference pond, killed fish in both the summer and 



winter. There was an indication that the syner- 
gistic effect of temperature and oxygen with an 
unlimited food supply will promote fish growth. 

W72-07525 



THE EFFECTS OF HEATED WASTE WATERS 
UPON MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 
Blacksburg. Water Resources Research Center. 
J. Cairns, Jr., and R. A. Paterson. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 697, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Virginia Water Resources 
Research Center, Blacksburg, Project Completion 
Report September 1971 24 p, 2 fig, 9 ref. OWRR B- 
017-VA(7). 

Descriptors: 'Thermal stress, 'Thermal pollution, 
'Microorganisms, 'Fluorescence, Food chains, 
Equipment, Analytical techniques, Heated water, 
Condensers, Protozoa, Algae, Fungi, Water pollu- 
tion effects. 

The effects of thermal stress on selected aquatic 
microorganisms were investigated. Numerous 
categories of temperature shock were studied with 
emphasis on (1) simulation of the passage of water 
through a condensing system to determine the ef- 
fects of this exposure and (2) the effects of such 
entrainment upon the microbial system below the 
discharge point. Three general groups of organ- 
isms were examined: protozoans, algae, and 
chytridiaceous fungi. New equipment developed 
specifically to aid in these studies (a simple ap- 
paratus for delivering heat shock to microorgan- 
isms) and a new fluorescent survey technique to 
characterize stress induced cellular alterations are 
described in detail. 
W72-07526 



ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT 
OF SELECTED CROP PRACTICES ON WATER 
QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY--AN APPLI- 
CATION OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Agricultural 

Economics. 

A. S. Narayanan. 

Thesis, 1972, 177p,9fig, 13tab, 127 ref, 6 append. 

OWRR B-049-ILL (2). 

Descriptors: 'Sedimentation, 'Water quality, 
'Agriculture, Soil erosion, Water pollution, Reser- 
voir, Linear programming, 'Economics, 
'Watershed management, 'Watersheds (Basins), 
'Mathematical studies, 'Evaluation, 'Model stu- 
dies, Crops. 
Identifiers: Soil productivity. 

Linear programming is used to analyze empirically 
the effect on water quality of soil loss from 
agricultural land. Theoretically such a problem is 
characterized by Kneese's concept of the manage- 
ment of common property resources. The unit of 
analysis is a watershed and its reservoir. The crop 
production activities, under both conventional 
cropping and conservation systems, represent the 
agricultural system. Each crop activity has a 
specific soil loss consequence which is adjusted to 
estimate sedimentation in the reservoir. To the ex- 
tent they are attached to sediment, other pollu- 
tants are also considered in the model. An optimal 
set of crop activities is determined, which max- 
imizes a net agricultural return, subject to meeting 
a requirement on the maximum level of sediment 
discharged into the reservoir. The results based on 
meeting water quality criteria were compared with 
results based on meeting long run soil productivity 
criteria. Additionally, parameters of the sediment 
restriction level were used to obtain a functional 
relationship between optimal net returns and level 
of sedimentation. The results of the analysis sug- 
gests how this approach could be used in the 
evaluation of public policy alternatives involving 
penalty and incentive measures to achieve goals of 
reducing soil loss and sedimentation. 
W72-07530 



57 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C — Effects of Pollution 



PHYTOPLANKTON AND ZOOPLANKTON OF 
SOME LAKES IN NORTHEASTERN NORWAY, 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Winnipeg 

(Manitoba). Freshwater Inst. 

OleA.Saether. 

Schweiz Z Hydrol. 33 (1): 200-230. 1971. Ulus. 

Map. 

Identifiers: Algae, Lakes, Norway, Phytoplank- 

ton, Zooplankton. 

During the summer of 1966 some limnological 
aspects of 13 lakes and one pond in the most 
northeasterly part of Norway were studied. A total 
of 418 taxa of algae including 104 genera, and 70 
taxa of zooplankton including 46 genera are 
identified. The composition of the plankton in all 
the waters is shown to be typical for fundamen- 
tally oligotrophic lakes. A few of the lakes show 
some humic influence. This is in agreement with 
the hydrographic results from these waters. - 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07556 



PERIPHYTON OF SEVERAL LAKES OF THE 
MAZURIAN LAKELAND, 

Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. Inst, of 
Ecology; and Polish Academy of Sciences, War- 
saw. Dept. of Applied Limnology. 
W. Szczepanska. 

Pol Arch Hydrobiol. 17 (3): 397-418. 1970. Dlus. 
Identifiers: Algae, Chlorophyll, Lakes, Mazurian, 
Periphyton, Poland. 

Investigations of the dynamics of quantitative 
changes of reed periphyton were carried out on 6 
lakes of the Mazurian Lakeland. The periphyton 
was analyzed on this year's and last year's reed- 
shoots and on slides. The amount of dry weight of 
organic matter, organic N and chlorophyll content 
were determined. The content of chlorophyll in the 
same lake was approximate in different years, but 
greater differences were observed in lakes of 
varied trophy. Thus, it seems that algae primarily 
influence the processes taking place in the 
periphytic biocenosis. -Copyright 1972, Biological 
Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07559 



SUDDEN DEATH FROM ISCHEMIC HEART 
DISEASE IN ONTARIO AND ITS CORRELA- 
TION WITH WATER HARDNESS AND OTHER 
FACTORS, 

Toronto Univ. (Ontario). School of Hygiene. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 
W72-07560 



RISK OF SUDDEN DEATH IN SOFT WATER 
AREAS, 

Ottawa Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Epidemiology 

and Community Medicine. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07561 



ACCUMULATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI BY 
THE NORTHERN QUAHAUG, 

Northeastern Water Hygiene Lab., Narragansett, 

R.I. 

V. J. Cabelli, and W. P. Hefferman. 

Appl Microbiol. 19(2): 239-244. 1970. 

Identifiers: Accumulation, Digestive, Escherichia- 

Coli, Gland, Mercenaria-Mercenaria, Pollution, 

Quahog, Siphon, Temperature. 

The uptake of E. coli by the quahaug, Mercenaria 
mercenaria, was studied to obtain an insight into 
the environmental parameters significant to the ac- 
cumulation of bacterial pathogens by shellfish 
growing in polluted waters and into the kinetics of 
the uptake process. Experimental uptake was 
achieved by placing the animals in a flowing water 
system in which the contamination level of the 
water and its temperature and salinity could be 
controlled. Accumulation of the bacteria by the 
quahaug proceeds to an equilibrium level which is 
a function of E. coli content of the water and its 
overall particulate matters. Accumulation takes 



place in the digestive gland and, to a lesser extent, 
in the siphon of the animal.~Copyright 1972, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07566 



DISTRD3UTION OF BIOTA IN A STREAM POL- 
LUTED BY ACID MINE-DRAINAGE, 

Federal Water Quality Administration, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Richard W. Warner. 

Ohio J Sci. 71 (4): 202-216. 1971. nius. Maps. 
Identifiers: Acid, Biota, Chironomus-Plumosus, 
Distribution, Drainage, Euglena-Mutabilis, Eu- 
notia-Exigua, Mine, Pinnularia-Termitina, Pol- 
luted, Ptilostomis, Sialis-SP, Stream, Ulothrix- 
Tenerrima. 

Acidic water draining from coal mines has severe- 
ly restricted the diversity of biota inhabiting Roar- 
ing Creek, eastern West Virginia. Polluted reaches 
of the stream (median pH values ranging from 2.8 
to 3.8) were inhabited by 3 to 12 genera of bottom- 
dwelling invertebrates and 10 to 19 spp. of 
periphytic algae. Invertebrates tolerant of the pol- 
lution included Sialis sp., Chironomus plumosus 
and other Chironomidae, dytiscid beetles, and 
Ptilostomis sp. Predominant among the tolerant 
periphyton were Ulothrix tenerrima, Pinnularia 
termitina, Eunotia exigua, and Euglena mutabilis. 
Six other species of algae were tolerant of the acid 
mine-pollution, but were never numerous. Sec- 
tions of Roaring Creek not severely polluted by 
acid drainage (pH medians of 4.5 or higher) sup- 
ported diverse communities of 25 or more kinds of 
benthic animals and 27 or more species of 
periphytic algae. These stream reaches were in- 
hibited by blackflies, crayfish, mayflies, 
stoneflies, and many species of caddisflies; these 
forms did not inhabit the more acidic stream 
reaches. Because of the complex and varying 
chemical composition of the acid mine-drainage, 
and also because of possible physical influences, 
measurements of pH values in the stream seemed 
to provide the most reliable, as well as unique, 
index of the effects of acid mine-drainage on 
aquatic life. -Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W72-07613 



WATER QUALITY CRITERIA TO PROTECT 
THE FISH POPULATION DIRECTLY BELOW 
SEWAGE OUTFALLS, 

Maryland Univ., College Park. Water Resources 
Research Center. 
C. Tsai. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 811, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Water Resources Research 
Center Completion Report, 32 p, 20 fig, 2 tab, 34 
ref, August 1971. OWRR B-006-MD (1). 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution effects, *Sewage 
disposal, 'Sanitary engineering, 'Sewage treat- 
ment, 'Chlorination, 'Bioindicators, 'Pollutants, 
Sewage, Outfall sewers, Water pollution sources, 
Waste disposal, Environmental sanitation, Sewage 
effluents, Pollutant identification, Chlorine, Am- 
monia, Detergents, Phosphates, Conductivity, 
Chlorides, Hardness (Water), Turbidity, Acidity, 
Alkalinity, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrogen. 
Identifiers: Species diversity. 

The water quality and fish communities in streams 
receiving chlorinated effluents from 156 seconda- 
ry sewage treatment plants in Virginia, Maryland, 
and Pennsylvania were studied during the sum- 
mers of 1968-1970. The water quality parameters 
considered were total chlorine, ammonia nitrogen, 
total phosphate, detergent (AMS), conductivity, 
turbidity, hardness, chlorides, acidity, alkalinity, 
dissolved oxygen, pH, and nitrite-nitrate nitrogen. 
Changes in fish community diversity in the 
streams were related to these parameters. Total 
chlorine and turbidity appeared to be the major 
causative factors in reducing fish communities in 
areas immediately below the outfalls. A 50% 
reduction in species diversity as a result of sewage 



pollution is acceptable. Several recommendations 
on plant designs and on selection of outfall sites to 
achieve natural purification are presented. 
(LeGore- Washington) 
W72-07615 



ENRICHMENT OF HEAVY METALS AND OR- 
GANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE SURFACE 
MICROLAYER OF NARRAGANSETT BAY, 
RHODE ISLAND, 

Rhode Island Univ., Kingston. Graduate School of 

Oceanography. 

R. A. Duce, J. G. Quinn, C. E. Olney, S. R. 

Piotrowicz, and B. J. Ray. 

Science, Col. 176, No. 4031, p 161-163, 1 tab, 7 ref, 

14 April 1972. NSF GA-20000, NSF GX-28340. 

Descriptors: 'Surfaces, 'Aquatic environment, 
♦Rhode Island, 'Water pollution effects, 'Path of 
pollutants. Water properties, Water tension, 
Flotation, Lipids, Iron, Metals, Copper, Nickel, 
Lead, Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, Trace 
elements, Water pollution, Shallow water, Trace 
elements. 

Identifiers: Water surfaces, Narragansett Bay (R- 
hode Island), Trace metals. 

Concentrations of lead, iron, nickel, copper, fatty 
acids, hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocar- 
bons are enriched from 1.5 to 50 times in the top 
100-150 micrometers of Narragansett Bay (Rhode 
Island) water relative to the bulk water 20 cm 
below the surface. Trace metal enrichment was 
observed in the particulate and organic fractions 
but not in the inorganic fraction. If these sub- 
stances are concentrated in films only a few 
molecular layers thick on the water surface, the 
actual enrichment factor in the films may be well 
over 10,000, resulting in extremely high localized 
pollutant concentrations in the surface microlayer. 
Some implications of these findings are discussed. 
(LeGore-Washington) 
W72-07640 



PREPARATION OF SINGLE-LAYER TISSUE 
CULTURE FROM CRUCIAN CARP AND COM- 
MON CARP GONADS, (PRIGOTOVLENIE OD- 
NOSLOINOI KUL'TURY TKANEI IZ GONAD 
KARASYA I KARPA), 

Gosudarstvennyi Nauchno-Issledovatelskii In- 
stitut Ozernogo i Rechnogo Rybnogo Khozyaist- 
va, Leningrad (USSR). 
E. M. Rabkin, and R. A. Kudentsova. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-199 803-T, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Translated from Veterinariya, 
Vol. 46, p 91-92, 2 fig, 1969. 

Descriptors: 'Cytological studies, 'Carp, 
♦Gonads, Cultures, Viruses, Diseases, 
Epidemiology, Fish diseases, Fish physiology, 
Animal pathology, Infection. 
Identifiers: 'Tissue culture, Ovaries, Fish patholo- 
gy- 
Fish tissue cultures are required for study of fish 
diseases with a virological etiology. Of the large 
quantity of data available on the preparation and 
use of tissue cultures, only isolated reports are 
devoted to tissue cultures of fish. Preparation of a 
culture from mature carp ovaries is described. The 
organs were ground up, then dispersed with a 
0.25% trypsin solution for 18-20 hr in cold, or for 
30-45 min at room temperature. Centrifugation at 
800-1000 rpm for 5-10 min was used to separate the 
cells from the trypsin and for washing. They were 
subsequently cultures on cover glasses in test 
tubes, using nutrient medium 199 with 10-15% calf 
serum. Crucian carp were maintained at 21-23C, 
and common carp cells at 25-27C. After seven 
days, the cells assumed an epithelium-like 
character. (LeGore-Washington) 
W72-07643 



THE BIOLOGY OF THE SPOT, LEIOSTROMUS 
XANTHURUS LACEPEDE, AND ATLANTIC 



58 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



CROAKER, MICROPOGON UNDULATUS (LIN- 
NAEUS), IN TWO GULF OF MEXICO 
NURSERY AREAS, 

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Agricul- 
tural Extension Service. 
J. C. Parker. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as COM-71 00778, $3.00 in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. Sea Grant Publication 
No. TAMU-SG-71-210, 182 p, 32 fig, 32 tab, 68 
ref, 1971. Sea Grant GH-101. 

Descriptors: 'Baseline studies, "Fish, 'Marine 
fish, 'Fish populations, Basic data collections, 
Fish behavior. Aquatic habitats. Food habits. 
Identifiers: Croaker, Spot, Leiostomus spp., 
Micropogon spp. 

The biology of the spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) 
and the Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus) 
in the vicinity of Lake Borgne, Louisiana and of 
Galveston Bay, Texas is discussed relative to tem- 
perature, salinity, and certain hydrographic fea- 
tures. Geographic variations in spawning, growth 
rates, distribution and food habits were evaluated. 
Length-weight relationships were compared 
between the two areas. In Galveston Bay, condi- 
tion of fish was studied relative to fish size, 
habitat, season of year, water temperature and 
salinity. Spot and croaker are in direct competition 
for food in both study areas. The degree to which 
this competition affects the abundance of these 
species is not known. (LeGore- Washington) 
W72-07644 



CARBON, NITROGEN, AND PHOSPHORUS 
AND THE EUTROPHICATION OF FRESH- 
WATER LAKES, 

Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Winnipeg 

(Manitoba). Freshwater Inst. 

D. W. Schindler. 

Journal of Phycology, Vol. 7, No. 4, p 321-329, 

December 1971. 1 fig, 2 tab, 83 ref. 

Descriptors: •Eutrophication, "Lakes, "Nutrients, 
•Freshwater, "Bioassay, "Standing crop, Carbon, 
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Phytoplankton, Carbon 
dioxide. Seston, Fertilization, Water quality, 
Radon radioisotopes, Primary productivity. Cul- 
tures. Biomass, Carbon radioisotopes, Limiting 
factors. Photosynthesis, Great Lakes, Lake Erie, 
Lake Ontario. Hydrogen ion concentration, Tur- 
bidity, Oligotrophy, Chlorophyta, Algae, 
Chrysophyta. Cyanophyta, Epilimnion, 

Ochromonas, Lakes. 

Identifiers: Secchi disc. Dissolved nitrogen, Dis- 
solved phosphorus, Oscillatoria. Radon 
radioisotopes. Chromulina, Cryptomonas, Mal- 
lomonas. Staurastrum, Phacomyxa, Spondylosi- 
um. Lyngbya. Pseudoanabaena. Data interpreta- 
tion. 

The question of nutrients responsible for eutrophi- 
cation of freshwater lakes is reviewed, and recent 
additions to the literature on nutrient limitation are 
discussed. The paper by Lange is criticized on 
several grounds, including the facts that utilization 
of bicarbonate by phytoplankton and the invasion 
of lake waters by atmospheric C02 are ignored as 
sources of photosynthetic carbon. The phosphorus 
and nitrogen concentrations used in Lange's ex- 
periments are far higher than values published by 
others for Lakes Erie and Ontario. Preliminary 
results of fertilizing a small oligotrophic lake with 
nitrogen and phosphorus are described. The stand- 
ing crop of phytoplankton increased by 30-50 
times, while the P:N:C ratio in seston did not 
change from ratios found in unfertilized lakes. 
Other experiments done in water columns isolated 
with polyethylene film showed that addition of 
carbon did not increase the phytoplankton stand- 
ing crop. Since the fertilized lake was initially 
lower in total C02 than any other recorded in the 
literature, it is concluded that carbon is unlikely to 
limit the standing crop of phytoplankton in almost 
any situation. Measurements of invasion of at- 
mospheric gases to the fertilized lake by the 
Radon-222 technique were compared with 



phytoplankton production measurements, reveal- 
ing that atmospheric invasion of C02 is sufficient 
to support the high phytoplankton standing crop in 
the epilimnion of the lake. Possible errors in in- 
terpretation of culture and bottle-bioassay experi- 
ments with respect to eutrophication are 
discussed. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07648 



CONTINUOUS CULTURES AS A METHOD FOR 
THE DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY 
PRODUCTION OF ALGAE, 

Orange Free State Univ., Bloemfontein (South 

Africa). Dept. of Botany. 

J. U. Grobbelaar. 

S Af r J Sci. 67 (4) 1 97 1 . 284-288. 

Identifiers: Algae, Biomass, Chemostat, Cultures, 

Determination, Method, Primary, Production, 

Turbidistat. 

Although it is difficult to determine the primary 
production of algae with a single method, the use- 
fulness of continuous cultures becomes apparent 
as the results are expressed as biomass produced 
in a volumetric unit in a unit of time. The results 
obtained with both the chemostat and the turbidi- 
stat holds with the theory. One of the disad- 
vantages of continuous cultures as a method for 
the determination of primary production of algae 
is that all the variables have to be simulated in the 
laboratory. -Copyright 1971, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07651 



CONTINUOUS CULTURE OF PSEUDOMONAS 
FLUORESCENS WITH SODIUM MALEATE AS 
A CARBON SOURCE, 

Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. School of Chemical 

Engineering. 

V. H. Edwards, J. E. Kinsella, and D. B. Sholiton. 

Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 14, p 123- 

147, 11 fig, 5 tab, 29 ref, 1972. 

Descriptors: "Industrial wastes, "Pseudomonas, 
"Organic acids, "Water pollution effects. Bac- 
teria, Pathogenic bacteria, Cultures, Amino acids. 
Proteins, Carbon, Spectrophotometry, Lipids, 
Chromatography, Turbidity, Metabolism, Aerobic 
bacteria. Soil bacteria. Absorption, Oxygen. 
Identifiers: Pseudomoas fluorescens, Pseu- 
domonas aeruginosa. Sodium maleate, DNA, 
RNA, Ion exchange chromatography. Ultraviolet 
scanning, Maleic anhydride, Phthalic anhydride, 
Maleic acid. Continuous cultures. Batch cultures, 
Minimal media, Culture media. 

The scrubber-tower water stream from maleic and 
phthalic anhydride production is rich in maleic 
acid. Pseudomonas fluorescens (ATCC 1 1 150) was 
grow n in batch and continuous culture on minimal 
media with sodium maleate as the growth limiting 
carbon source to determine (1) if useful by 
products might be formed from dilute sodium 
maleate solutions and (2) the fate of maleic acid 
released into the environment. A previous study 
has been made on the metabolism of maleic acid 
by a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens 
(ATCC 11150) using batch culture. Growth was 
followed by turbidity and dry weight measure- 
ments. Gross composition of washed cells (relative 
amounts of protein, lipid, RNA, and DNA) and the 
distribution of amino acids in protein hydrolysates 
of the cells were determined for cells grown in 
continuous culture at various dilution rates. Ex- 
tracellular concentrations at the original carbon 
source and a number of metabolites were moni- 
tored by total carbon analysis, ion exchange chro- 
matography, and ultraviolet-visible scans of cell- 
free supernatants and chromatographic fractions, 
thereof. Substrate inhibition by maleate was a 
major factor in the growth kinetics of both batch 
and continuous cultures. Excessive maleate con- 
centration caused instability in continuous cul- 
tures. By appropriate operation, much higher 
specific growth rates were achieved in continuous 
culture us compared to batch culture. Adaptation 
was responsible for only part of the differences 



between batch and continuous cultures; the differ- 
ing distribution of metabolites was also a major 
factor. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07659 



EFFECT OF MERCURY ON ALGAL GROWTH 
RATES, 

Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. 

P. J. Hannan, and C. Patouillet. 

Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol 14, p 93- 

101, 1972. 3 fig, 1 tab, 12 ref. 

Descriptors: "Heavy metals, "Algae, "Growth 
rates, "Toxicity, "Fluorescence, Trace elements, 
Copper, Chlorella, Cultures, Nutrients, 
Radioisotopes, Chlorophyll, Pigment, Magnesium, 
Phosphates, Nitrogen, Sea water, Fluorometry, 
Equipment, Inhibition, Ions, Absorption, Bioas- 
say, "Mercury. 

Identifiers: Silver, Cadmium, Lead, Chlorella 
phyrenoidosa, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, 
Cyclotella nana, Chaetoceros galvestonensis. 
Mercuric chloride, Dimethyl mercury, 
Fluoromicrophotometer. 

Comparisons of the effects of 0.1 ppm of mercury 
and other metallic ions (silver, cadmium, lead, 
copper) on the growth rates of one freshwater 
(Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and three marine algae 
(Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Cyclotella nana, 
Chaetoceros galvestonensis) have been made 
under controlled laboratory conditions. Growth, 
determined by an increase in fluorescence, was 
monitored using a fluro microphotometer. 
Fluorescence was measured initially and once 
each day for three days. Graphic data show that 
mercury was more toxic than the other metals 
tested. Mercury as mercuric chloride was more 
toxic than as dimethyl mercury. The toxicity of 
mercury was found to be comparatively irreversi- 
ble and to vary inversely with the concentration of 
nutrients present in the growth media. Just how 
much mercury algae can absorb and still grow is 
yet to be determined. (Jefferis-Battelle) 
W72-07660 



EFFECTS OF DETERGENT PROTEASE EN- 
ZYMES ON SEWAGE OXIDATION POND 
PHYTOPLANKTON, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg. Dept. of 

Biology. 

B. C. Parker, G. L. Samsel, and E. K. Obeng- 

Asamoa. 

BioScience, Vol 21, No 20, p 1035-1042, October 

15, 1971. 4 fig, 4 tab, 15 ref. 

Descriptors: "Enzymes, "Detergents, "Algae, 
"Phytoplankton, "Sewage lagoons, Biodegrada- 
tion. Sewage treatment, Waste water treatment. 
Ponds, Scendesomus, Cyanophyta, Bioassay, 
Sampling, Oxidation lagoons, Euglena, Chla- 
mydomonas, Euglenophyta, Protozoa, Equip- 
ment, Water pollution effects. 
Identifiers: "Protease enzymes, Chlorogonium, 
Oocystis, Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Pandorina, 
Phocus, Staurastrum, Trachelomonas. 

Field investigations on the effects of detergent 
protease enzymes on algal communities of sewage 
oxidation ponds suggest that additions up to 1.0 
mg/1 cause only relatively small changes in 
phytoplankton populations and algal community 
structure. As concentrations approach 10 mg/1, the 
community structure might be disturbed signifi- 
cantly in some ponds, depending on the particular 
enzyme preparation. Enzyme preparations num- 
bers 1 and 2 (EP-1 and EP-2) from the Soap and 
Detergent Association were used in concentra- 
tions of 10, 1.0, and 0.1 mg/1 on several bioassay 
systems. Either one liter, open polyethylene bags, 
floating at the surface in polystyrene frames, or 
transparent aery he plastic cylinders, with their 
bases stuck in the mud and tops protruding above 
the water line, were used in sampling. EP-2 
favored growth of blue-green algae, indicating that 
widespread use of such preparations should be 
avoided. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07661 



59 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C — Effects of Pollution 



BACTERIAL DIEOFF IN PONDS, 

Texas Univ., Houston. School of Public Health. 
E. M. Davis, and E. F. Floyna. 
Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 98, No 
SA 1, p 59-69, February 1972. 2 fig, 5 tab, 14 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Algae, 'Enteric bacteria, 
♦Pathogenic bacteria, Cultures, E. coli, Bioindica- 
tors. Ponds, Anaerobic conditions. Waste water 
treatment, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Aerobic 
conditions, Bioassay, Growth rates, Mortality. 
Identifiers: Stabilization ponds, Anabaena cylin- 
drica, Anacystis nidulans, Gloeocapsa alpicola, 
Oscillatoria chalybia, Oscillatoria formosa, Phor- 
midium faveolarum, Ankistrodesmus braunii, 
Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Chlorella vulgaris, 
Scenedesmus obliquus, Alcaligenes faecalis, En- 
terobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseu- 
domonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Sal- 
monella paratyphi. Salmonella typhosa, Shigella 
paradysenteriae. Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio corn- 



Laboratory and field tests were conducted to eval- 
uate specific interactions between algae and typi- 
cal enteric and selected pathogenic bacteria in 
waste stabilization ponds. Bacterial dieoff from 
exposure to single algal species and mixed algal 
environments was evaluated. Results from studies 
of both laboratory and pilot-scale stabilization 
ponds showed that single algal species had little ef- 
fect on dieoff rates, but as the complexity of the 
algal environment increased so did the dieoff rate. 
This was true for both enteric and pathogenic bac- 
teria. Escherischia. Pseudomonas, and Serratia 
exhibited aftergrowth potential but Proteus, Al- 
caligenes, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, and 
Vibrio did not. Anaerobic pretreatment in com- 
bination with facultative and maturation ponds 
resulted in higher dieoffs of enteric bacteria when 
compared to aerobic conditions. (Mortland-Bat- 
telle) 
W72-07664 



A LIST OF NEW GENERA AND TYPE SPECIES 
OF FLAGELLATES AND ALGAE PUBLISHED 
IN 1966-1968. PART IV, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07683 



RAPID PYROLYTIC METHOD TO DETER- 
MINE TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH, 

Olin Corp., New Haven, Conn. Chemicals Group. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07690 



THERMAL TOLERANCE OF TEN SHALLOW- 
WATER OPHILROIDS IN BISCAYNE BAY, 
FLORIDA, 

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric 

Sciences, Miami, Fla. 

R. L. Singletary. 

Bulletin of Marine Science. Vol. 21, No. 4, p 938- 

943, December 1971. 1 fig, 1 tab, 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water temperature, 'Lethal limit, 
Florida, Salinity, Sample preservation, 'Thermal 
pollution. Water pollution effects, Bioassay. 
Identifiers: 'Starfish, Amphiurids. 'Brittle stars. 
Marine animals, 'Lethal temperature, 'Biscayne 
Bay, Biological samples, Amphiuridae, Am- 
phioplus abditus, Amphioplus coniortodes, 
Ophionepthys limicola, Micropholis gracillima, 
Ophiostigma isacanthum, Ophiotrichidae. 
Ophiothrix oestedii, Ophiothrix angulata, 
Ophiocomidae, Ophiopsila riisei, Ophiocoma 
echinata, Ophionereidae, Ophionereis reticulata. 

Instantaneous lethal temperatures were deter- 
mined for some brittle stars collected from 
Biscayne Bay, Florida. The specimens were held 
in running water at ambient temperature of 17-21C 
during winter and 28-30C during summer for 
periods up to two weeks. To determine upper 
lethal temperatures, they were then placed in jars 
at the holding temperature and heated in a water 



bath at the rate of 1C per 10 minutes. The jars were 
removed at selected intervals and returned to 
room temperature at the same rate. Twelve hours 
recovery was allowed at 28C before successive ex- 
periments at temperature intervals of 0.5C. A 
similar method was used to determine lower lethal 
temperatures. Upper instantaneous lethal tem- 
peratures for 10 species were found to be between 
37.5 and 40. 5C. The lower instantaneous lethal 
temperatures for the amphiurids, Amphioplus 
coniortodes, Ophionepthys limicola, and 
Micropholis gracillima were between-2C and OC. 
Critical temperatures for survival of three amphiu- 
rids were IOC and 33-35C. Within these tempera- 
tures, survival times were controlled by factors 
other than temperature. Below and above these 
temperatures, survival times decreased with in- 
creasing departure from the critical temperature. 
(Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07694 



A PROGRESS REPORT ON MERCURY, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. School of Chemical 

Sciences. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07695 



COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF DDT, 
METHYLCHLOR, AND ETHOXYCHLOR IN 
MOUSE, INSECTS, AND IN A MODEL 
ECOSYSTEM, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Entomology; and 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Zoology. 

I. P. Kapoor, R. L. Metcalf , A. S. Hirwe, P.-Y. Lu, 

and J. R. Coats. 

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol 

20, No 1, p 1-6, January/February 1971. 5 fig, 7 

tab, Href. 

Descriptors: 'Biodegradation, 'Metabolism, 
*DDT, 'Radioactivity techniques, Pesticides, 
Ecosystems, Pollution sources. Pesticide toxicity. 
Food chains, Fish, Bioassay, Algae, Snails, 
Mosquitoes, Model studies. 
Identifiers: Mice, Insects, 'Ethoxychlor. 
'Methylchlor, Metabolites, Biological magnifica- 
tion, Biological samples. Liver, Urine, Oedogoni- 
um, Physa, Culex, Eambusia, Fate of pollutants. 

Metabolic pathways for ethoxychlor and 
methylchlor in insects, mice, and in a model 
ecosystem demonstrate that these compounds are 
persistent, insect toxic, biodegradable analogs of 
DDT. The experimental procedure involved radio 
'tagging' the pesticides and following them and 
their reaction products through the metabolic 
pathways. Analysis showed that ethoxychlor is ox- 
ygen dealkylated to mono and bisphenolic 
products with dehydrochlorination being a major 
metabolic pathway. Methylchlor is oxidized to 
benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid analogs and con- 
jugates. Excretion-recovery rates indicate initial 
rapid elimination of both analogs over DDT, but 
over a longer period of time their retention super- 
cedes that of DDT. Metabolism by the mouse also 
indicates degradation to alcoholic and carboxylic 
acid components. In the model ecosystem, pesti- 
cides were found in algae, snails, mosquitoes, and 
fish. Ethoxychlor was found in fish at 1500 times 
the amount in water, methylchlor was found at 
1400 times the amount in water, and DDT was 
found concentrated at 85,000 times the amount in 
water, illustrating the biodegradative charac- 
teristics of the analogs. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07703 



INTERACTION OF SODIUM NITRATE, OX- 
YGEN AND PH ON GROWTH OF 
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, 

Rutgers - The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J. 
Coll. of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 
R. L. Buchanan, and M. Solberg. 
Journal of Food Science, Vol 37, No 1, p 81-85, 
January/February 1972. 6 fig, 27 ref. 



Descriptors: 'Hydrogen ion concentration, 'Ox- 
ygen, 'Growth rates, Pathogenic bacteria, 
Microorganisms, Inhibition, Nitrogen compounds, 
Analytical techniques, Metabolism, Disinfection, 
Nitrites, Aerobic bacteria, Environmental effects, 
Inhibitors, Cultures. 

Identifiers: 'Sodium nitrite, 'Staphylococcus au- 
reus. 

A food-poisoning strain of Staphylococcus aureus, 
ATCC 9664, was subjected to various combina- 
tions of sodium nitrite, initial pH, and partial pres- 
sure of oxygen to (1) examine the effects and in- 
teractions of these factors on growth; (2) deter- 
mine the effect of nitrite upon the adjustment and 
exponential phases of growth; and (3) examine the 
change in sodium nitrite concentration as a func- 
tion of growth. Results show that nitrite inhibition 
involves an extension of the adjustment phase, a 
decrease in growth rate and damage to or destruc- 
tion of cells. The degree of inhibition is a function 
of the nitrite concentration, initial pH and partial 
oxygen. When cultured aerobically this bacterium 
metabolizes nitrite whereas anaerobic cultures do 
not. Cultures exhibit a pH decrease during the 
growth cycle, but after the initial decrease, aerobic 
cultures display a rise to a level higher than the ini- 
tial pH while anaerobic cultures remain at the 
maximum decreased level. This suggests that meat 
curing with NaN02 and packaging in a vacuum 
may provide protection against Staphylococcus 
aureus. (Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07704 



NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF 

ARIZONA, CITROBACTER, AND 

PROVDDENCIA, 

Cornell Univ., New York. Medical Coll. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07705 



GROWTH OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ON 
SHORT-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS: NATURE OF 
THE UPTAKE SYSTEM, 

Indiana Univ., Indianapolis. Dept. of Microbiolo- 
gy- 

J. P. Salanitro, and W. S. Wegener. 
Journal of Bacteriology, Vol 108, No 2, p 893-901, 
November 1971. lOtab, 18ref. 

Descriptors: *E. Coli, 'Absorption culture, 'Or- 
ganic acids, 'Metabolism, Enteric bacteria, Bioin- 
dicators, Enzymes, Radioactivity techniques, 
Spectrometers, Incubation, Hydrogen ion concen- 
tration. Oxidation, Carbon radioisotopes, Respira- 
tion, Growth rates. 
Identifiers: 'Fatty acids, Butyrate, Valerate, Hex- 
anoate, Heptanoate, Octanoate, Nonamoate, Glu- 
cose, Acetate, Oleate, Substrate utilization, 
Propionate, Aliphatic hydrocarbons. 

Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 which grow on 
butyrate and valerate were studied with respect to 
uptake of these substrates. To utilize short-chain 
and medium-chain fatty acids, E. coli must 
synthesize the beta-oxidation enzymes constitu- 
tively. In addition, growth on the 4-carbon and 5- 
carbon acids requires a second mutation which 
permits entry of these substrates. At pH 5, both in 
the parent and mutant strains, butyrate and 
valerate penetrate as the undissociated acids but 
appear not to be activated and thus inhibit growth. 
At pH 7, the parent strain is not permeable to the 
anions, whereas the mutant concentrates these 
substrates. There appear to be two components of 
the uptake system, a nonspecific diffusion com- 
ponent and an energy-linked activating enzyme. 
Two mutant types which take up short-chain fatty 
acids are described. One synthesizes the uptake 
system constitutively and is inhibited by 4-pen- 
tenoate when cultured on acetate. In the other, the 
uptake system is inducible, and the strain is pen- 
tenoate-resistant when grown on acetate but pen- 
tenoate-sensitive when cultured on butyrate or 
valerate. (Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07706 



60 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Effects of Pollution — Group 5C 



EFFECTS OF HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AND 

TEMPERATURE ON THE UPTAKE AND 

RESPIRATION OF AMINO ACIDS BY A 

FACULTATIVELY PSYCHROPHILIC MARINE 

BACTERIUM, 

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of 

Microbiology; and Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. 

Dept. of Oceanography. 

K. L. Paul, and R. Y. Morita. 

Journal of Bacteriology, Vol 108, No 2, p 835-843, 

November 1971. 11 fig, 19ref. 

Descriptors: 'Marine bacteria, 'Hydrostatic pres- 
sure, *Amino acids, 'Absorption, 'Water tem- 
perature, Cultures, Seawater, Proteins, Enzymes, 
Radioactivity techniques, Respiration, Glycine, 
Carbon radioisotopes, Metabolism. 
Identifiers: Vibrio, Glutamic acid, Glutamate, 
Phenylalanine, Proline, Psychrophiles, 

Methionine, Agars. 

The effects of pressure and temperature on glu- 
tamic acid transport were studied using a faculta- 
tively psychrophilic marine bacterium, MP-38, a 
Vibrio species, to determine the basis for adverse 
effects of pressure on marine bacteria. The results 
indicated that hydrostatic pressure and low tem- 
perature inhibit glutamate transport more than glu- 
tamate respiration. The effects of pressure on 
transport were reduced at temperatures near the 
optimum. Similar results were obtained for 
glycine, phenylalanine, and proline. Pressure ef- 
fects on the transport systems of all four amino 
acids were reversible to some degree. Both proline 
and glutamic acid were able to protect their trans- 
port proteins against pressure damage. The data 
presented indicate that the uptake of amino acids 
by cells under pressure is inhibited, which is the 
cause of their inability to grow under pressure. 
(Mortland-Battelle) 
W72-07707 



EFFECTS OF INSECTICIDE-TREATED RICE 
PLANTS AND PADDY WATER ON VER- 
TEBRATE ANIMALS, 

Amherst Coll., Mass. 

J. H. Lilly, S. Mohiyuddin, H. P. Prabhuswamy, J. 

C. Samuel, and S. V. R. Shetty. 

Mysore J Agr Sci. 3 (4): 371-379. 1969. 

Identifiers: Animals, Bull, Carp, Cholin, Esterase, 

Fish, Insecticide, Paddy, Phorate, Plants, Rabbit, 

Rat, Rice-M, Treated, Vertebrate. 

Pairs of white rats receiving only water from 12 
different field plot treatments (an untreated con- 
trol and 1 1 insecticide treatments) all remained ap- 
parently normal and reproduced successfully. Of 
the 3 progeny of the pair watered from the plot 
receiving 4 lb of phorate 2 died young. The 3rd 
developed normally. Laboratory feeding tests with 
young male white rabbits (starting shortly after the 
last insecticide applications) showed temporarily 
reduced intake of rice forage from some of the 
treated plots and some recognizable (but not seri- 
ous) liver, kidney and spleen lesions after 46 days. 
No signs of illness or distress w ere noted. Practical 
exposure tests were made with a Jersey-Sindhi 
crossbred and a buffalo. These bulls received only 
water from phorate-treated plots from Oct. 7-Nov. 
20 and all the green rice plants they would eat from 
phorate-treated plots from Oct. 14-Nov. 20. During 
this period neither animal showed any evidence of 
illness or distress. Their blood cholinesterase 
levels were normal at the end of the experiment. 
Experiments performed on small carp confined in 
treated paddy water by portable field cages gave 
positive evidence of insecticide poisoning from 
heavy dosages of phorate. Ordinary use of granu- 
lar phorate in paddy water should present no 
hazard to common warm-blooded vertebrates, but 
it would be toxic to fish. -Copyright 1971, Biologi- 
cal Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07708 



GROWTH AND THE PRODUCTION OF EX- 
TRACELLULAR SUBSTANCES BY TWO 
STRAINS OF PHAEOCYSTIS POUGHETI, 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Mass. 
R. R. L. Guillard, and J. A. Hellebust. 



Journal of Phycology, Vol 7, No 4, p 330-338, 
December 1971 . 2 fig, 7 tab, 27 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Algae, 'Carbohydrates, 'Organics 
acids, 'Plant physiology, 'Growth rates, Plant 
morphology, Cultures, Photosynthesis, Carbon 
radioisotopes, Chromatography, Amino acids. 
Gas chromatography, Phaeophyta, Eutrophica- 
tion, Plankton, Atlantic Ocean, Sea water, Salini- 
ty, Phenols, Water temperature, Chemical analy- 
sis, Sampling, Ecology, Phytoplankton, Alcohols, 
Sieve analysis, Inhibitors, Surface waters, Bioas- 
say, Tracers. 

Identifiers: 'Excretion, Disaccharides, 

Monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides, Clones, 
Phaeocystis poucheti. Glucose, Mannose, Rham- 
nose, Acrylic acid, Sodium, Pyridine, Dextram, 
Raffinose, Sucrose, Senescent cultures, Xylose, 
Ribose, Arabinose, Galactose, Hexuronic acid, 
Vineyard Sound, Organic carbon, Acid-volatile 
compounds, Woods Hole, Haptaphyceae, Unial- 
gal cultures. Gel filtration, Axenic cultures. Au- 
toradiography, C-14, Survival. 

The growth and release of extracellular substances 
by cold-water strains of Phaeocystis, isolated from 
the winter surface waters at Woods Hole, were 
compared with a warm-water strain from the tropi- 
cal Atlantic near the coast of Surinam. The cold- 
water strains were cultured at 4-8C under about 4.5 
klux of light for 14 hours/day, and the tropical 
clone, at about 25 degrees C in 14-hr. light - 10-hr. 
dark cycle under 3-4.5 klux of light. Northern 
strains survived only up to 14C, while the tropical 
strain survived only as low as I7C. Colony shapes 
of the northern and tropical clones differed 
somewhat, but the motile and nonmotile single 
cells of both strains seemed identical in the light 
microscope. By current taxonomic criteria both 
strains belong to the species P. poucheti (Hariot) 
Lagerheim. When growing in the form of colonies, 
both strains excreted 16-64 percent of their 
photoassimilated carbon into the medium, mainly 
as carbohydrates of varying molecular weights. 
However, cultures predominantly in the form of 
single cells released only about 3 percent of their 
photoassimilated carbon. The qualitative composi- 
tion of the carbohydrates released is similar for the 
2 strains, consisting of some 8 sugars or sugar 
derivatives with glucose, mannose, and rhamnose 
as the dominant components. The production of 
acrylic acid was confirmed. It has been estimated 
that as much as 7 micrograms/liter of acrylic acid, 
and at least 0.3 mg/liter of polysaccharides can be 
liberated in a Phaeocystis bloom. (Snyder-Battelle) 
W72-07710 



LINEAR GROWTH OF A TORULOPSIS SP. ON 
N-ALKANES, 

Edinburgh Univ. (Scotland). School of Agricul- 
ture. 

A. G. McLee, and S. L. Davies. 
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol 18, No 3, p 
315-319, March 1972. 12 fig, 2 tab, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Growth rates, 'Yeasts, Organic 
compounds, Cultures. 

Identifiers: *n-alkanes, Pristane, Torulopsis, Slide 
cultures. Linear growth. Hydrocarbons, Agars. 

A thin layer of agar medium, containing a suspen- 
sion of a liquid fraction of n-alkane droplets, was 
solidified on microscope slides and innoculated 
with an aqueous suspension of the yeast Torulop- 
sis sp. Hydrocarbon availability was measured as 
the ratio of total surface area per unit volume of 
hydrocarbons. Observations over a period of 169 
hours showed that growth occurred only where 
cells were in direct contact with a hydrocarbon 
droplet. In a second experiment, four growth 
flasks were set up in which volumes of usable n-al- 
kanes were varied by diluting with the biologically 
inert hydrocarbon pristane while the surface areas 
remained the same. Flask A contained 83 percent 
n-alkane, 17 percent pristane; flask B contained 17 
percent n-alkanes, 83 percent pristane; flask C 
contained 100 percent n-alkanes; and flask D acted 
as a control. Samples were withdrawn daily for 4 
days and growth rates measured. During the first 2 



days, growth rates of A, B and C were similar. 
After 2 days only A and C continued to grow at the 
same rate. Decrease in B was attributed to 
diminished concentration of usable hydrocarbons. 
The linearity of A and C was attributed to a finite 
surface area of the available hydrocarbons. It is 
concluded that growth was totally dependent upon 
physical contact with the hydrocarbon and was 
limited by the degree of substrate emulsification. 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07712 



A METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF EN- 
RICHMENT AND PURE CULTURES OF THER- 
MOPHILIC METHANE-FORMING BACTERIA 
FERMENTING ETHANOL AND METHANOL, 

Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Institut Biok- 

himii. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07713 



ORGANIC MATERIAL ANALYZER MONI- 
TORS SHORELINE SEWAGE DISPOSAL, 

Chemurgic Council, New York. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07715 



A KINETIC MODEL FOR MICROBIAL 
GROWTH ON SOLID HYDROCARBONS, 

Regional Research Lab., Jorhat (India). 

M. Chakravarty, P. M. Amin, H. D. Singh, J. N. 

Baruah, and M. S. Iyengar. 

Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol 14, p 61- 

73, 1972. 5 fig, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, 'Microorgan- 
isms, Model studies, 'Kinetics, Pseudomonas, 
Soil bacteria. Solubility, Nutrition, Cultures, 
Growth rates. Bacteria, Pathogenic bacteria. 
Identifiers: 'Hydrocarbons, 'Solid hydrocarbons, 
Eicosane, Enrichment substrates. Enrichment cul- 
tures, SW-6, Hydrocarbons, Culture media, 
Media, Substrates, Paraffin, Paraffin wax. 
Naphthaline. 

A kinetic model for describing microbial growth 
on solid hydrocarbons is based on the following 
assumptions: (A) that the cells utilize only the 
soluble hydrocarbons for growth, (B) that a 
metabolite is produced to help solubilize the solid 
substrate, (C) that the concentration of metabolite 
and other products in the aqueous phase is directly 
proportional to the number of cells, and (D) that 
substrate solubility behaves exponentially with 
respect to metabolite concentration. Experimen- 
tally, a soil bacterial culture SW-6 (Pseudomonas) 
isolated by eicosane enrichment techniques was 
grown in a pH of 6.8-7.0 in an airlift fermenter and 
in shake flasks at 35C. After 24 hr the cells were 
harvested by centrif ugation at 4000 rpm for 1 5 min 
and washed successively with water, acetone, and 
boiling petroleum ether and dried at 60C for 24 hr. 
Results show that with as little as 0.2 percent sub- 
strate concentration the percentage of conversion 
of hydrocarbons to cells was as high as 118 per- 
cent. The linearity of the growth curves predicted 
by the model were experimentally verified. (Little- 
Battelle) 
W72-07719 



AN IN SITU METHOD FOR THE MEASURE- 
MENT OF ZOOPLANKTON GRAZING RATES, 

Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Zoology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07720 



BACTERIOPHAGE AND THE TOXIGENICITY 
OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE D, 

National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Wash. 
Pacific Fishery Products Technology Center. 
M. W. Eklund. F. T. Poysky, and S. M. Reed. 
Nature New Biology, Vol. 235, No. 53, p 16-17, 
January 5, 1972. 1 fig, 2 tab, 9 ref. 



i 



61 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5C — Effects of Pollution 



Descriptors: 'Bacteriophage, Microorganisms, 
'Pathenogenic bacteria, "Clostridium, Biocontrol, 
Pollutant identification, 'Toxicity, Cultures, 
Analytical techniques. 

Identifiers: 'Clostridium botulinum, Toxigenic 
bacteria, Bacteriophage Beta, Acridine orange, 
Media, Agars, Phages. 

Nontoxigenic cultures of Clostridium botulinum 
type D (South African strain) can be isolated from 
their toxigenic parent by culturing in a medium of 
trypticase, yeast extract, glucose (TYG) broth (pH 
7.4) containing 15 micrograms of Acridine Orange 
(AO) per milliliter and incubated at 37 C for 18 hr. 
The 'cured' AO cultures were tested for tox- 
igenicity by the mouse assay and for sensitivity to 
the parent strain bacteriophage DEBeta by the 
agar-layer procedure. The base agar used was 
trypticase, peptone, yeast extract, TPGY agar and 
the overlay was TPGY soft agar (0.7 percent agar) 
containing 2.5 percent sodium chloride and 0.5 per- 
cent lactalpate. Sodium ion appears essential for 
plaque formation. 'Cured' cultures subcultured 12 
times in modified Segner's fortified egg meat 
medium (MSFEM) over a 3 month period proved 
to remain nontoxigenic. Two procedures were 
used to test the relationship of bacteriophage 
DEBeta to toxigenicity of the nontoxigenic AO 
cultures. (1) Dilutions of DEBetaphages were 
plated with nontoxigenic AO cultures using the 
agar-overlay technique and resulting plaques 
transferred to TYG broth and incubated. (2) The 
DEBetaphage was added to actively growing AO 
cultures at a multiplicity of infections, and after 
varying time periods samples were streaked onto 
TYG blood, egg yolk agar plates and isolated colo- 
nies transferred to TYG Broth. All resulting AO 
nontoxigenic cultures again produced D-toxin and 
produced the DEBetaphage. A toxigenic relation- 
ship was concluded from the bacteriophage 
DEBeta to the Clostridium botulinum strain. 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07726 



TOXIC EFFECT OF SOME METAL ORGANIC 
COMPOUNDS ON HYDROBIONTS. II. EFFECT 
OF ALKYL (ARYL) LEAD-ORGANIC COM- 
POUNDS, (IN RUSSIAN), 
Moscow State Univ. (USSR). 
N. S. Stroganov, V. G. Khobot'ev, L. V. 
Kolosova, D. S. Kochkin, and G. E. El'Khanov. 
Biol Nauk. 14 (3): 21-24. lllus. 1971. 
Identifiers: Alkyl, Aryl, Chlorella, Compounds, 
Daphnia, Hydrobionts, Lead, Metal, 

Scenedesmus, Toxic, Algae. 

Data on the high sensitivity of algae (Scenedesmus 
and Chlorella) and low sensitivity of crustaceans 
(Daphnia) to the effect of tetraphenyl plumbate 
are presented. -Copyright 1971, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W72-07762 



POSITIVE POLLUTION, 

Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. 
I. S. Blumenthal. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-732 698, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Paper, OCEAN 71, Marine 
Recreation and Conservation, a National Con- 
ference of the American Society for Oceanog- 
raphy, Long Beach, Cal., March 1971. 31 p, 4 fig. 

Descriptors: Water pollution effects, 'Recreation, 
'Thermal pollution, Chemical wastes. Solid 
wastes. Organic wastes, Oil wastes, California, 
Costs, 'Benefits, 'Reasonable use, 'Beneficial 
use. 

Speculations and assertions about some observed 
positive effects of pollution on marine recreation 
are presented. These ideas are not the result of an 
analysis and are meant only to provoke. The cases 
cited are primarily on the California coast but the 
scope of observations is world-wide. The by- 
products of thermal pollution from atomic power 
plants appear to benefit mariculture. winter-time 



swimming, boat marina circulation and sportfish- 
ing through increased fish populations. Chemical 
pollution (quicklime) results in the beneficial 
killing of sea urchins. A conversion process ap- 
plied to oil can increase soil productivity and 
benefit fishing, while organic wastes can be con- 
verted into fertilizer. These wastes also nourish 
sea urchins and thus benefit boaters by keeping 
areas clear of kelp. Algae grown on such wastes 
provides high proteinand mineral feed for 
livestock. Solid wastes, like artificial reefs, harbor 
fish residents and provide holdfasts for kelp. The 
benefits of pollution or the conversion of wastes 
improves upon the costs of conservation, thus of- 
fering an avenue of pollution acceptance to every- 
one. (Haugh- Wisconsin) 
W72-07776 



MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF NONIONIC 
SURFACTANTS IN RELATION TO LABORA- 
TORY INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY, 

California State Coll., Long Beach. Dept. of Biolo- 
gy- 

K. E. Maxwell, and W. D. Piper. 
Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 61 , No. 6, 
p 1633-1636, December, 1968. 2 tab, 14 ref. NIH 
ES-00073 (USPHS). 

Descriptors: 'Surfactants, 'Mosquitoes, 'Lethal 
limit. Detergents, Surface tension, Diptera, In- 
sects, Larvae, Bioassay, Mortality, Toxicity, 'In- 
secticides, Water pollution effects. Insect control. 
Identifiers: Culex spp.. Pupae. 

Nonionic surface active agents derived from the 
condensation of ethyleneoxide with alkylphenols, 
fatty alcohols, and fatty acids were evaluated for 
their activity against pupae of the southern house 
mosquito, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. Some 
of the surfactants were more effective than 
reference insecticides. The most active com- 
pounds were members of the alkylphenol-EO 
(ethyleneoxide) ethers in the following order of 
decreasing effectiveness: dinonylphenol-EO, 
tridecylphenol-EO, monononylphenol-EO, and 
octylphenol-EO. The following were less effec- 
tive: tridecyl alcohol-EO ethers, fatty acid-EO 
esters, and several reference anionic surfactants. 
Activity was greatly dependent on length of the 
ethyleneoxide chain. In some of the homologous 
groups, i.e. octylphenol-EO and one series of no- 
nylphenol-EO compounds, activity over a wide 
range of chain length is attributed to the ethoxyla- 
tion procedure used for these samples, resulting in 
a mixture of compounds representing a broad 
spectrum of chain length. However, the highly ac- 
tive dinonylphenol-EO and tridecylphenol-EO 
compounds were similarly effective over a wide 
range of EO chain lengths between 4 and 19.5 
moles. (See also W72-07790) (LeGore- Washing- 
ton) 
W72-07789 



MODE OF ACTION OF SURFACTANTS ON 
MOSQUITO PUPAE, 

California State Coll., Long Beach. Dept. of Biolo- 
gy- 

W. D. Piper, and K. E. Maxwell. 
Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 64, No. 3, 
p 601-606, June, 1971. 5 tab, 24 ref. NIH ES-00073 
(USPHS). 

Descriptors: 'Surfactants, 'Detergents, 'Surface 
tension, 'Mosquitoes, 'Lethal limit, Diptera, In- 
sects, Larvae, Bioassay, Mortality, Toxicity, 'In- 
secticides, Water pollution effects. Insect control. 
Identifiers: 'Toxic mechanisms. Pupae, Culex 
spp. 

The surface tension reducing properties of 50 
nonionic surface active agents were correlated 
with the activity of the compounds against pupae 
of the southern house mosquito, Culex pipiens 
quinquefasciatus. A reduction in surface tension 
to 41 dynes/cm or less (water = 72 dynes/cm) was 
required to produce mortality at the LC-50 level. A 
further reduction in surface tension of only 2-4 



dynes/cm produced mortality at the LC-90 level. 
Exceptions were the dinonylphenol-EO ethers, 
which did not affect surface tension appreciably at 
concentrations required to give 50% and 90% mor- 
tality. Suffocation tests, to determine the degree to 
which the pupae could withstand submergence in 
distilled water, resulted in 50% mortality after 80- 
110 min and 100% mortality in 3.8 hr of submer- 
gence. Larvae, conversely, were able to survive 
long submergence periods by reason of cuticular 
respiration. Higher concentrations of the surfac- 
tants were required to kill 4th stage larvae than pu- 
pae. The greater susceptibility of the pupae is at- 
tributed to their dependence on remaining at the 
surface for respiration. The capability for this is 
impaired by a reduction in surface tension. (See 
also W72-07789) (LeGore- Washington) 
W72-07790 



CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF FISH IN A PORTION 
OF THE UPPER POTOMAC RIVER, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 

Blacksburg. Dept. of Biology. 

J. Cairns, Jr., and R. L. Kaesler. 

Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 

Vol. 100, No. 4, p 750-756, October 1971. 2 fig, 3 

tab, 10 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Surveys, 'Statistical methods, 
'Potomac River, Data collections, Evaluation, 
On-site data collections, Rivers, 'Electric power- 
plants, Water pollution effects, Water pollution 
sources, 'Fish, Diatoms, Protozoa, Aquatic in- 
sects, Aquatic animals, Aquatic algae. 
Identifiers: 'Cluster analysis (Fish), 'Dickerson 
plant. 

A series of surveys were carried out from 1956 
until 1965 in the vicinity of the Dickerson Plant of 
the Potomac Electric Power Co, located below the 
confluence of the Potomac and Monocacy Rivers. 
These surveys were made at various stages of 
growth of the power station and at both high and 
low water levels of the river. Cluster analyses 
were made of the fish data in order to provide a 
rapid and explicit means of analyzing the data. A 
secondary purpose was to measure the redundan- 
cy of information obtained by analysis of other 
groups, namely algae, protozoans, aquatic insects, 
and other invertebrates. On the basis of the cluster 
analysis of data on occurrence and distribution of 
fish, no changes in the environment of the Upper 
Potomac River can be ascribed to the operation of 
the Dickerson Plant. This conclusion agrees with 
other results obtained by analysis of protozoans, 
algae, and insects. Jaccard coefficients among ag- 
gregates of species of fish are appreciably higher 
than for other groups of organisms, indicating the 
relative mobility of fish. There is much informa- 
tion redundancy when all groups of organisms are 
studied simultaneously. This redundancy is con- 
sidered desirable for confirmation of results. 
(LeGore-Washington) 
W72-07791 



A CONFIRMATION OF MOUNT'S AUTOPSY 
TECHNIQUE FOR ZINC-CAUSED FISH MOR- 
TALITY, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 

Blacksburg. Dept. of Biology. 

J. Cairns, Jr., N. H. Cromer, T. K. Bahns, and W. 

T. Waller. 

Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 5, p 956- 

968, October, 1971. 3 tab, 6 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Bioassay, 'Zinc, 'Sunfishes, 
Metals, 'Toxicity, Water pollution effects, Mor- 
tality, 'Lethal limit, Pathology, Pollutants, 
Analytical techniques, Water pollution sources, 
Mortality. 

Identifiers: 'Autopsy, Lepomis macrochirus, 
Acute toxicity, 'Fish toxicity. 

A total of 203 bluegill sunfish (Lepomis 
macrochirus) which had been used in several acute 
zinc experiments carried out under varied environ- 
mental conditions were autopsied according to 



62 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Waste Treatment Processes — Group 5D 



Mount's procedure for determining fish mortality 
due to zinc poisoning. Three classes of fish were 
used: those exposed to but not killed by zinc; 
those killed by zinc; and those not exposed to zinc. 
Two statistical tests were used to analyze these 
data and both tests gave results indicating signifi- 
cant differences (a = .05) between all three classes 
of fish. This indicates that the Mount autopsy 
technique is probably a valid generalization. The 
possibilities of using Mount's technique as a pre- 
dictive tool are discussed. (LeGore-Washington) 
W72-07792 



THE OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF 
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE EN- 
VIRONMENT, 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Laurel, 

Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. 

E. H. Dustman, L. F. Stickel, L. J. Blus, W. L. 

Reichel, and S. N. Wiemeyer. 

Transactions of the 36th North American Wildlife 

and Natural Resources Conference, March 7-10, 

1971, p 118-133. 1 fig, 38ref. 

Descriptors: 'Polychlorinated biphenyls, 

•Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, 'Toxicity, 
Water pollution effects, 'Pollutant identification, 
•Reviews, Aroclors, DDT, DDD, DDE, Industrial 
wastes. Water pollution sources. Lethal limit, 
Pesticide residues, •Path of pollutants. 

A review of the ecological significance of 
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) is presented. 
The chemistry, uses, sources, occurrence, toxici- 
ty, and biological transmittance of PCB's are 
discussed. Recent relevant literature is surveyed 
and concisely summarized. It is noted that studies 
of the effects of PCB's are as yet insufficient for 
well founded conclusions, but that until more 
complete data can be assembled, PCB's must be 
considered potentially harmful. A short discussion 
is transcribed after the paper propei. (LeGore- 
Washington) 
W72-07794 



WEST VALLEY REPROCESSING PLANT. EN- 
VIRONMENTAL REPORT. PLUTONIUM FUEL 
PLANT. 

Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Rockville, Md 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W72-07819 



EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF 

SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI IN BRACKISH 
WATERS, 

Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07821 



CONCENTRATIONS OF PU, CO AND AG 
RADIONUCLIDES IN SELECTED PACIFIC 
SEAWEEDS, 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, 
Calif. 

K. M. Wong, V. F. Hodge, and T. R. Folsom. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as CONF 710817-1 $3.00 in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. (1971) 1 lp. 

Descriptors: "Radioactivity effects, 'Monitoring, 

•Marine algae, Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, 'Cobalt 

radioisotopes. Nuclear wastes, Path of pollutants, 

Estuarine environment. Radioactivity techniques, 

Absorption. 

Identifiers: 'Plutonium, 'Silver radioisotopes. 

Red algae near a nuclear plant showed evidence of 
enhanced Co-58, Co-60, and Ag-110 (Typical 
radioactivities were 2200, 180, and 260 dpm/kg wet 
sample, respectively.), but no enhancement of Pu- 
239. All species of seaweed were contaminated 
with Pu-239 from (world-wide) fallout, but further 
work is needed to show the correlation between 
the amount in the sea water and that in the 
seaweed. (Bupp-ORNL) 
W72-07826 



A SIMULTANEOUS STUDY ON THE 
TRANSFER OF RADIOIODINE FROM 
PASTURE TO MILK AND FROM A SINGLE 
ORAL INTAKE TO MILK, 

Research Inst, of National Defence, Stockholm 

(Sweden). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07827 



GEOHYDROLOGY OF TATUM SALT DOME 
AREA, LAMAR AND MARION COUNTIES, 
MISS., VELA UNDJORM PROGRAM: PROJECT 
DRIBBLE, 

Geological Survey, Denver, Colo. 
R. E. Taylor. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as VUF-1023, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Final Report, August 1971. 63 
P- 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear explosions, 'Nuclear en- 
gineering, 'Underground, 'Geohydrology, 
'Aquifers, 'Groundwater, Hydrologic aspects, 
Hydrology, Water levels, Water wells, Stratig- 
raphy, Saline deposits, Sedimentary rocks, Water 
quality, Mississippi. 

Identifiers: Salt domes, Detonation effects, 
'Tatum salt domes (Miss). 

Geohydrology in the Tatum salt dome area of 
Lamar and Marion Counties, Mississippi, has been 
studied since 1961 in support of the U.S. Atomic 
Energy Commission's safety program for the two 
nuclear tests, the Salmon and Sterling Events. The 
data relating to the pretest and post test hydrologic 
conditions at the Tatum salt dome area for each 
test, and the geologic setting as it relates to the 
hydrologic investigations are summarized. The ef- 
fects of the nuclear detonations on water wells and 
water levels in the vicinity in respect to water-well 
damage resulting from the nuclear tests in the salt 
stock are described. (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07828 



RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN UTAH SUB- 
SEQUENT TO THE BANEBERRY EVENT, 

Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. 
R. C. Pendleton, J. S. Koranda, and W. W. 
Wagner. 

Available from NTIS as UCRL-73089, $3.00 in 
paper copy, $0.95 in microfiche. Paper for publica- 
tion in the proceedings of the Third National Sym- 
posium on Radioecology, Radionuclides in 
Ecosystems, Oak Ridge, Tenn,. May 10-12, 1971. 
CONF. 710501-44. September 8, 1971 . 47 p. 

Descriptors: 'Iodine radioisotopes, 'Environ- 
ment, 'Environmental effects, 'Plants, 'Popula- 
tion, 'Precipitation (Atmospheric), Public health. 
Water pollution, Water pollution sources, Ac- 
cidents, Hazards, Path of pollutants, Food chains, 
Milk, 'Utah. 

Identifiers: Hazard analysis, Concentration, 
Deposition, Child's thyroid. 

Iodine radionuclides constituted the major hazard 
from accidental venting of the Baneberry weapons 
test. Environmental sampling produced data to 
estimate the dose to a child's thyroid (about 0.012 
rem). If the accident had taken place in the 
summer when dairy animals were eating fresh 
forage, the dose through the cow-milk pathway to 
a 0-2 year old child would have been 1.3 rem for 
dry deposition, and about 100 rem for rainout 
deposition. (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07845 

5D. Waste Treatment Processes 



WATER POLLUTION CONTROL IN CATTLE 
FEEDLOTS, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 

Okla. 

J. L. Witherow, and M. R. Scalf. 

Mimeo, September 1970, 2 fig. EPA Program 

13040—09/70. 



Descriptors: 'Farm wastes, 'Water pollution 
sources, Cattle, Surface runoff, Waste disposal, 
Waste water disposal, Waste water treatment, 
Feed lots, Livestock, Confinement pens, Manage- 
ment. 

The nature and cause of water pollution from cat- 
tle feedlots is briefly described. Current waste 
management alternatives are dependent upon the 
rational for land disposal. Two major research pro- 
jects are described on irrigation with rainfall ru- 
noff from the feedpen and on rates of manure 
disposal on crop lands. Unconventional waste 
management alternatives involve production 
process change, reuse of waste through pyrolysis, 
or refeeding and redesign of the production facili- 
ties. (EPA abstract) 
W72-07322 



ANIMAL FEEDLOT WASTE PROGRAM 
RESEARCH NEEDS, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 

Okla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 

W72-07324 



MEATPACKING WASTE MANAGEMENT 
RESEARCH PROGRAM, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 
Okla. 

J. L. Witherow. 

The National Provisioner, Vol. 164, No. 12, p 12- 
18, March 20, 197!, 9 fig, 1 tab, 10 ref. EPA Pro- 
gram 12060FGF-02/71. 

Descriptors: 'Industrial wastes, 'Waste water 

treatment. Canneries, By products, Waste water 

disposal, Research and development, Projects, 

Contracts. 

Identifiers: 'Meatpacking wastes, Packinghouse. 

Meatpacking waste management research is car- 
ried out by the Robert S. Kerr Water Research 
Center through inhouse, grant and contract pro- 
jects. The objective of this research is to develop 
and demonstrate technology to achieve the 
required degree of pollution control by least or 
reasonable cost methods for the meat industry. 
The meat industry is the number one potential pol- 
luter among the food and kindred industry in terms 
of pounds of BOD. The priority of research needs 
are: collection and recovery of by-products, reuse, 
treatment and disposal. The number of on going 
projects in each of these catagories is presented. 
The inhouse research projects are to meet the spe- 
cial need of the many small plants they are 
directed to develop simplified wastewater treat- 
ment systems and by-product recovery of paunch 
and blood. For each grant research project, the 
detail objectives, date awarded, amount of award, 
location of facilities, and schematic diagram of the 
system is given. The status and completion date 
are described. The means for industry participa- 
tion in the grant and contract programs are 
described. In addition to the legal constraints on 
the grant program, information and suggestion to 
simplify application for a grant are given. (EPA ab- 
stract) 
W72-07325 



ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE 
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES, 

Iowa State Water Resources Research Inst., 

Ames. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W72-07362 



SPRINKLER APPLICATION OF ANAEROBI- 
CALLY TREATED SWINE WASTES AS 
LIMITED BY NITROGEN CONCENTRATION, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Agricultural En- 
gineering. 
J. K. Koeliker. 

Ph.D. Thesis, 1972. 203 p, 1 1 fig, 66 tab, 60 ref, 16 
append. OWRR A-021-IA (6). 



63 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5D — Waste Treatment Processes 



Descriptors: *Anaerobic conditions, Irrigation, 
♦Chemical oxygen demand, Denitrification, 
*Nitrogen, Application rates, Phosphorus, 
Lagoons, *Farm wastes, 'Wastewater treatment, 
♦Water reuse, 'Sprinkler irrigation, Soils, Hogs, 
Wastewater disposal, Sands, Clays. 
Identifiers: *Swine wastes. 

The effectiveness of soil as a final treatment and 
disposal system for anaerobically treated swine 
wastes was examined. Anaerobic lagoon effluent 
was applied to grass covered and tile drained field 
by sprinkler irrigation during the May-October 
season. Over a 3-year period, average concentra- 
tions in the tile drainage were 5-21 percent of the 
COD, 20-40 percent of the nitrogen and 1-10 per- 
cent of the phosphorus applied in the anaerobic 
lagoon effluent. In 4-ft. laboratory soil columns 
with soils ranging in texture from sand to silty clay 
loam, less than 10 percent, on a mass basis, of the 
nitrogen added in anaerobic lagoon effluent was 
lost; unless the soil became so waterlogged that at 
some time during a 45-wk. period it would no 
longer infiltrate the 2 inches/wk. applied. Addition 
of 20 tons/acre of oats straw as an energy source 
to the top six inches of half the columns did not 
improve nitrogen losses. All textures of soils 
removed more than 95 and 99.8 percent of the 
COD and phosphorus, respectively, from the per- 
colate. Soil has a great potential to remove ox- 
ygen-demanding material (COD) and phosphorus 
from anaerobic lagoon effluent; however, its ef- 
fectiveness as a final treatment system is limited 
by an inability to successfully remove nitrogen. 
Therefore, anaerobic lagoon effluent should be 
considered as a very dilute solution of liquid 
nitrogen and its application to soil restricted to 
rates that are consistent with the nitrogen require- 
ments of crops grown on the disposal area. 
(Powell-Iowa State) 
W72-07364 



CLARIFICATION OF AND PHOSPHATE 
REMOVAL FROM SEWAGE, 

Dow Chemical Co., Midland, Mich. (Assignee). 
Ronald F. Wukasch. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,506,570, 2 p, 2 fig, 7 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 873, No. 2, p 559, April 14, 1970. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Phosphates, Waste treat- 
ment. Water pollution, Sewage treatment, Mu- 
nicipal wastes. Industrial wastes, Separation 
techniques. Chemical wastes, 'Nutrient removal, 
'Pollution abatement, Flocculation, 'Wastewater 
treatment. 

Phosphate content is reduced by incorporating 
about 10 to 30 parts per million by weight of 
trivalent aluminum ion into the waste. This is fol- 
lowed by the application of an acrylamide-acrylic 
copolymer under flocculating conditions. Mixing 
requires at least 3 minutes. After settling the solids 
separate. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07372 



UNUSUAL SEWER SYSTEM ELEMENTS AT 
CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA, 

Hazen and Sawyer, New York. 

C. Richard Walter. 

J Water Pollut Contr Fed. 43 (9): 1921- 1928. 1971. 

Illus. Map. 

Descriptors: South Carolina. 

Identifiers: Charleston, Elements, Sewer, System. 

Charleston Harbor is a natural seaport. The Char- 
leston peninsula is underlain with soft ground 
(marl). Because of the geologic factors, risk of 
damage to historical buildings and the destruction 
of normal city functions, deep tunnels were used 
for transportation of wastewater to a treatment 
plant on a small island in the Ashley River. The 
tunnels were 80 to 100 ft (24 to 30 m) below the 
surface. In most cases, the drop pipes would be 
located in a tunnel construction, and access shaft 
tunneling was accomplished using a rotating 



boom-mounted excavating head on a tractor. Steel 
ribs with wood lagging and blocking were installed 
to control spalling. A pumping station on the island 
is 135 ft (91 m) deep with pumps around the wet 
well. Access to the pump room is by elevator. The 
outfall is to the Ashley River. The pipe is a steel 
cylinder prestressed concrete pipe supported by 
piles. The piles were driven into a trench to an em- 
bedment of 15 ft (4.6 m).--Copyright 1972, Biologi- 
cal Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07465 



REMOVAL OF TRACE AMOUNTS OF DIEL- 
DRIN FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING 
ELECTROCHEMICALLY TREATED CARBON, 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst, and State Univ., 
Blacksburg. Dept. of Chemical Engineering. 
S. Azar. 

M.S. Thesis, December 1971. 81 p, 20 fig, 15 tab, 
39 ref. OWRR A-032-VA (2). 

Descriptors: 'Dieldrin, 'Pesticides, 'Adsorption, 
'Waste water treatment, 'Carbon, 'Aqueous solu- 
tions, Electrochemistry, 'Activated carbon, Dif- 
fusivity, Porosity. 

Identifiers: 'Electrochemically treated carbon, 
Desorption, 'Diffusivity constants. 

Whether the actual adsorptive capacity of carbons 
is increased by electrochemical activation was in- 
vestigated. Graphitar type carbon, grades 25 and 
39, were used. A purification unit was designed to 
measure the adsorptive capacity of carbon with 
respect to time. Equilibrium experiments were 
conducted to determine the equilibrium relations 
between the aqueous Dieldrin solution and car- 
bons. The purification cell was designed in such a 
way that when loaded with carbons, it has two 
blocks of carbon with a 0.035 inch spacing 
between them, through which the aqueous Diel- 
drin solution flows. Fresh carbons were subjected 
to the adsorption experiments for 20 days; then a 
7-day desorption experiment was conducted to 
desorb the Dieldrin from carbons by means of 
fresh distilled water. The carbons were then elec- 
trochemically activated and subjected to adsorp- 
tion and desorption experiments once more. The 
results from these purification unit experiments 
gave modest increases in the adsorptive capacities 
of carbons. In the equilibrium experiments the car- 
bon samples were suspended into aqueous Diel- 
drin solutions in beakers by nickel-chrome wires. 
The results of these experiments gave the 
equilibrium relations between aqueous Dieldrin 
solutions and several carbon surfaces. These rela- 
tions were approximated by straight lines over the 
range of concentration of interest. Fick's second 
law was applied to the adsorption problem. This 
analytical solution and the results from equilibri- 
um experiments were combined to obtain the dif- 
fusivity constants for carbons. It was observed 
that the diffusivity constants calculated increased 
both with activation and porosity. 
W72-07528 



TASTE AND ODOUR IN WATER SUPPLIES IN 
GREAT BRITAIN: A SURVEY OF THE 
PRESENT POSITION AND PROBLEMS FOR 
THE FUTURE, 

Bristol Waterworks (England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07536 



A GLANCE OVER POLYELECTROLYTES, 

Engineering Coll., Karad (India). 
S. P. Ganu. 

J Shivaji Univ. 2/3 (3/4/5/6): 105-109. 1969/70. Il- 
lus. 

Identifiers: Electrolytes, Electrophoresis, Treat- 
ment, Waste. 

The synthetic or natural polyelectrolytes are being 
increasingly used for various water and waste- 
water treatment processes. The effective applica- 
tion of such polyelectrolytes can be made if the 
theory of their action is properly known. The 



evaluation of zeta potential and determination of 
mobility of colloidal particles by microelec- 
trophoresis have achieved an importance in recent 
years. The history and recent developments in the 
use of polyelectrolytes in different countries are 
analyzed. -Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, 
Inc. 
W72-07551 



THE INFLUENCES OF WATER POLLUTION 
ON UTILITY OF WATER BY INDUSTRY, 

Nalco Chemical Co., Chicago, 111. Pollution Con- 
trol Dept. 
F. N. Kemmer. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 62, No. 1 1 , p 708-710, 1 tab, 2 fig, 10 ref, 
November 1970. 

Descriptors: 'Water pollution, 'Industrial water, 
'Sewage effluents, Water pollution control, Test- 
ing, Water reuse, Costs, 'Water utilization, Il- 
linois, On-site investigations, Treatment facilities. 
Identifiers: *Des Plaines River. 

Sewage plant effluent can be a valuable source of 
industrial water, but its degree of response to con- 
ventional chemical treatments must be carefully 
investigated for each situation. Three kinds of 
water reuse systems are discussed: (1) a plant 
which recycles water within its own confines by a 
cascade system, (2) a plant down river which col- 
lects discharges from other plants and from the 
City, and (3) a plant which directly uses municipal 
sewage plant. The effluent usually contains con- 
taminants which are effective inhibitors of CaC03 
precipitation at ambient temperature. This inhibi- 
tory effect is destroyed at temperatures exceeding 
160 deg F, which suggests that the inhibitors may 
be proteinaceous. They may be coagulated and 
removed from the system at higher temperatures. 
These inhibitors are sufficiently powerful to exert 
a significant effect, even at substantial dilutions of 
sewage plant effluent with fresh water. Studies 
conducted on the Des Plaines River, below Joliet, 
Illinois, illustrate the importance of on-site testing. 
Using such bench study data, it is possible to as- 
sign realistic figures to the capital and operating 
costs expected for treatment of the contaminated 
river water for process, cooling, and boiler feed 
uses. The cost of these on-site studies is many 
times repaid over the life of the plant operation. It 
is a great risk to rely simply on an analysis of a raw 
water source to predict the utility of the source to 
industry, if it is established that the source is con- 
taminated with sewage, although the sewage might 
be adequately treated by today's standards. 
(Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07619 



UTILITY RATES FOR WASTEWATER OPERA- 
TIONS, 

Dallas Water Utilities Dept., Tex. 
H. J. Graeser. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 63, No. 2, p 82-84, February 1971, 2 
photo. 

Descriptors: 'Waste water disposal, 'Water 
supply, 'Utilities, Rates, 'Financing, Costs, 
'Waste water treatment, Sewerage. 
Identifiers: 'Wastewater utility, Tax base, Flat 
rate, Balance of costs. 

A self-supporting wastwater utility is defined. 
Most cities are not operating their wastewater 
facilities as a utility. The concept of the sewerage 
system as a utility does not represent a universal 
approach. Combined water and sewage systems 
have been met by hysteria on the part of the en- 
vironmentalists. As a result, enthusiastic response 
to the idea is not present. The wastewater ut llity is 
becoming an increasing burden and liability to the 
water utility, by reason of public image and finan- 
cial demands. Combined water and sewer charges 
are discussed. Only three elements offer an equita- 
ble approach for wastewater utility rates: (1) the 
tax base, (2) flat rate, and (3) balance of costs. 
(Strachan-Chicago) 



64 



"••■ »WC«98SSe& 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Waste Treatment Processes — Group 5D 



W72-07622 



JOINT DISCUSSION - RECLAMATION AND IN- 
DUSTRIAL REUSE OF AMARILLO'S WASTE- 
WATER, 

Amarillo Water Reclamation and Sewage Treat- 
ment Plant, Tex. 
C. H. Scherer. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 63, No. 3, p 159-162, March 1971. 3 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Reclamation, 'Industrial water, 
•Water reuse, Waste water treatment, Conserva- 
tion, Reclaimed water, Water supply, Costs, Stan- 
dards, Effluents, Texas. 
Identifiers: * Amarillo (Tex). 

The operation of the wastewater facility in Amaril- 
lo, Texas is described. The reclaimed water con- 
tract with industry contains the following basic 
provisions between the parties involved: (1) The 
City of Amarillo would construct a new sewage 
treatment plant consisting of primary treatment, 
secondary activated sludge treatment, and a facili- 
ty for three days storage of treated sewage ef- 
fluent, incorporating a reclaimed water pumping 
station, transmission line from the sewage plant to 
the industrial plants, and other units as may be 
necessary to provide suitable industrial water. (2) 
The industrial customers would provide such addi- 
tional water treatment as may be necessary to 
make the reclaimed sewage effluent suitable for 
their desired needs. (3) The City of Amarillo would 
provide a reclaimed sewage effluent with the pH 
range between 6.8 and 9.0, suspended solids not 
exceeding 25 mg 11, BOD not exceeding 25 mg 1 1 , 
total dissolved solids not exceeding 1,400 mg 1, 
and chlorine residual of delivered water at least 0.1 
mg 1. These criteria are in fact arbitrary limits, 
capable of flexibility. Some advantages of this ap- 
proach to water conservation and reuse include: 
(1) revenue from the sale of once-used water helps 
offset the cost of a necessary facility, wastewater 
treatment, (2) low cost industrial water helps to 
bring industry into the community and (3) a valua- 
ble water supply is enlarged by every gallon of 
reclaimed sewage effluent used by industry. (See 
also W72-07629) (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07628 



JOINT DISCUSSION - RECLAMATION AND IN- 
DUSTRIAL REUSE OF AMARILLO'S WASTE- 
WATER, 

Southwestern Public Service Co., Amarillo, Tex. 
S. L. Terry. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 63, No. 3, p 162-164, March 1971. 1 tab, 
7ref. 

Descriptors: 'Reclamation, 'Industrial water, 
'Water reuse. Hydroelectric plants, Effluents, 
Water supply, Conservation, Economics, Texas. 
Identifiers: 'Amarillo (Tex), 'Southwestern 
Public Service Company (SPSC). 

Southwestern Public Service Company (SPSC) 
needed to construct a new steam-electric power 
generating station in the Amarillo, Texas area. The 
station required cooling towers for steam con- 
densing. The Amarillo wastewater treatment plant 
effluent was available and acceptable as a de- 
pendable water supply. Users of wastewater treat- 
ment plant effluent must contend with: (1) average 
non filterable solids added to potable water, (2) 
The water quality which is affected by retention 
time, temperature, and the presence or absence of 
materials toxic to bacterial life used to degrade the 
organic material present in the sewage, and (3) the 
variability of the chemical and biological nature of 
the effluent. The coagulant aids, the lime treat- 
ment, and the scale control of the SPSC are 
discussed and evaluated. Interest in demineraliz- 
ing wastewater treatment plant effluent is not en- 
tirely promulgated by economics. If the SPSC 
process proves successful, it will be an interesting 
demonstration in water reuse and conservation, i. 
e., a modern steamelectric power plant operating 
on reclaimed water. One problem still remains of 



converting the wastewater into drinking water. 
(See also W72-07628) (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07629 



TOC ANALYSIS FOR MONITORING TERTIA- 
RY TREATMENT PROCESS EFFICIENCY, 

Beckman Instruments, Inc., Fullerton, Calif. 
R. H.Jones. 

Water and Sewage Works, Vol 119, No 3, p 72-74, 
March 1972. 5 fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Sewage, 'Instrumentation, Sewage 
treatment, Influent streams, Inflow, Tertiary 
treatment, Sewage effluents, Monitoring, Carbon 
dioxide, Aqueous solutions, Water quality control, 
Pollutant identification, Laboratory equipment, 
Carbon, Carbonates, Chemical oxygen demand. 
Identifiers: 'Total organic carbon, 'Inorganic car- 
bon, Total organic carbon analyzer, Infrared 
analyzer, Precision, Detection limits. 

Total organic carbon (TOC) is the best measurable 
parameter that can be used for monitoring the effi- 
ciency of the tertiary treatment process in remov- 
ing organics which survive the secondary treat- 
ment process. TOC and COD analyses were made 
at ten sample points in a carbon bed tertiary treat- 
ment process. TOC determinations were made 
with a Beckman Model 915 Total Organic Carbon 
Analyzer which is designed to quantitatively mea- 
sure organic carbon in aqueous solution. With this 
analyzer, one sample is burned at high tempera- 
ture (950 degree C) and a second, at low tempera- 
ture (150 degree C) to produce C02 which is car- 
ried through the flow cell of a non-dispersive in- 
frared analyzer. Recorded peak heights from the 
two samples are proportional to the total carbon 
and inorganic carbon, respectively, in the aqueous 
samples. The difference between the two recorded 
peaks indicates TOC. Pretreatment of samples 
with hydrochloric acid allows a more sensitive 
means of inorganic concentrations. This also per- 
mits the use of larger samples and can increase in- 
strument sensitivity to 0-10 mg/1 full scale. 
(Mackan-Battelle) 
W72-07714 



WHAT THE WASTEWATER PLANT EN- 
GINEER SHOULD KNOW ABOUT CEN- 
TRIFUGES/2, 

Pennwalt Corp., Warminster, Pa. Sharpies Cen- 
trifuges. 
J. R. Townsend. 

Water and Wastes Engineering, Vol 6, No 1 2, p 35- 
37, December 1969. 1 fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Centrifugation, Costs, Operation 

and maintenance, 'Waste water treatment, 'Water 

treatment, 'Waste treatment, Municipal wastes, 

Equipment. 

Identifiers: 'Machine variables, Selection. 

Operating and cost factors, selection rationale, 
maintenance procedures, and applications for cen- 
trifugation are outlined. Operating factors in- 
cluded: maximum flow estimation; liquid requiring 
clarification; type and percent solids concentra- 
tion; system pressures; chemical conditioning; 
screens; and preconditioning equipment. Cost fac- 
tors were: installed equipment cost; interest on 
money; amortization expenditures; plant space 
requirements; power; operation and maintenance 
needs; down-time; and standby equipment for 
100% operation. An ideal centrifuge is described. 
Practical parameters considered were maximum 
allowable solids in effluent; moisture content of 
solids; space requirements; available capital; 
gravity forces and speed effect on effective 
capacity; liquid depth; length to bowl diameter 
ratio; and volumetric capacity. Each centrifuga- 
tion application must be examined on its own 
merits. Items require checking. These are, bearing 
lubrication, power consumption, line voltage regu- 
lation, vibration limits, visual inspection, and 
unusual noises and odors. Inspection intervals are 
once each six months for maximum service. Cen- 
trifugation applications for paper mill, municipal. 



refinery, steel mill, and water treatment plant 
wastes are tabulated for solid-bowl scroll, disc- 
type nozzle, and solid-bowl basket machines. (See 
also W72-07762) (Nardozzi-AWWA) 

W72-07763 



THE GREAT EAU SCHEME: NORTH-EAST 
LINCOLNSHIRE WATER BOARD, 

North East Lincolnshire Water Board, Lincoln 

(England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07764 



DIDDINGTON TREATMENT WORKS: GREAT 
USE WATER SUPPLY SCHEME, 

Binnie and Partners, London (England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07765 



DESIGN AND OPERATION OF THE CAR- 
MONEY WATER TREATMENT WORKS: 
FAUGHAN RIVER SCHEME - LONDONDERRY 
R.D.C., 

Permutit Company, Ltd., London (England). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 
W72-07766 



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE FIXBY 
WATER TREATMENT WORKS FOR THE 
WAKEFTELD AND DISTRICT WATER BOARD, 

Wakefield and District Water Board, Yorkshire 

(England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07767 



DESIGN OF YORKSHIRE DERWENT HEAD- 
WORKS, 

North East Lincolnshire Water Board, Lincoln 

(England). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07768 



SOURCE CONTROL OF WATER TREATMENT 
WASTE SOLDDS, 

Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07771 



TOLEDO METROPOLITAN AREA WATER 
AND WASTE WATER PLAN FOR 1990. 

Finkbeiner, Pettis and Strout, Limited, Toledo, 

Ohio. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 

W72-07782 



STORM WATER PROBLEMS AND CONTROL 
IN SANITARY SEWERS, OAKLAND AND 
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA. 

Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 

W72-07785 



HEAT SHRINKABLE TUBING AS SEWER PIPE 
JOINTS. 

Western Co., Richardson, Tex. 

Available from NTIS as PB-208 816, $0.95 in 
microfiche. Environmental Protection Agency, 
Water Quality Office, Research Series, June 1971. 
Ill p, 36 fig, 4 tab, 18 ref. EPA Program 11024 
FLY 06/7 1.14-12-854. 

Descriptors: 'Joints (Connections), 'Sewers, 
'Sewerage, 'Pipelines, 'Joint costs, Material test- 
ing, Watertight, Infiltration, Pipelines, Conduits, 
Construction costs, Prototype tests. Inflow, Cost 
analysis. 

Identifiers: 'Polyolefin, 'Heat shrinkable tubing, 
Waterproof joints. 



65 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5D — Waste Treatment Processes 



Preliminary testing had indicated that commercial 
sewer pipe might be coupled in tight waterproof 
joints using the heat shrinkable plastic tubing 
(HST) developed and used extensively in the elec- 
tronics and aerospace industries. Laboratory stu- 
dies of such materials and joints were conducted 
to determine their characteristics and their opera- 
tional and economic feasibility. A wide variety of 
HST materials and joints were tested in addition to 
conventional joints for clay, concrete and 
asbestos-cement pipes. The results of both small 
scale tests and full scale tests using commercial 8- 
inch sewer pipe indicated that a polyolefin with a 
polymeric base hot melt adhesive produced the 
most durable, watertight joints and were signifi- 
cantly superior in performance compared to exist- 
ing pipe joining mechanisms. In addition, the cost 
analysis indicated that HST joints are economi- 
cally feasible and compare favorably to conven- 
tional joints when considering both material and 
installation costs. The HST joint requires no sig- 
nificant departure from current installation prac- 
tice and is equally adaptable to repair of installed 
commercial pipe and joints. Field development 
and in-use demonstration of the HST system is 
recommended. (Poertner) 
W72-07786 



ELECTROCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF ACID 
MINE WATERS. 

Tyco Labs., Inc., Waltham, Mass. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP2.10:14010 FNQ 02/72, $1.00; microfiche from 
NTIS as PB-208 820, $0.95. Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency, Water Pollution Control Research 
Series, February 1972, 81 p, 26 fig, 17 tab, 19 ref. 
EPA Program 14010 FNQ 02/72. Contract 14-12- 
859. 

Descriptors: *Acid mine water, *Electrolysis, 
•Oxidation, Iron, Lime, Chemical precipitation, 
Cost analysis. Anodes, Cathodes, Electrodes, 
'Electrochemistry, Separation techniques. 
Laboratory tests, 'Waste water treatment. 

Synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) water was 
prepared by draining tap water through waste coal, 
and the resulting AMD was treated on a laboratory 
scale by an electrolytic oxidation process. Tests of 
fluidized bed, packed-bed, and annular flow proto- 
type reactors demonstrated the packed-bed reac- 
tor to be most efficient. Oxidation of Fe2+ to 
Fe3+ takes place on a carbon electrode at a mass 
transport limited rate, while hydrogen evolution 
occurs on a polished 316 stainless steel cathode, 
limited by a slower electrochemical kinetic step. 
Preliminary economic analyses, using a packed- 
bed reactor, indicated total costs in the range of 1 1 
to 72 cents per 1000 gallons, as compared to 20 
cents to $2.00/gal for conventional lime treatment. 
Additional cost savings are possible for large in- 
stallations from sale of the electrolytically 
produced hydrogen. The electrolytic process is 
free from both the safety hazards associated with 
radio isotope-induced oxidation and the tempera- 
ture dependence of biological oxidation methods. 
(Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07799 



FEASIBILITY STUDY OF REGENERATIVE 
FIBERS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL. 

Uniroyal, Inc., Wayne, N.J. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc, $0.75; 
microfiche from NTIS as PB-208 82 1 , $0.95. Water 
Pollution Control Research Series, Environmental 
Protection Agency, October 1970, 74p, 28 fig, 15 
tab, 14 ref. EPA Program 17040 DFC 10/70. Con- 
tract 14-12-815. 

Descriptors: *Ion exchange, 'Separation 
techniques, 'Membranes, 'Polymers, Anion 
exchange, Cation exchange. Selectivity, Strength, 
Chemical reactions. Resins, Ion transport, 
Laboratory tests, 'Waste water treatment, 'Fibers 
(Plant). 

Identifiers: 'Fibers, Breakthrough, 'Exhaustion- 
regeneration cycles, 'Sulfonation. 



High molecular weight organic polymers co-spun 
with fiber-forming polymers and cross linking 
agents have been successfully spun into fiber and 
chemically treated to produce ion exchanging 
fibers, as opposed to the conventional beads. 
Styrene sulfonic acid cation exchange fibers hav- 
ing capacities up to 4.2 meg/gm dry fiber were 
prepared, using polypropylene and polybutadiene 
as fiber-forming polymer and cross linking agent 
respectively. By cutting the fibers to very short 
lengths, it was possible to test these materials by 
column elutions, with breakthrough capacities for 
ion exchange fibers demonstrated to be higher 
than those for beads, possibly due partly to a 
higher exchange rate in the fibers. Selectivities of 
fibers were similar to those of conventional beads, 
but different selectivities for the fibers may be 
possible due to anisotropic swelling of the fibers. 
Several other types of fibers were successfully 
fabricated, and further testing as to rate of attri- 
tion, effects of organic foulants, and physico- 
chemical studies of rates and selectivity should be 
performed. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07800 



RECOVERY AND INCINERATION OF KRAFT 
MILL SPENT LIQUOR BY THE FLUIDIZED 
BED PROCESS, 

Olin Corp., Pisgah Forest, N.C. Ecusta Paper Div. 
D. C. Lea, and H. Tomlinson. 
Proceedings, Southern Water Resources and Pol- 
lution Control Conference, Vol 18, 1969, p 101- 
110, 6 fig, 4 tab, 4 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Pulp wastes, 'Incineration, Tem- 
perature, Evaporation, Sulfite liquor. Sulfur, Flow 
rates, Operation and maintenance, Storage, Air 
pollution, 'Waste water treatment. Liquid wastes, 
Industrial wastes. 
Identifiers: 'Scrubbers. 

A conventional kraft pulp mill operating on seed 
flax tow produces less than 75 tons/day of pulp. 
Preliminary designs for effluent disposal demon- 
strated that incineration was the only feasible 
waste disposal method for such a small operation. 
Pretreatment of the waste prior to incineration is 
required to concentrate the particles, and this ac- 
complished using two modified Baur Pressafiners, 
and a hydrasieve. Influent to the incinerator then 
consists of 97,000 gals/day of combined liquor 
from the kraft pulping process and the waste acid 
from a nearby cellophane plant. Total solids 
averages 14.4% and the liquor has a heat content 
of 5680 BTU/lb of solids. The 14 foot diameter bed 
reactor is designed for an airflow rate of 7800 stan- 
dard 3ft/min, with a fluidizing velocity of 2.5 
ft/sec. Sulfur guns were added to facilitate in- 
troduction of sulfur into the reactor to make a 
higher sulfur content by-product suitable for sale. 
Residual carbon levels of .05% are common 
demonstrating the thoroughness of the unit. All ef- 
fluent gases are scrubbed, preventing further air 
pollution. Start-up and operational problems are 
discussed in detail. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07801 

Chemical Engineering, Vol. 76, No. 25, November 
17, 1969, pi 38 and 140, 2 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Contract administration, 'Waste 
disposal, 'Waste water treatment, 'Industrial 
wastes, Landfills, Incineration, Cost analysis, 
'Waste water disposal. 
Identifiers: 'Contract disposal, Centralization. 

Since late 1968, the idea of centralized contract 
disposal has been catching on in many different 
parts of the country. Several centralized plants are 
already in operation and many others are being 
planned. The first contract disposal plant was 
erected at Sarnia, Ontario by Goodfellow Enter- 
prises and has enjoyed more than a year of techni- 
cal and economic success. The Sarnia plant occu- 
pies 40 acres of a 100 acre tract, serves from 20 to 
30 industries, and has a 10 to 12 million gallon/year 
capacity. Five disposal systems are used includ- 
ing: (1) incinerating burners for liquids; (2) bulk- 
waste incinerators for bulk materials; (3) lagoons 
for temporary holding and settling of liquids; (4) 



property for landfill ing of residue; and (5) deep 
well disposal of clean liquids. Costs range from 
1.82 cents to 6.235 cents/gallon of waste treated. 
Advantages to a participating company include: (1) 
elimination of necessity for separate facilities, (2) 
cost savings in many instances; and (3) once the 
waste is contracted, the originating company has 
no more legal obligations for its disposal. (Lowry- 
Texas) 
W72-07804 



SEWER MAINTENANCE COSTS, 

Santry (I. W.), Inc., Dallas, Tex. 

I. W. Santry, Jr. 

Preprint, presented at 44th Annual Conference of 

Water Pollution Control Federation, Session 15, 

No. 1, San Francisco, Calif. October 6, 1971. 30 p, 

8 fig, 9 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Sewers, Operation and main- 
tenance, Data collections, Stop logs, Personnel, 
Cleaning, Inspection, Repairing, Storm runoff, In- 
filtration, Manholes, Protective linings, Plastic, 
'Replacement costs, 'Cost analysis. Water pollu- 
tion control, 'Operating costs, 'Maintenance 
costs. 

Design of record keeping operations for sanitary 
and storm sewers is an integral part of municipal 
public works, regardless of whether or not a com- 
puter is used. Sufficient information regarding 
length of service, cost of maintenance, ease of 
repair, and other parameters must be acquired for 
each stretch of sewer line in order to form rational 
decisions for repair or replacement, and to evalu- 
ate the materials and workmanship of previous in- 
stallations. Analysis of the data reviewed showed 
that repairs on both mains and building service 
lines by a municipality reflect about the same per- 
centages for labor, materials, equipment and ad- 
ministration. Cleaning and periodic inspection 
costs must also be accounted for in any com- 
prehensive cost analysis. Inclusion of each of 
these items in detail, as well as any other pertinent 
information in an available body of data will pro- 
vide management with a rational basis for both 
budgetary and operational decision making. (Low- 
ry-Texas) 
W72-07805 



SEPTIC TANKS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 

Illinois Inst, for Environmental Quality , Chicago. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W72-07806 



NEW PULP AND PAPER MILL MEETING EN- 
VIRONMENTAL CONTROL CHALLENGE, 

Charmin Paper Products, Mehoopany, Pa. 

W. A. Eberhardt, C. A. Barton, J. F. Byrd, and G. 

C. Hullar. 

Preprint, presented at 44th Annual Conference of 

Water Pollution Control Federation, Session 3, 

No. 2, San Francisco, California October 4, 1971, 

24 p, 23 fig, 6 tab, 13 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Pulp wastes, 'Color, 'Sulfite 
liquors, 'Suspended solids. Filtration, Sedimenta- 
tion, Flotation, Activated sludge, Separation 
techniques, Monitoring, Dissolved oxygen, Bioas- 
says, 'Waste water treatment, Pennsylvania. 
Identifiers: 'Mehoopany (Penn). 

Wastes from pulp making processes and paper 
making processes at the company's pulp and paper 
mill undergo separate treatment. Waste treatment 
for the pulp wastes includes evaporation and con- 
centration of dilute wastes, primary settling, 
secondary treatment by activated sludge, and in- 
cineration and landfill for waste sludge after de- 
watering. Waste treatment for paper production 
wastes consists mainly of solids removal, concen- 
tration, and disposal via clarification, rotary 
screening, belt filtration, pre-coat filtration, aera- 
tion flotation, and sedimentation. Mill sanitary 
sewage and spill wastes are also fed into one of the 
two systems at appropriate locations. River moni- 



66 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Waste Treatment Processes — Group 5D 



toring for upstream and downstream dissolved ox- 
ygen levels proceeds on a continuous basis, and 
regular biological studies are also conducted. Dis- 
solved oxygen levels are rarely less than 7.0 ppm, 
and BOD discharges normally average 3000 lbs, or 
one-tenth of the amount specified on the waste 
discharge permit. All bioassay and other test 
results have demonstrated the river to be in a 
healthy condition. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07807 



CONTRIBUTION OF INPLANT CONTROLS 
\ND PROCESS MODIFICATIONS TO POLLU- 
riON ABATEMENT IN THE PULPING INDUS- 
rRY, 

North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of 

Wood and Paper Science. 

Peder J. Kleppe. 

Proceedings, Southern Water Resources and Pol- 

ution Control Conference, Vol 18, 1969, p 85-99, 1 

:ig, 45 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Wood wastes, *Pulp wastes, 
'Sulfite liquors, Color, Odor, Suspended solids, 
Fibers (Plant), Lignins, Adsorption, Chemical 
jrecipitation, Activated carbon, Activated sludge, 
Pulp and paper industry, 'Waste water treatment, 
Water reuse, Lime, Oxidation lagoons, Settling 
■sins. 

Pollution abatement in the pulp and paper industry 
s being accomplished through a balance between 
n-plant process modifications and effluent treat- 
ment. These in-plant process changes include re- 
:ycle of process effluents wherever possible and 
ncineration of chemical products for chemical 
•ecovery and re-use. Effluent separation in many 
of the newer mills has enabled operators to apply a 
precise degree of treatment to only the individual 
portion of the waste which must be treated. 
Present treatment methods include primary treat- 
ment in sedimentation basins and secondary treat- 
ment in oxidation lagoons, aerated lagoons, and, 
where only limited space is available, activated 
sludge units. Much interest has also been shown in 
the massive lime precipitation-activated carbon 
idsorption process for both color and BOD 
xmovals, since cost estimates have indicated the 
process to be competitive with activated sludge. 
ILowry-Texas) 
W72-07808 



THE AFTER-EFFECT OF THE TREATED 
SLUDGE OF WASTE WATER CONTAINING 
HEAVY METAL IN A FIELD TEST, (IN GER- 
MAN), 

Bonn Univ. (West Germany). Agrikul- 
turchemisches Institut. 
K. Schaeffer, and H. Kick. 

Land-Wirt Forsch. 23 (2): 152-161. 1970. English 
summary. 

Identifiers: Aftereffect, Disposal, Fertilizer, 
Field, Heavy, Metal, Mineral, Ph, Sewage, 
Sludge, Test, Treated, Waste. 

Hie best fertilizer action on loamy, sandy soil with 
low humus content was given by a sludge dressing 
of 1000 m3/ha, where the yield was mainly deter- 
mined by N2. With sludge quantities up to 1000 
m3/ha, an additional mineral dressing of 1/2 the 
usual amount was necessary, and in the 2nd yr the 
whole amount of mineral fertilizer had to be 
added. Only with the tripled sludge dressing (1500 
m3 sludge/ha) was a notable increase in the Cr and 
Zn contents, and more particularly of the Pb and 
Cu contents, observed in the plant substance. The 
pH values were scarcely modified by the sludge 
dressing; the slight drop of the pH values 
everywhere observed in the 2nd yr was due to the 
plowing up of soil from deeper strata. Even in the 
2nd yr, no increased C content in the soil was ob- 
served after a single sludge dressing.-Copyright 
1971 , Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07809 



BIOLOGICAL REMOVAL OF LIGNIN FROM 
KRAFT MILL EFFLUENTS. 1. PRELIMINARY 
STUDIES, 

Toronto Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

R. E. Anderson, and J. Ganczarczyk. 
Publication No. 71-604, December 1971, 43 p, 7 
fig, 12 tab, 29 ref. 

Descriptors: *Pulp wastes, "Lignins, Color, Fibers 
(Plant), Biodegradation, "Activated sludge, Ad- 
sorption, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Filtration, 
Suspended solids, Analytical techniques, "Waste 
water treatment. 

The activated sludge wastewater treatment 
process was applied to the treatment of kraft mill 
wastes in order to determine the feasibility of 
using the activated sludge method for lignin 
removal. Initially, the Nitrosolignin method was 
tested and found successful for the determination 
of dissolved alkali-lignin. A correlation between 
lignin amounts and color development was 
developed according to the amount of lignin 
precipitate received by the standardized acidifica- 
tion of the concentrated black liquor. Car- 
bohydrate determination was possible through the 
'special blank' modification of the anthrone 
method, but lignin interference caused the biuret 
method of protein determination to yield only ap- 
proximate results. Lignin removal from solution 
appeared to be mainly by adsorption, with the ex- 
cess activated sludge being the main route of 
removal. Lignin decreases of 54% and color 
decreases of 49.3% were observed in the activated 
sludge system with a lignin loading of 0.0387 
g/g/day, and a hydraulic detention time of 22.5 
hours. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07810 



CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CAR- 
BON AS A FILTER MATERIAL, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. 

Martins Olusola Ogedengbe. 

Master's Thesis, 1970, 160 p, 10 fig, 9 tab, 32 ref. 

Descriptors: "Activated carbon, "Adsorption, 
"Specifications, Design standards, Physical pro- 
perties, Bulk density, Specific gravity, Particle 
size, "Filtration, Diatomaceous earth, Coliforms, 
Chlorination, Water treatment, "Waste water 
treatment, "Filters. 
Identifiers: "Filtration resistance. 

Those parameters of activated carbon which must 
be known in order to optimize the design of ac- 
tivated carbon filtration plants include the specific 
gravity, the in-place bulk density, the filtration re- 
sistance, and specific area. However, for the pur- 
poses of practical applications, the filtration 
materials will consist of an activated carbon 
diatomite mixture, and therefore determinations 
were made on the various mixtures. An attempt to 
characterize activated carbon material using an 
index formula was unsuccessful due to incon- 
sistencies in values when a mixture of activated 
carbon and diatomite is used. Results indicate, 
however, that it would be possible to make sale 
and/or purchase specifications of activated car- 
bons in terms of filtration resistance and specific 
area. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-078U 



STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 
HOURLY VARIATIONS IN CHEMICAL OX- 
YGEN DEMAND OF A COMBINED MU- 
NICIPAL SEWAGE, 

Idaho Univ., Moscow. 

Donald M. Zollman. 

Master's Thesis, March 1970, 96 p, 23 fig, 24 tab, 

23 ref. 

Descriptors: Sampling. Data collections, "Statisti- 
cal methods, "Chemical oxygen demand, "Organic 
loading, Average, Data processing, Mathematical 
studies, Water quality control, "Waste water treat- 
ment, "Combined sewers, "Sewerage, Minnesota, 
Municipal water, "Municipal wastes. 



Identifiers: Confidence levels, Hourly variations, 
"Minneapolis- (St. Paul). 

Samples taken hourly from the Minneapolis-Saint 
Paul sewer system were analyzed for COD, and 
the COD data were then used to determine statisti- 
cal characteristics of the random hourly variations 
that existed in the organic load of the waste 
stream. The original COD time history records of 
the influent to the treatment plant were scru- 
tinized, and slowly varying, periodic-like trends 
were estimated and removed from the data. 
Statistical tests conducted at the 5% and 95% sig- 
nificance levels on the remaining data demon- 
strated the transformed data records to be sta- 
tionary, ergodic, and normal. The maximum al- 
lowable sampling interval was determined to be 
from 0.74 to 1.0 hour, and an average of 81 sam- 
ples was required to produce a sample mean within 
plus or minus 5% of the true population mean at a 
confidence level of 95%. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07812 



UPGRADING WATER BY USE OF A SLOW 
SAND FILTER, 

North Dakota State Univ., Fargo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07813 



SOLUTION OF A SULFD3E TOXICITY 
PROBLEM IN A MUNICIPAL ANAEROBIC 
DIGESTER, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. 

David Gregor Green. 

Master's Thesis, 1970,81 p, 14 fig, 1 tab, Href. 

Descriptors: "Anaerobic digestion, "Toxicity, 
"Sulfides, Sludge, Municipal wastes, Industrial 
wastes, Bactericides, Laboratory tests, Iron com- 
pounds, Chemical precipitation, Cost analysis, 
"Waste water treatment. 
Identifiers: "Synergism, "Digesters. 

After repeated attempts to start up several new 
two-state anaerobic digesters failed, a survey for 
sources of toxic materials was conducted, reveal- 
ing that one major industry contributed 30% of the 
influent to the treatment plant. The industrial 
waste was very high in organic material, much of 
which was bactericidal compounds. Laboratory 
tests were then performed on the wastes, demon- 
strating that the failure in starting the digesters 
was not due to temperature control, pH control, or 
poor operation. Large amounts of hydrogen sul- 
fide produced indicated the possibility of sulfide 
toxicity. Results also indicated that other toxic 
materials possibly were present, acting as syner- 
gistic toxins. Ferric chloride (FeC13.6H20) added 
in a ratio of ferric chloride to total sulfur measured 
as sulfate (S04 = ) of 2:3, was successful in con- 
trolling the toxicity, and no further start-up dif- 
ficulties were encountered. Cost of the iron treat- 
ment was estimated at 45 cents/ 1000 gallons of 
sludge treated. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07814 



PRECOAT FILTRATION OF TRICKLING 
FILTER EFFLUENT, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. 

David Mayo Millard. 

Master's Thesis, 1971, 165 p, 40 fig, 17 tab, 34 ref. 

Descriptors: "Trickling filters, "Domestic wastes, 
"Tertiary treatment, "Filtration, Diatomaceous 
earth, Organic loading, Flow rates, On-site in- 
vestigations, Turbidity, Suspended solids, Pres- 
sure, Cost analysis, "Waste water treatment, 
Iowa, Pilot plant. 

Identifiers: "Pre-coat filtration, "Hydraulic load- 
ing. 

The three step process of pre-coat filtration was 
investigated on a pilot plant scale as a possible 
method of polishing secondary effluent for limited 
subsequent reuse. Determinations were made of: 
(1) the effects of using different grades of filter 
aids on the quality of the final effluent; (2) the 



67 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5D — Waste Treatment Processes 



filter cake resistance obtained using different 
types, grades, and amounts of filter aids; (3) equa- 
tions by which filter cake resistance index can be 
predicted for each type and grade of filter aid in- 
vestigated; and (4) optimum design parameters 
required to provide least cost pre-coat filtration of 
the final effluent. Optimum operating conditions 
were determined to be: (1) a filtration rate of 1.4 
gpm/ft2; (2) a terminal head loss of 104 ft; (3) a 
body feed concentration of 40 mg/1. Estimated 
least cost of full-scale, on-site filtration at the 
Ames, Iowa, wastewater treatment plant was 5 
cents/1000 gallons. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07815 



EVALUATION OF SLUDGE DEWATERING 
PROPERTIES, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. 
Thomas Robert Shelley. 
Master's Thesis, 1971, 196 p, 31 fig, 8 tab, 41 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Sludge, *Dewatering, 'Polyelec- 

trolytes, Filtration, Vacuum drying, Flocculation, 

Temperature, Hydrogen ion concentration, 

Mathematical models, Compressibility, *Waste 

water treatment, Evaluation, Iowa. 

Identifiers: 'Specific cake resistance, 'Boone 

(Iowa). 

A standardized procedure for conditioning and 
testing sludge samples was developed to aid in 
establishing a reliable means for determining 
sludge dewatering characteristics and measuring 
the effects of conditioning on those charac- 
teristics. Samples of sludge used were taken from 
the Boone, Iowa Water Pollution Control Plant 
and the analytical tests were performed at Iowa 
State University. Results of the tests demon- 
strated that cake resistance, r, decreases as sludge 
is conditioned, but compressibility, s, remains 
unchanged. The effect of varying applications of 
polyelectrolytes and the effect of mixing on floc- 
culation were also quantified. Accurate measure- 
ments of specific cake resistance were obtained 
using a constant pressure permeator. The filter 
leaf test was used and correlations between filter 
leaf tests, predicted yield, and actual coil filter are 
presented. Sludges can now be analyzed with 
respect to filter leaf yield, specific cake resistance, 
and compressibility, allowing comparisons of vari- 
ous sludges as well as continuing research into dif- 
ferent conditioning agents, and safe ranges of 
operation for field work. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07816 



AN ECOLOGIC STUDY OF AN OVERLOADED 
OXIDATION LAGOON CONTAINING HIGH 
POPULATIONS OF PURPLE SULFUR BAC- 
TERIA, 

North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. 

Harvey W. Holm. 

Available from University Microfilms, 300 No. 

Zeeb Rd, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106. Microfilm: 

$3.00; Xerography: $8.80 (Order No 69-16,273). 

PhD Dissertation, January 1969, 179 p, 9 fig, 47 

tab, 81 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Oxidation lagoons, 'Organic load- 
ing, 'Sulfur bacteria, Methane bacteria, 
Coliforms, Metabolism, Sulfides, Biochemical ox- 
ygen demand, Hydrogen ion concentration. Tem- 
perature, Nutrients, Isolation, Microbiology, 
'Waste water treatment, Monitoring. 
Identifiers: 'Volatile acids. 

Weekly monitoring of BOD, total carbohydrates, 
total volatile acids, individual volatile acids, pyru- 
vate, sulfide, sulfate, phosphate, pH, and alkalini- 
ty, as well as water temperature provided initial 
data for ecological studies of a sewage lagoon. In 
addition, two genera of purple sulfur bacteria iso- 
lated from the lagoon were characterized metabol- 
ically. Optimum pH, temperature, and sulfide 
levels were determined and the utilization of cer- 
tain organic substrates was investigated and corre- 
lated with organic substrate changes in the lagoon. 
Results demonstrated: (1) relationships between 



temperature and purple sulfur bacteria growth 
were not constant; (2) purple sulfur bacteria 
reached maximum levels when sulfide and volatile 
acids were depleted; (3) methane bacteria popula- 
tions were low when volatile acids levels were 
high, and removal of sulfide by the purple sulfur 
bacteria probably aided methane bacteria growth; 
(4) no biological, chemical, or physical agent was 
linked to the removal of coliforms, fecal 
coliforms, or enterococci; and (5) an absence of a 
direct correlation between BOD removal and a 
specific physical or chemical parameter was 
evident. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07817 

5E. Ultimate Disposal of Wastes 



WATER POLLUTION CONTROL IN CATTLE 
FEEDLOTS, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 

Okla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07322 



ANIMAL FEEDLOT WASTE PROGRAM 
RESEARCH NEEDS, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 

Okla. 

M. R. Scalf , and J. L. Witherow. 

Mimeo, September 1969, 1 fig, 3 ref. FWPCA 

13040—09/69. 

Descriptors: 'Confinement pens, 'Water pollution 
sources, Surface runoff, Slurries, 'Farm wastes, 
Livestock, Research and development, Projects, 
Feed lots. 
Identifiers: Manure. 

The growth and cause of water pollution from 
animal feedlot waste is described. The research 
responsibilities of the Federal Water Pollution 
Control Administration are met by inhouse, grant 
and contract projects. Priority for research pro- 
jects is given in terms of immediate and long range 
research needs. A list of immediate research needs 
is grouped into specific characterization projects 
and specific soil treatment projects. The long 
range research need for prevention of water pollu- 
tion is described for liquid runoff, solid manure, 
and slurry systems. Seven specific project areas 
are presented in a list. One figure presents pollu- 
tion control pathways for the three forms of 
animal wastes. (FWPCA abstract) 
W72-07324 



MEATPACKING WASTE MANAGEMENT 
RESEARCH PROGRAM, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 
Okla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07325 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW-DISPOSAL OF 
RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN THE OCEANS, 

J. R. John. 

North Carolina Law Review, Vol 49, p 985-996, 

August 1971. 50 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Law of the sea, 'Radioactive waste 
disposal, 'International waters, 'Water pollution 
sources, 'International law, Oceans, Legal 
review. Sea water. Radioactive wastes. Waste 
disposal, Ships, Nuclear wastes, National sea 
shores, Water pollution control, Permits, Social 
aspects, Standards, Treaties, United States, 
Foreign countries. United Nations. 
Identifiers: 'Absolute liability, 'Ocean dumping, 
International conventions. 

Ocean dumping, especially dumping of radioactive 
wastes, will become a more serious problem in the 
near future. Such dumping, however, does not 
currently violate international law. Applying a 
standard of reasonableness and balancing all in- 



terests, it seems clear that ocean dumping in some 
form is necessary in modern times. Currently the 
only conceivable legal relief for injury caused by 
the dumping of radioactive wastes arises where 
the injury occurs within territorial waters. Interna- 
tional conventions which relate to radioactive 
waste dumping have generally been mere admoni- 
tions against dumping. Two such conventions re- 
late to liability for nuclear accidents at sea. The 
terms of these conventions are discussed. Many 
governments have taken action to control dumping 
of radioactive and other wastes by their citizens. 
The United States has been a leader in this move- 
ment. International standards and a system of in- 
ternational strict liability are necessary. An inter- 
national agency, presumably the United Nations, 
should administer the system. Permits should be 
required before dumping is allowed. International 
cooperation is essential. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07382 



ORGANIC MATERIAL ANALYZER MONI- 
TORS SHORELINE SEWAGE DISPOSAL, 

Chemurgic Council, New York. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07715 



RADIOISOTOPE TRACER TECHNIQUES IN 

THE INVESTIGATION OF DISPERSION OF 

SEWAGE AND DISAPPEARANCE RATE OF 

ENTERIC ORGANISMS IN COASTAL 

WATERS, 

Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq 

Nuclear Research Centre. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07803 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07804 

5F. Water Treatment and 
Quality Alteration 



EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SAND FIL- 
TRATION THEORY, 

Cole (Charles) and Son, South Bend, Ind. 

D. M. Fox, and J. L. Cleasby. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA5, p 61- 

82, Paper 4941 , October 1966, 7 fig, 6 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, 'Fil- 
ters, Iron, Evaluation, Flocculation, 'Model stu- 
dies. 
Identifiers: 'Filter media. 

An experimental evaluation of sand filtration 
theory is presented. The mathematical model of 
filtration presented by K.J. Ives (University Col- 
lege, London) was evaluated by the filtration of 
iron-bearing water. The results indicate that the 
equation does not adequately describe the filtra- 
tion of water containing hydrous ferric oxide floe. 
Several minor modifications of Ive's equation 
were attempted without obtaining an equation to 
fit the experimental data. Reasons for the incon- 
sistency are presented. The iron floe does not con- 
form to the characteristics assumed in the deriva- 
tion of the equation, e.g., it is not of uniform size 
and it has a low density. Furthermore the use of 
the equation hinges on the determination of the 
specific deposit, namely, the volume of suspended 
solids removed per unit filter volume. This deter- 
mination is so difficult as to greatly restrict the 
potential application of the equation. (Bean-AW- 
WARF) 



FOAM SEPARATION FOR WATER CLARIFI- 
CATION, 

Illinois Inst, of Tech., Chicago. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 
R. B. Grieves. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA 1 , p 41- 



68 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Water Treatment and Quality Alteration — Group 5F 



4 Paper 4650, February 1966. 5 fig, 4 tab, 28 ref. 
;ontract DAe49-193-MD-2629. 

)escriptors: *Water treatment, 'Sanitary en- 
tering, Turbidity, 'Colloids, *Cationic adsorp- 
ion, Hydrogen ion concentration, *Foam separa- 
ion, 'Separation techniques, 'Flotation, 
dentifiers: 'Clarification. 

I foam separation-flotation process was in- 
estigated for the removal of colloidal produced 
urbidity in low-quality raw water supplies. The 
rocess uses a cationic surface-active agent. Batch 
oaming studies include the effect on the synthetic 
urbidity separation efficiency of pH and of the 
resence of monovalent divalent, and trivalent in- 
rganic cations and anions, and of soluble or- 
anics. (Bean-AWWARF) 
V72-07327 



RECIPITATION OF IRON IN AERATED 
GROUND WATERS, 

[linois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 

1. M. Ghosh, J. T. O'Connor, and R. S. 

ingelbrecht. 

ournal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

ociety of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA1, p 

99-213, Paper 4687, February 1966. 9 fig, 3 tab. 

JSPHS Grant WP-00017. 

lescriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
jg, 'Iron, Sedimentation, 'Precipitation, 
lydrogen ion concentration, 'Groundwater, 
Leration, Illinois, Rates. 

Efforts were made to determine the factors which 
overn the kinetics of iron precipitation so that a 
lore rational approach could be applied to the en- 
ineering design of reaction basins in iron removal 
lants. The rate of iron precipitation was measured 
l aerated Illinois ground waters having equilibri- 
m pH values in the range of 7.5 to 7.8 and alkalini- 
es in the range of 355 mg per 1 to 610 mg per 1 as 
!aC03. The rate was found to vary widely. It was 
ossible, however, to relate the rate of iron 
recipitation to the alkalinity and the hydroxyl ion 
oncentration. (Bean-AWWARF) 
V72-07328 



IFFECT OF BACKWASH ON FILTER EF- 
LUENT QUALITY, 

owa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 

>g- 

L L. Johnson, and J. L. Cleasby. 

ournal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

ociety of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA1, p 

15-228, Paper 4692, February 1966. 5 fig, 5 tab. 

lescriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
lg, 'Filtration, 'Water quality, Turbidity, *Fil- 
:rs, Sands, Rates, Time, 
dentifiers: 'Backwashing, Filter media. 

he effect of backwash rate and backwash dura- 
:on on the quality of water produced by sand fil- 
:rs has been investigated on a plant scale. The 
est water quality was produced following 
ackwash rates of 16.7 gpm per sq ft in filters with 
and of effective size of 0.64 mm, even though the 
verage sand expansion was only 17%. This obser- 
ation is supported by a theoretical evaluation of 
le forces acting on the sand during backwash, 
he early idea that 50% expansion is required for 
ood backwashing is not supported by the 
esearch since coarser sand is more widely used 
iday (1966), this will mean savings in cost of 
ackwash piping, equipment, and in filter un- 
erdrain systems. The turbidity of the backwash 
'ater alone is not a valid indicator of the cleanli- 
ess of the sand. (Bean-AWWARF) 
V72-07329 



■REE-LIVING NEMATODE REMOVAL BY 
!APID SAND FILTERS, 

liinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 
L L. Peterson, R. S. Engelbrecht, and J. H. 
lustin. 



Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA1, p 
229-243, Paper 4693, February 1966. 11 fig, 3 tab. 
USPHS Grant WP-00047. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
ing, 'Worms, 'Filtration, Flow rates, Filters, 'Ne- 
matodes, 'Water pollution treatment, Water pu- 
rification. 

Flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 gpm per sq ft gave ap- 
proximately 98% removal of nonmotile 
Diplogasteriodes sp., one of the predominate spe- 
cies found in waste treatment plant effluents, 
whereas only 25% of the motile worms were 
removed. The motility of the worms was the most 
important single factor in the removal of worms by 
filtration. Smaller, less motile worms were 
removed more effectively than larger, more motile 
worms. Percentage worm removal with filter in- 
fluents having high concentrations of nematodes, 
predominantly non-motile, was higher than with 
water having low concentrations of nematodes, 
predominantly motile. Examination of the sand 
showed worm retention throughout the entire 
depth but with the highest concentrations near the 
top of the sand. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07330 



MANIFOLDS, ROTATING AND STATIONARY, 

Wayne State Univ., Detroit, Mich. Dept. of En- 
vironmental Engineering. 
C. J. Ordon. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA1, p 
269-280, Paper 4696, February 1966. 10 fig, 2 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
ing, 'Filters, 'Drains, 'Hydraulic gradient, Pipes, 
Design. 
Identifiers: 'Manifolds. 

Pipe manifolds with unsteady flow are frequent 
occurrences in civil engineering design. Rotating 
manifolds are used on trickling filters with rotary 
distributors, and stationary manifolds are used in 
filter underdrains, tank and reservoir blending 
pipes, and sewer outfalls plus other applications. 
The hydraulic design of manifolds is developed in 
a straightforward theoretical manner; then a prac- 
tical means of handling manifold design is sug- 
gested. Manifolds behave in an unorthodox 
manner and unless understood, they will not func- 
tion as expected. A pertinent characteristic of 
manifolds is that the hydraulic gradient can ac- 
tually go up in the direction of flow. This fact can 
be used to good advantage by the designer. A sug- 
gested application for optimum distribution of 
wash water through a sand filter underdrain is 
shown. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07331 



RATIONAL ASPECTS OF SPLIT TREATMENT 
LIME SOFTENING, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

J. L. Cleasby, and J. H. Dillingham. 
Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA2, p 1- 
7, Paper 4755, April 1966. 2 fig, 2 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Water softening, 
Hardness (Water), Magnesium, Costs. 
Identifiers: 'Lime-soda treatment, 'Split-treat- 
ment, Recarbonation, Magnesium removal. 

Split treatment in lime-soda ash water softening is 
an old and well known process. However, it has 
been erroneously considered an outdated process 
since the development of recarbonation equip- 
ment. The advantages of split treatment in reduced 
operating costs and reduced first costs are signifi- 
cant. Split treatment should be considered when- 
ever partial magnesium removal is required. The 
concepts concerning split treatment presented in- 
clude: A simple rational method of calculating the 
percentage of flow that should by-pass the first 
stage, the method of calculating the chemical 



dosages based on the full plant flow, and the 
method of calculating the excess lime concentra- 
tion that results in the first stage from the by- 
passed flow. Application of these concepts should 
encourage better design and operation of split 
treatment plants. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07332 



CLOSED LOOP CHLORINATION CONTROL, 

Fischer and Porter Co., Warminster, Pa. 

L. J. Carroll. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA2, p 51- 

57, Paper 4760, April 1966. 1 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
ing, 'Chlorination, 'Automation, 'Design, Analy- 
sis, Control. 
Identifiers: 'Closed-loop control. 

Chlorination control is discussed. Advancements 
in instrumentation have been made. Residual 
analyzers are now playing a major role in the effi- 
cient operation of both existing and newly con- 
structed water treatment plants. To better evaluate 
these developments, a number of factors should 
be considered. Of prime importance would be the 
initial benefits of residual control. Equally rele- 
vant is its economic justification. Various aspects 
of system design are explored with particular 
emphasis placed on the areas of major concern, 
such as control loop lag time, chlorinator sizing, 
and proportional control. Problems inherent to 
water and sewage treatment are studied and 
recommendations for improvement are proposed. 
Specific cases are cited and described in some 
detail to illustrate these points. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07333 



SAND FILTRATION OF PARTICULATE 
MATTER, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 
ing. 

E. Davis, and J. A. Borchardt. 
Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA5, p 47- 
60, Paper 4940, October 1966. 8 fig, 2 tab. USPHS 
Grant WP-00329. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, Sani- 
tary engineering, 'Filters, 'Design, Coagulation, 
Algae, Activated carbon, 'Flocculation, 'Head 
loss. 
Identifiers: 'Filter media. 

The penetration of particulate matter through sand 
filters can be eliminated or greatly reduced by the 
application of a coagulating chemical supplied as a 
solution directly to the filter influent. At high den- 
sities of organisms, the inability to remove all cells 
of Selenastoum and the diminishing rate of 
removal associated with increased coagulant 
dosages indicates the necessity of pretreatment. 
The modification of the pattern of coagulant 
deposit, the head loss increase pattern and the ina- 
bility to remove all algal cells at high densities 
seem to indicate the importance of the chemical 
nature of the floe in any filtration mechanism. The 
location of powdered activated carbon deposited 
under plain filtration was shown to be logarithmic 
with depth. The location of deposited coagulant 
and activated carbon declined logarithmically with 
depth in the upper part of the uniform size filter 
media. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07334 



PARTIAL DEMINERALIZATION OF 

BRACKISH WATERS BY ION EXCHANGE, 

Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 

R. L. Sanks, and W. J. Kaufman. 
Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA6, p 57- 
84, Paper 5037, December 1966. 14 fig, 8 tab. 
USPHS Grant WP-00544. 



69 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5F — Water Treatment and Quality Alteration 



Descriptors: *Water treatment, *Ion exchange, 

Resins, *Demineralization, *Desalinization, 

•Brackish waters, Economics, Saline water, 

Water purification, Cost analysis, "Operating 

costs. 

Identifiers: Conversion. 

Interest in extending the usable water sources of 
the United States to include the extensive brackish 
water resources has prompted the investigation of 
a number of processes for demineralizing saline 
waters. To determine the economic feasibility of 
ion exchange, an investigation was made to op- 
timize the operating variables of exchange systems 
consisting of strong-acid cation and weak-base 
anion resins. Salinities up to 2,000/mg/l were in- 
vestigated in pilot plant studies which simulated 
the proposed prototype operations. Net or operat- 
ing exchange efficiencies varying from 67% to 
93% were achieved by countercurrent operation, 
the re-use of regenerants, the use of low regenera- 
tion levels, and minimizing rinse water. Economic 
analyses indicate that ion exchange can be com- 
petitive with other methods. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07336 



ORTHOKINETIC FLOCCULATION IN WATER 
PURIFICATION, 

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, 
San Francisco, Calif. 

H. S. Harris, W. J. Kaufman, and R. B. Krone. 
Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 92, No. SA6, p 95- 
111, Paper 5027, December 1966. 6 fig, 1 tab. 
USPHS Grant WP-00658. 

Descriptors: *Water treatment, *Water quality, 
'Flocculation, Sedimentation, Water purification, 
Kinetics. 

Identifiers: "Detention period, *Orthokinetic floc- 
culation. 

The theory of orthokinetic flocculation has been 
extended to systems approximating those encoun- 
tered in water-treatment plant flocculators. The 
theory incorporates parameters representing the 
floe size distribution, flocculator compartmen- 
talization, and floe concentration, as well as the 
input energy and retention period. The kinetics of 
flocculation were studied by observing the floccu- 
lation of kaolin and alum in a laboratory scale floc- 
culator and by simulating the progress of floccula- 
tion with a digital computer. The results substan- 
tiate the nature of the theoretical expression and 
made possible the determination of several size 
distribution functions. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07337 



DIATOMITE FILTRATION EQUATIONS FOR 
VARIOUS SEPTA, 

Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

J. H. Dillingham, J. L. Cleasby, and E. R. 

Baumann. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 93, No. SA2, p 41- 

55, Paper 5115, February 1967. 2 fig, 1 tab. USPHS 

Grant WP-00196. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, 

'Diatomaceous earth, 'Filters. 

Identifiers: Filter cake, Filtration equations, Filter 

media. 

Previously developed diatomite filtration equa- 
tions have been found invalid for cylindrical septa 
because they fail to describe the significant effect 
of the increasing filtering area associated with 
cylindrical filter cakes. Also, they do not describe 
the initial transitional period resulting from initial 
mixing of the influent with the clean water in the 
filter left over from the precoating operation (dilu- 
tion effect). The initial dilution effect is less impor- 
tant and can probably be ignored for most practi- 
cal applications. The increasing area effect, how- 
eyer, should not be ignored. Diatomite filtration 
equations are developed theoretically from the 
generally accepted filtration rate equation. The 



hypotheses assumed in the derivation of these 
equations are explicitly stated. These equations 
account for the effects of both initial dilution and 
increasing area. The equations were used to deter- 
mine filter cake resistance, and to predict filter 
performance under different operating conditions. 
(See also W72-07339) (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07338 



PREDICTION OF DIATOMITE FILTER CAKE 
RESISTANCE, 

Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Boston, Mass. 

J. H. Dillingham, J. L. Cleasby, and E. R. 

Baumann. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 93, No. SA1 , p 57- 

76, Paper 5117, February 1967. 3 fig. USPHS 

Grant WP-00196. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Filtration, 
Diatomaceous earth, 'Filters, Head loss, Time, 
Design, Mathematical studies. Performance. 
Identifiers: Filter cake. 

Improved diatomite filtration equations for flat 
and cylindrical septa have been developed and can 
be used to predict filter performance. However, 
the use hinges on knowledge of empirical filter 
cake resistance indices. Over 200 pilot and plant- 
scale filter runs have been analyzed to test the 
validity of the equations and to develop typical 
prediction equations for filter cake resistance. The 
results indicate that the filtration equations give 
excellent results in describing the head loss-time 
relationship during a filter run with either flat or 
cylindrical septa. A prediction equation for filter 
cake resistance index is presented. It is adequate 
to predict the filter cake resistance for various raw 
waters. For most waters, the index can be corre- 
lated to the ratio CS/CD (suspended solids concen- 
tration over body feed concentration). For some 
waters, the correlation is improved if CS and CD 
are treated as independent variables. The filtration 
equations and the filter cake resistance prediction 
equations have been used to optimize filtration 
plant design. (See also W72-07338) (Bean-AW- 
WARF) 
W72-07339 



DETERMINATION OF FILTER MEDIA ZETA 
POTENTIAL, 

Tufts Univ., Medford, Mass. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 
C. V. Smith, Jr. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 93, No. SA5, p. 
91-107, Paper 5540, October 1967. 12 fig, 2 tab, 18 
ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, Fil- 
ters, Zeta potential, Analytical techniques, Pilot 
plants. 
Identifiers: 'Streaming potential, 'Filter media. 

A method was devised to measure streaming cur- 
rents developed when filtering tap water through a 
pilot rapid sand filter. From the streaming current 
data the zeta potential of the filter media was cal- 
culated. This zeta potential value is in line with 
other reported work. It is now possible to study 
the role of the filter media surface potential in fil- 
tration. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07340 



WATER QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION 
TRACE ORGANICS, 

Mellon Inst., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07341 



FLOW IN SLUDGE-BLANKET CLARIFIERS, 

Technical Coll. of Transport Engineering, Zilina 

(Czechoslovakia). 

I. Tesarik. 



Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 93, No SA6, p 105- 
120, Paper 5698, December 1967. 13 fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
ing, 'Hydraulics, Viscosity, Density, Sludge, 
Flow. 
Identifiers: 'Clarifiers, 'Sludge blanket. 

Laboratory tests prove that fluidized floe beds 
behave in accordance with the general equation of 
fluidization. The increase of viscosity decreases 
the output of the clarifier at low temperatures. Ac- 
cording to the hydraulic action, there are four 
groups of clarifiers: Mechanically agitated bed, 
hydraulically fluidized bed, sludge circulation, and 
unsteady discharge. The influence of various 
devices is studied theoretically. The sludge 
remover should move slowly to prevent the 
separation of the eddy. The flow in the funnel 
shape sludge-blanket zone is not steady or radial. 
The separated vortex in the inlet of this chamber 
may still cause floe eruption at the sludge-blanket 
level. The discharge of suspension into the sludge 
thickener is computed as overflow over a weir and 
depends on floe density, height of overflow layer, 
and fraction concentration. The collecting of the 
clarified water is calculated as a potential flow. 
The minimum clear-water depth is one-half the 
distance between two collecting troughs. (Bean- 
AWWARF) 
W72-07342 



FILTER BACKWASHING TESTS AND UP- 
FLOW EQUALIZATION, 

Shreveport Dept. of Water Utilities, La. 

A. A. Hirsch. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 94, No. SA1, p 

129-146, Paper 5813, 16 fig, February 1968. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filters, 'Design, 
Cleaning, Treatment facilities. Suspended solids. 
Identifiers: 'Backwashing, Underdrains, Baffles. 

Suspended solids were determined in backwash 
samples collected every 15 sec at critical points in 
filters throughout the backwash operation. Eight 
plants were visited to observe some 23 variables. 
Cleansing action is decidedly nonuniform, being 
greatest under the sides of the troughs and 
decreasing toward the intertrough median. Cor- 
ners generally washed most poorly. Disparity in 
upflow is caused by the directional influence of 
the troughs which negate the uniformity expedted 
from the underdrains. Although various cor- 
rectives are considered, only a V-shaped func- 
tionally perforated guidance baffle can be per- 
manently effective. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07343 



FILTRATION THROUGH A TRIMEDIA 
FILTER, 

Camp, Dresser and McKee, Boston, Mass. 

Alan E. Rimer. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 94, No. SA3, p. 

521-540, Paper 6014, 12 fig, 1 tab, 14 ref, June 

1968. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Water quality, 

♦Filters, 'Design, 'Filtration, Head loss, Pilot 

plants. 

Identifiers: Backwashing, 'Multimedia filters, 

'Filter media. 

An historical review of filter theory indicates the 
advantages of filtering from coarse to fine media. 
A study was made of filtration through trimedia 
beds and the filtration characteristics exhibited by 
the mineral garnet. Two three-layer filters using 
different size gradations of anthracite, sand, and 
garnet were compared with a conventional sand 
filter. The first series of tests was run on filters 
comprised of 8-in layers of 1.19-mm anthracite, 
0.590-mm sand, and 0.420-mm garnet. The second 
series of tests was run on filters of 8-in layers of 



70 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Water Treatment and Quality Alteration — Group 5F 



0-mm anthracite, 0.707-mm sand, and 0.590-mm 
net. The conventional filter contained sand 
h an effective size of 0.460 mm and a uniformi- 
:oefficient of 1.44. The filter tubes, ID 3-1/2 in., 
vided for monitoring of the pressures within 
bed and for obtaining samples at fourteen 
nts. The trimedia filter permitted a head loss 
uction of nearly 50%, with no reduction in fil- 
e quality, as compared with the conventional 
d filter under the same operating conditions. 
: trimedia filter remained intact after repeated 
ihing, but required somewhat more wash water 
I higher wash rates to clean the bed effectively. 
an-AWWARF) 
2-07344 



GLOMERATE SIZE CHANGES IN COAGU- 
riON, 

consin Univ., Madison. Dept. of Civil En- 

:ering. 

C. Ham, and R. F. Christman. 

rnal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

iety of Civil Engineers, Vol. 95, No. SA3, p 

-502, Paper 6605, 2 fig, 7 tab, 17ref, June 1969. 

icriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Coagulation, 
peculation, 'Mixing, 'Particle size. Color, Tur- 
ty, Sedimentation, 
ntifiers: Coulter counter. 

oncentric cylinder apparatus utilizing an elec- 
lic particle size analyzer was used to study the 
gulation of finely divided silica particles by 
n and FeC13 and the coagulation of natural 
>r in water by alum. The unit was capable of in- 
iting the agglomerate size distribution directly, 
n which information on the rate and extent of 
gulation and on the strength and settling 
racteristics of the floe could be determined, 
dy variables included pH, coagulant dose, sil- 
or color concentration, mixing rate, and the 
hod of coagulant addition. The experimental 
ills were used to formulate a theory of coagula- 
i for the alum-silica system in which coagula- 
i is thought to involve chemical interaction 
#een the silica surface and Al (OH)3 
:ipitate to form small agglomerates called 'unit 
.' Further coagulation, according to the 
)ry. would require chemical interaction 
*een unit floes, and is based largely on the col- 
in dynamics of the system. (Bean-AWWARF) 
2-07345 



EORY OF MULTILAYER FILTRATION, 

versity Coll., London (England). Dept. of Civil 

Municipal Engineering. 

. Mohanka. 

rnal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

iety of Civil Engineers, Vol. 95, No. SA6, p 

9-1095. Paper 6959, 16 fig, 15 ref, December 

9. 

criptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, Sani- 
engineering, 'Filters, 'Design, Head loss, 
w rates, Flocculation, Computers, Model stu- 
;, 'Mathematical models, 
ntifiers: Baeku. ashing. Multimedia filters. 

thematical models describing the removal of 
pended solids and head loss changes through 
depth and during the time of operation of a 
:r run that were established in the past gave 
d correlation with experimental results under 
ticular conditions. Recently a more general 
ation was used in a multilayer filtration study 

was found to predict results matching experi- 
ltal observations. The relations of the various 
ameters in the equation with filtering velocity 

specific surface have been found for mul- 
yer filtration with flocculent suspensions. The 
hematical model was used to predict concen- 
ion removal and head loss development in a 
;r. (Bean-AWWARF) 
2-07346 



CONTROL OF BACTERIAL GROWTHS IN 
RAPID SAND FILTERS, 

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Dept. of Civil Engineering. 

J. T. O'Connor, and K. Y. Baliga. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 96, No. SA6, p 

1377-86, Paper 7767, December 1970. 3 fig, 4 tab, 6 

ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Water quality, 
'Disinfection, 'Nitrification, 'Groundwater, Iron, 
Filtration, 'Oxidation, Ammonia, 'Filters, 'Bac- 
teria, Illinois. 
Identifiers: 'Permanganate, 'Rantoul (111). 

Nitrification has been observed in the rapid sand 
filters of many iron removal plants in Illinois. The 
biological oxidation of annomia to nitrate by nitri- 
fying organisms often results in the total depletion 
of oxygen within the filter. The resulting anaerobic 
conditions have been associated with the 
breadthrough of iron. Because the growth of bac- 
teria, particularly nitrifying organisms, is a slow 
process, taking up to a few weeks to reach 
nuisance levels, periodic filter disinfection can 
often be practiced at lower cost than continuous 
control. Potassium permanganate was used in a 
pilot plant study in an effort to oxidize accumu- 
lated organic matter within a rapid sand filter. 
Since the oxidation of organic matter by potassium 
permanganate proceeds rapidly at pH about 10.5, 
sodium carbonate was used for pH adjustment. 
The application of 5,000 mg per 1 of KNm04 for 3 
hr prevented further oxygen and ammonia deple- 
tion in the filters. However, the bacteria] growth 
was reestablished by the end of the fourth week in- 
dicating that this treatment must be repeated 
whenever bacterial growth reaches a nuisance 
level. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07347 



NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF FILTRATION 
EQUATIONS, 

Bengal Engineering Coll., Howrah (India). Dept. 

of Civil Engineering. 

A. K. Deb. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 96, No. SA2, p 

195-210, Paper 7199, 6 fig, 15 ref, April 1970. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
ing, 'Filtration, Filters, 'Dimensional analysis, 
'Computers, Head loss, Time-series analysis. 
Mathematical studies. 
Identifiers: Multimedia filters. 

The variation of concentration of suspension and 
specific deposit at any depth of filter bed and time 
of filter run can be represented by two nonlinear 
partial differential equations. Complexities of 
these equations and filter coefficient function 
prohibit analytical solutions to the filtration equa- 
tions. Finite-difference methods are developed for 
the numerical analysis of suspension concentra- 
tion, specific deposit and head loss variations with 
the depth of bed and filtration time. A digital com- 
puter is used to solve the finite-difference model 
of filter equations. Results compare favorably 
with experimental results. The methods should 
also prove useful in studies of filtration with 
graded and multilayer beds with variation of in- 
fluent concentration. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07348 



PHYSICAL BEHAVIOR OF FLOCCULENT 
SUSPENSIONS IN UPFLOW , 

North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Dept. of En- 
vironmental Sciences and Engineering. 
J. C. Brown, and E. LaMotta. 
Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 97, No. SA2, p 
209-224. Paper 8054, April 1971 . 1 1 fig, 2 tab, 9 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
ing. 'Flocculation, Sedimentation, Velocity, 
Suspension. 
Identifiers: 'Sludge blanket, 'Upflow clarifiers. 



The variation in concentration of flocculent parti- 
cles in the sludge blanket of an upflow clarifier or 
reactor is a function of the upflow velocity of the 
liquid. The nature of this functional relationship 
for discrete particles has been determined by 
others. This investigation demonstrates that the 
same general type of relationship applies to floccu- 
lent particles. The results should prove useful in 
the further investigation of the behavior of upflow 
units as physical-chemical reactors. (Bean-AW- 
WARF) 
W72-07349 



BACKW ASHING OF GRANULAR WATER FIL- 
TERS, 

Camp, Dresser and McKee, Boston, Mass. 
T. R. Camp, S. D. Graber, and G. F. Conklin. 
Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 97, No. SA6, p 
903-926, Paper 8605, 6 fig, 2 tab, 1 1 ref, December 
1971. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
ing, 'Design, 'Filters, 'Filtration, 'Cleaning, 
Treatment facilities, Mathematical studies, Mas- 
sachusetts. 

Identifiers: 'Backwashing, Surface wash, Multi- 
media filters, 'Ballerica (Mass)filter plant. 

The grains of a rapid water filter are best cleansed 
by washing upward with water consistently at a 
rate sufficient to fluidize the entire bed and for a 
period sufficient to wash the dislodged floe parti- 
cles out of the bed and into the wash water gutters. 
Effective washing cannot be accomplished in 
operation unless the means are provided in the 
design and construction of the filter plant. Mathe- 
matical relationships are developed for beds 
fluidized by water, beds fluidized by an air-water 
mixture, and fluidized multi-media beds. Experi- 
mental procedures and data are presented, which 
were used to develop and substantiate the mathe- 
matical relationships, or both, and provide useful 
design information. Suggestions are given for the 
design of the bed and filter bottom to achieve ef- 
fective washing. The value of surface wash and air 
wash is analyzed. When air is applied to a bed 
which is fluidized with water, the bed expansion is 
reduced. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07352 



HISTOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL 
CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF EXPERIMENTAL 
ANIMALS WITH THE PROLONGED USE OF 
WATER CONTAINING DIFFERENT CONCEN- 
TRATIONS OF FLUORINE (IN RUSSIAN), 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C. 
W72-07396 



CITY RENOVATES WATER LINES. 

Water and Wastes Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 12, p 
39, Dec. 1971, 1 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water supply, Water quality, 'Cor- 
rosion, 'Distribution system, California, 'Clean- 
ing, 'Pipelines, Pipes, 'Linings, 'Maintenance. 
Identifiers: Pipe cleaning. Pipe lining, 'Long 
Beach (Calif ). 

Long Beach Cal. maintains Class 1 fire insurance 
rating with continous water line surveillance and 
rehabilitation. Cleaning and cement mortar lining 
are factors in retaining favorable fire insurance 
rates for residents and industry. Flow charac- 
teristics of all mains 12 in. and larger are checked 
regularly and a decision made whether to replace 
or clean and line. Cleaning and lining has increased 
the hydraulic capacity by as much as 50 percent 
and produced marked improvement in water quali- 
ty and substantial savings over replacement of 
mains. Two principal methods of cleaning are: the 
hydraulic method, a scraper tool is propelled 
through the main by water pressure; and drag 
cleaning, the scraper tool is dragged through the 
main. Cement mortar lining is applied centrif ugally 
by a machine with a rotating dispensing head, and 



71 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5F — Water Treatment and Quality Alteration 



a trowel which smooths the mortar. Pipe openings 
may be accomplished and the main put back in ser- 
vice within 48 hours. Above ground temporary ser- 
vice lines are usually laid to furnish service to con- 
sumers during the operation. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07434 



TREATMENT PLANT DESIGNED FOR DIF- 
FICULT WATER SOURCE, 

Wauford (J. R.) and Co., Nashville, Tenn. 

R. D. White. 

Public Works, Vol. 102, No. 9, p 75-78, September 

1971. 2 tab. 

Descriptors: *Water supply, 'Water treatment, 
Sanitary engineering, 'Filtration, *Water 
resources, Chlorine, Activated carbon, 
Phosphates, Fluorides, Tennessee, 'Treatment 
facilities, Design, 'Municipal water, Filters. 
Identifiers: Micro-Floe trimedia filters, *Turbitral 
dual-media filters, Permanganate, 'Johnson City 
(Tenn), Alum. 

Faced with need to establish a new source of water 
supply to supplement their Unicoi watershed, 
Johnson City, Tennessee chose the Watauga River 
in spite of its being subject to industrial waste 
discharges at Elizabethton. It was considered the 
most satisfactory of eight sources considered 
because of its lowest construction costs and 
lowest overall yearly cost. The State Health Dept. 
classified the intake location as suitable for a pota- 
ble water source. The new works consist of an 8 
mgd water treatment plant, a new 2 mg water 
storage reservoir, and new transmission lines. 
Major components of the plant are an induced- 
forced draft type aerator, flash-mix basin, two 
flocculation basins, two settling basins, four high 
rate filters, chemical storage, feed equipment and 
control equipment. All components are designed 
for expansion to 24 mgd. Each flocculation basin 
has three horizontal axis-paddle wheel mixers, 
operable over a 3:1 speed range, with baffles 
between. Detention time is 45 min. at 8 mgd rate, 
and at the same rate the detention time in settling 
is 3 hr. 45 min. Two different types of high-rate fil- 
ters were installed for evaluation and eventual 
change of one if either proves significantly superi- 
or. Neptune MicroFloc trimedia system was in- 
stalled in two and Turbitrol dual media system in 
the other two. Coagulant aid, liquid alum, pre and 
post chlorination, carbon, potassium perman- 
ganate, phosphate and fluoride treatments are pro- 
vided. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07435 



AN AUTOMATED IRON-REMOVAL PLANT, 

Hazen and Sawyer, New York. 

J. P. Wolfner. 

Public Works, Vol. 99. No. 5, p 100-102, May 1968. 

lfig. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment. Sanitary engineer- 
ing, 'Filtration, 'Iron, 'Groundwater, 
'Diatomaceous earth. Hydrogen sulfide. Costs, 
Phosphates, 'Treatment facilities. Filters, Costs, 
New Jersey. 

Identifiers: 'Magnesium oxide, 'Diatomite filters, 
•Point Pleasant Beach (NJ). 

Point Pleasant Beach, New Jersey has a winter 
population of about 4,000, tripling in summer, with 
up to 30,000 on weekends. Increased pumping 
caused high iron content in well water and still 
greater capacity was needed. A new well was con- 
structed with a 600,000 gal. ground storage tank, a 
treatment plant of 2.5 mgd capacity and a clear- 
well. The one diatomaceous earth filter is 5 ft. in 
diameter, 10 ft. high and has 585 sq. ft. of filter 
area. It contains 750 filter septa, each one inch in 
diameter and about 3 ft. long, fitted with a tight- 
weave monel-mesh outer layer. The tank is 
designed for 100 psi pressure. Treatment consists 
in application of magnesium oxide before filtration 
and polyphosphate and chlorine in the filter ef- 
fluent. The well water contains between 1.2 and 
1.5 mg/1 of iron and 0.1 mg/1 of hydrogen sulfide. 



After treatment, iron concentration is reduced to 
less than 0.05 mg/1 and the hydrogen sulfide is not 
detectable. Chemical operating costs are about $12 
per mg treated. With plant production rate at 1.0 
mgd, filter runs are currently longer than 72 hours. 
(Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07436 



VALVELESS FILTER INSTALLED FOR IRON 
REMOVAL, 

Warren and Van Praag, Inc., Decatur, 111. 

J. R. Gardner, and A. J. Stika. 

Public Works, Vol. 95, No. 3, p 109-110, March 

1964. 3 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Iron, 'Ground- 
water, 'Aeration, 'Filtration, Sedimentation, 
Costs, 'Design, 'Filters, 'Treatment facilities, 
Municipal water, Illinois. 

Identifiers: 'Valveless filters, Backwashing, 
'Coke tray aerators, 'Hoopeston (111). 

Hoopeston, Illinois, obtained its water from two 
wells in glacial drift. Without filtration and with 
minimum aeration the water was stored in two 
ground storage reservoirs which acted as settling 
basins for the slightly aerated water, with residues 
forming in the basins. From these reservoirs the 
water was pumped into the distribution system, 
carrying some of the residues. Unsightly color, un- 
palatable taste, disagreeable odors, stained 
clothing and plumbing fixtures were but a few of 
the complaints once common by the 6,600 re- 
sidents. Iron removal facilities were needed. The 
City decided to install two automatic gravity val- 
veless filters manufactured by the Permutit Com- 
pany, the first such municipal installation in Il- 
linois. The valveless filters were to be used strictly 
for the removal of iron residue following aeration, 
not for removing bacteria. A new aerator was in- 
stalled, consisting of three coke trays and a dis- 
tributing tray, also a receiving tank to provide 30 
minutes storage at plant capacity of 1.5 mgd. The 
two filters at Hoopeston automatically backwash 
approximately once every 50 to 55 hours of opera- 
tion. Factors influential in choosing their installa- 
tion were ( 1 ) lower cost of original installation than 
conventional gravity filters, and (2) no manual 
operation is required. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07437 



SEDIMENTATION BASIN DESIGN AND 
OPERATION, 

S. L. Tolman. 

Public Works, Vol. 94, No. 6, p 119-122, June 

1963. 2 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Design, 'Sedi- 
mentation, Sludge, Maintenance, Operation, 
'Sanitary engineering. Cleaning, 'Settling basins. 
Identifiers: 'Dispersion index. Hydraulic index. 

Design factors for conventional sedimentation 
basins are length to width ratio of at least 5 to 1 , 
depths 10 to 12 ft (although some are deeper), de- 
tention period not less than 2 hours, and overflow 
rates not more than 750 gpd/sq ft for alum floe or 
1500 gpd/sq ft for water softening floe. At least 
two basins should be provided. Hydraulic tests of 
conventional basins and the dispersion index are 
discussed, also short circuiting, sludge collectors 
and maintenance and operation. Bi-level settling 
basins and designs for their cleaning are discussed. 
(Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07438 



THE MECHANICS OF MIXING AND FLOCCU- 
LATION, 

S. L. Tolman. 

Public Works, Vol. 93, No. 12. p 88-90, 152 and 

154, December 1962. 3 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Design, 'Mixing, 
'Flocculation, Flow characteristics. Sanitary en- 
gineering. Dispersion, Equipment. 
Identifiers: 'Dispersion index. 



The fundamental roles of mixing and flocculatiot 
and the mechanisms employed are considered 
The purpose of rapid mixing is to disperse th< 
chemicals in the raw water uniformly without flo< 
formation. Flocculation is necessary for th< 
removal of suspended and colloidal particles 
either naturally occurring or produced througl 
chemical reactions. Designs of various types ol 
mixers and mixing basins, flocculation equipment 
and basins, flow through characteristics ant 
dispersion indices are discussed. (Bean-AW 
WARF) 
W72-07439 



DESIGN OF AN IRON REMOVAL PLANT FOF 
A SMALL CITY, 

E. S. Hopkins. 

Public Works, Vol 93, No 4, p 95-97, April 1962. 1 

fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Iron, 'Ground- 
water, 'Aeration, Disinfection, Phosphates, Con 
trol systems, 'Design, Delaware, 'Treatment 
facilities, 'Municipal water. 
Identifiers: Aer-o-Mix, 'Accelator, 'Delaware 
City (Del). 

Delaware City, Del., has a population of about 
1500 and unmetered water usage of about 100,00( 
gpd. It was served by a shallow-well containinj 
0.09 mg/1 of iron and a deep well with 7. 1 mg/1 iron 
Purification consisted in chlorination anc 
sequestering of the iron with Calgon. The watei 
company was bought by the City in 1959, installa- 
tion of an iron removal plant was recommended 
together with drilling additional wells. A plan was 
adopted to provide a new supply rated for a de- 
mand 20 years in the future of 200,000 gpd and s 
fire demand of 500,000 gpd. A 5-inch, 701 ft. deer, 
well, together with the existing deep well, made 
available 505 gpm. The two well pump discharges 
pass through Aer-O-Mix units, where carbon diox- 
ide is released and dissolved iron is oxidized to ar 
Accelator 285 ft in diameter, with designed capaci- 
ty of 350 gpm and overflow rate of 1 ,000 gpm pei 
sq. ft. 20 minutes mixing and 70 minutes detention 
is provided in the primary mixing tank. Effluent of 
the Accelator flows to the surge tank in the filtei 
building, where two 200 gpm pumps, at 100 ft. 
head, pump the water through three sand pressure 
filters to the distribution system and standpipe. 
After disinfection with chlorine the dissolved iron 
in precipated with alum and lime at pH 9.0 in the 
Accelator. Design of equipment and electrical con- 
trols is discussed. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07440 



TREATMENT PLANT PROVIDES IRON 
REMOVAL AND SOFTENING, 

Burgess and Niple Ltd., Columbus, Ohio. 

R. E. Peters, and K. W. Cosens. 

Public Works, Vol 92, No 1, p 88-94, Jan. 1961. 2 

fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Iron, 'Water sof- 
tening, 'Instrumentation, 'Design, Aeration, Sedi- 
mentation, Filtration, Costs, Instrumentation 
Ohio, Automation, 'Treatment facilities, Clean 
ing. 
Identifiers: Backwashing, 'Lancaster (Ohio). 

Instrumentation for operator efficiency was the 
design goal to reduce requirements to one man pei 
shift. The semi-automatic plant for Lancaster 
Ohio, is described in detail, including aerators, set 
tling tanks, filters, clearwells, pump room, the sof 
teners and cycle of operation, salt and brim 
storage and handling, backwash facilities and in 
strumentation. Cost of the new waterworks wa 
$46 per capita served. Instrumentation and proces 
control represents 6 percent of the contract cosl 
(Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07441 



ALGAE CONTROL, 

Wisconsin Committee on Water Pollution, Madis 

on. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 



72 



W//k 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Water Treatment and Quality Alteration — Group 5F 



V72-07442 



(EVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE OF RAPID 
AND FILTER, 

'iltration Equipment Corp., Rochester, N.Y. 
I. E. Herbert. 

ournal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
ociety of Civil Engineers, Vol 92, No SA1, p 31- 
9, Paper 4649, February 1966. 5 fig, 3 tab. 

lescriptors: *Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 

ig, •Filters, 'Filtration, Design, Flow rates, 

leaning, Treatment facilities, Pilot plants, Soil 

Iters. 

lentifiers: Filter media, Backwashing, *Sand fil- 



rapid sand filter for water treatment in which the 
iedia would remain of uniform thickness in- 
finitely and could be cleaned easily under nor- 
al operating conditions, thereby permitting in- 
eased filtration rates was the design goal. Tests 
dicated that the system should be hydraulically 
jntrolled by orifices in plates at the top of the 
Iter rather than in the underdrain system. Con- 
:ntional wash troughs and surface wash equip- 
ent are eliminated by such a system. On this ba- 
s, a 2-ft square unit or 'module' was developed 
id operated over a 3 yr period. Both the pilot 
ant and a later full size test model confirmed the 
irlier findings. Filters consisting of multiple units 
lve been installed and successfully operated at 
unicipal water treatment plants. (Bean-AW- 

ARF) 
72-07443 



ATER PURIFICATION BY FORCED-FLOW 
LECTROPHORESIS, 

rizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Civil Engineer- 

g 

C. Cooper, Q. M. Mees, and M. Bier, 
mrnal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
>ciety of Civil Engineers, Vol 91, No SA6, p 13- 
i, Paper 4557, Dec 1965. 10 fig, 3 tab. 

escriptors: *Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
g, 'Electrophoresis, Colloids, Viruses, Microor- 
nisms. Organic matter. Insecticides, 2-4-D, 
rparation techniques, Analytical techniques, 
Vater purification. 

le capabilities of an electrophoretic apparatus 
r water treatment are reported. Forced-flow 
ectrophoresis, a modification of electrodecanta- 
>n by Bier has two potential applications: (1) the 
mcentration of micro-organisms or dilute solu- 
>ns of organic compounds for the purposes of 
ith identification and quantitative analysis, and 
) the removal of colloids and supra-colloids from 
rface waters. Concentration of dilute samples of 
icteriophage Tl and 2, 4-D insecticide demon- 
rate a possible water quality monitoring 
chnique. Waters of low conductivity containing 
illoidal material can also be treated directly by 
ectrophoresis for colloid separation. Scale-up 
yond laboratory size is dependent on reducing 
fects of scale and slime formation, spacer 
ickness, and sedimentation and clogging; as well 
a need for better electrical power efficiency. 
ean-AWWARF) 
72-07444 



VALUATION OF HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY 
F SEDIMENTATION BASINS, 

:chnion - Israel Inst, of Tech., Haifa. Sanitary 

lgineering Lab. 

. Rebhum, and Y. Argaman. 

urnal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

iciety of Civil Engineers, Vol 91 , No SA5, p 37- 

, Paper 4523, Oct 1965. 4 fig, 1 tab. 

:scriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
g, 'Sedimentation, 'Efficiencies, Flow measure- 
:nt, Hydraulics, Mixing, 'Settling basins, Flow 
tes. 



Detention time distribution curves of a pilot sedi- 
mentation basin were analyzed by the conven- 
tional method using central tendency values of the 
flow curve and by a new method in which an F (t) 
function is used. A straight line resulted when ex- 
perimental values of log (1-F (t) ) versus t/T were 
plotted. Good correlation was obtained between 
results by both methods. The new method enables 
a quantitative analysis of the flow regime. The 
flow in a sedimentation basin, with inlet baffle, 
consists of approximately 60% mixing; the 
remainder is plug flow. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07445 



RESEARCH ON VARIABLES AFFECTING FIL- 
TRATION, 

University Coll., London (England). Dept. of Civil 

Engineering. 

K. J. Ives, and I. Sholji. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 91, No SA4, p 1- 

18, Paper 4436, August 1965. 7 fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, 'Fil- 
ters, Sanitary engineering, Viscosity, Head loss, 
'Flow rates, 'Efficiencies, 'Particle size, Tem- 
perature. 
Identifiers: Filter media. 

Mathematical laws describe the water quality and 
head loss changes through the depth and during 
the time of operation of a filter run. How this per- 
formance will change was evaluated in filter runs 
operated with different sized media, or at different 
filtration rates, or at different water temperatures. 
A particulate suspension of plastic microspheres 
(diameter 1.3 microns) was used to conform with 
mathematical idealizations. Filter efficiency varies 
inversely with grain size, inversely with the filtra- 
tion rate, and as the inverse square of the water 
viscosity. Some examples of different filter opera- 
tions are calculated and compared using these rela- 
tionships. Other theoretical and experimental stu- 
dies have been reviewed, which also indicate in- 
verse relationships between filter efficiency and 
grain size, rate, and viscosity. However, these are 
not identical and it appears that each suspension 
may have characteristic exponents associated with 
the three variables investigated. (Bean-AW- 
WARF) 
W72-07446 



FILTRATION THROUGH SIZE-GRADED 
MEDIA, 

Glenfield and Kennedy Ltd., London (England). 
E. W. J. Diaper, and K. J. Ives. 
Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 91, No SA3, p 89- 
1 14, Paper 4378, June 1965. 22 fig, 2 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, 'Fil- 
ters, 'Particle size, Sands, Coals, Head loss. 
Flow, Cleaning, Mathematical studies. 
Identifiers: 'Filter media, 'Upflow filtration, 
Backwashing. 

Theory for filters containing media of one size has 
been extended to filtration through size-graded 
media. This theory demonstrates the advantages 
of filtering into the coarsest media first, then 
through subsequently finer media. This is the 
reverse of present (1965) practice in sand filters. 
Experiments compared downflow (normal) with 
upflow (reverse) filtration, and showed the operat- 
ing advantages of the latter. Washing upflow fil- 
ters gave practical difficulties. An experimental 
three-layer filter or coarse anthracite, on medium- 
size sand, on garnet sand, enabled filtration to 
proceed downwards but through the correct grad- 
ing sequence suggested by the theory. This filter 
produced considerably lower head losses for com- 
parable filtrate quality as compared with a normal 
sand filter with equivalent grain sizes. The three- 
layer format remained stable after several upflow 
backwashings that fluidized the media. (Bean-AW- 
WARF) 
W72-07447 



THEORY OF WATER FILTRATION, 

Camp, Dresser and McKee, Boston, Mass. 

T. R. Camp. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 

Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 90, No SA4, p 1- 

30, Paper 3990, August 1964. 21 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, 'Floc- 
culation, 'Head loss, 'Flow rates, 'Sands, Sanita- 
ry engineering, 'Hydraulic gradients, Sedimenta- 
tion, Particle size, Cleaning, Porosity. 
Identifiers: Backwashing. 

The Kozeny equation of laminar flow through 
granular materials is extended to the transition re- 
gion by means of a chart of the friction factor ver- 
sus the Reynolds number. A chart of the 
backwashing number versus the Reynolds number 
is developed for estimating wash rates required at 
impending suspension and during suspension of 
filter grains. The friction factor during backwash 
decreases greatly at porosities greater than ap- 
proximately 0.6. Small floe particles deposit in a 
filter, as a sheath, around the sand grains. A chart 
is presented for the computation of the deposit 
ratio from the sand size and hydraulic gradient. 
The rate of removal for a given volumetric concen- 
tration of floe in the water at each depth is found 
to decrease greatly with depth. This decrease in 
the effectiveness is related to the adhesiveness of 
the floe to the sand. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07448 



EFFECT OF PADDLE DESIGN ON FLOCCULA- 
TION, 

Thayer School of Engineering, Hanover, N.H. 
N. L. Drobny. 

Journal Sanitary Engineering Division, American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol 89, No SA2, p 17- 
30, Paper 3480, April 1963. 1 1 fig, append. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, Sanitary engineer- 
ing, 'Flocculation, 'Design, Efficiencies, 'Mix- 
ing, Shape. 
Identifiers: Mixing paddle types. 

Paddle design may be a major contributing factor 
to the flocculation process. Laboratory tests using 
a solution of water with aluminum sulfate and 
sodium carbonate indicate that floe formation is 
affected by the following paddle parameters: (1) 
surface roughness, (2) surface perforations, (3) 
paddle curvature, (4) surface area, and (5) paddle 
shape. A condition maintained throughout the en- 
tire test was a constant input of power through the 
paddles to the solution. The results indicate that 
especially surface perforations and certain degrees 
of surface roughness can significantly enhance the 
floe formation. It appears that the flocculation 
process may be more efficient with respect to 
power input as a result of simple variations in the 
paddle design. (Bean-AWWARF) 
W72-07449 



TASTE AND ODOUR IN WATER SUPPLIES IN 
GREAT BRITAIN: A SURVEY OF THE 
PRESENT POSITION AND PROBLEMS FOR 
THE FUTURE, 

Bristol Waterworks (England). 
L. R. Bays, N. P. Burman, and W. M. Lewis. 
Water Treat Exam. 19(2): 1970. 136-160. 
Identifiers: Actinomycetes, Britain, Chlorine, 
Chromatography, Flora, Freeze, Fungi, Gas, Hu- 
man, Manganate, Nutrient, Odor, Ozone, Potassi- 
um, Spore, Survey, Taste. 

Spore counting in water is not indicative of the in- 
tensity of taste and odor due to actinomycetes. 
Bottom mud appeared to yield the highest spore 
count. CI, KMn04 or 03 did not prevent taste and 
odor resulting from this type of organism. The or- 
ganisms were capable of surviving chlorination 
and may thus pass into the water supply. A variety 
of plumbing materials and water fittings, including 
yarn initially treated with phenyl mercuric nitrate, 
may on aging actively support actinomycetes and 
fungi. Work undertaken failed to elucidate the 
critical nutrient supporting actinomycetes growth. 



73 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5F — Water Treatment and Quality Alteration 



In the treatment process, activated C, at doses of 
30 mg/1 , proved to be the only practical procedure 
for satisfactory elimination of tastes and odors. 
Gas chromatographic measuring of taste and odor 
intensity fell short by several orders of magnitude 
in detection compared with the human olfactory 
sensory perception. Freeze concentration of the 
taste and odor compounds in water provides 
means of investigating the problem academically, 
but is not a practical proposition in everyday 
waterworks practice. A complex biological river 
water flora nurtured in pretreatment tanks caused 
improvement in overcoming the problem of treat- 
ment of odorous river water.-Copyright 1971, 
Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07536 



A GLANCE OVER POLYELECTROLYTES, 

Engineering Coll., Karad (India). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07551 



SUDDEN DEATH FROM ISCHEMIC HEART 
DISEASE IN ONTARIO AND ITS CORRELA- 
TION WITH WATER HARDNESS AND OTHER 
FACTORS, 

Toronto Univ. (Ontario). School of Hygiene. 
T. W. Anderson, and W. H. LeRiche. 
Can Med Ass J. 105(2): 155-160. 1971. Dlus. 
Identifiers: Canada, Death, Disease, Hardness, 
Heart, Human, Ischemic, Ontario. 

It is possible that there is a systematic geographi- 
cal variation in the proportion of deaths from 
ischemic heart disease that occur suddenly, and 
that this variation may be causally related to water 
hardness or some other environmental factor. 
Three indices of sudden death have been ex- 
amined; each showed a correlation with water 
hardness that was of similar sign and magnitude. A 
detailed examination of 1686 deaths occurring in 
residents of 2 cities which differ widely in the 
hardness of their water supply confirmed that in 
deaths ascribed to heart disease the proportion of 
sudden deaths was higher (by 20-30%) in the 
northern (soft-water) city than in the southern 
(hard-water) city. -Copyright 1972, Biological Ab- 
stracts, Inc. 
W72-07560 



RISK OF SUDDEN DEATH IN SOFT WATER 
AREAS, 

Ottawa Univ. (Ontario). Dept. of Epidemiology 

and Community Medicine. 

L. C. Neri, D. Hewitt, and J. S. Mandel. 

Amer J Epidemiol. 94 (2): 101-104. 1971. 

Identifiers: Canada, Coronary, Death, Disease, 

Heart, Human, Risk, Soft. 

A reported association between suddenness of 
death from coronary heart disease and residence 
in soft water areas is discussed. An attempt has 
been made to establish, for the city of Ottawa, the 
extent to which coroner-certified deaths cor- 
respond to a classification of sudden/nonsudden. 
It is suggested that the predictive value of water 
hardness may be related to trace metal contents- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07561 



WORLD AND WATER IMPERATIVES: WATER 
SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 
A. Wolman. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 62, No. 12, p 746-749, December 1970. 3 
ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water supply, 'Diseases. 'Planning, 
♦Decision making, Management, Assessments, 
Consolidation, Research and development. 
Resources development. 

Identifiers: 'Environmental health, 'Water hy- 
giene, Conflicts. 



Water hygiene has been lost in the 'pollution bag'. 
In spite of the current emphasis on the esthetic 
aspects of water, on the preservation of fish and 
wildlife in natural bodies of water, and on recrea- 
tional amenities, the threat and the reality of 
waterborne disease looms large. For some two 
thirds of the world's population, the threats to 
health via unsafe and inadequate waters are still 
dramatic. Areas requiring tough decision making 
in water resources management are listed. (1) The 
pollution of raw water sources requires continued 
assessment. (2) The problems of water supply and 
sewerage require joint scrutiny. (3) Steps toward 
consolidation are overdue. (4) Conflicts in water 
use must be confronted. (5) The values and debits 
of water reuse need to be assessed. (6) The pros 
and cons of universal metering are problems de- 
manding serious debate. (7) The ecologic impact of 
fresh water impoundments, estuarial barrages, and 
underground replenishment will have to be mea- 
sured. (8) The economics and externalities of dual 
water supplies are due for revised discussion. (9) 
The diagnosis and assessment of the compatibility 
of different sources, of different origins, tempera- 
ture, and composition are necessary with respect 
to new water sources. (10) NEW MANAGERIAL 
STRUCTURES NEED TO BE DEVELOPED 
FOR BURGEONING METROPOLITAN 
AREAS. (11) The determination of alternatives in 
water management is necessary. (12) Research is 
negligible in the waterworks industry and govern- 
ment. Most importantly a new perspective is 
needed which reflects the world status of various 
water problems. (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07630 



IDENTIFICATION AND ESTIMATION OF 
NEUTRAL ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN 
POTABLE WATER, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Inst, for Atomic 

Research; and Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of 

Chemistry. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07666 



BACTERICIDAL PROPERTIES OF CHLOR- 
SULFAMATES, 

Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Lawrence. 

Environmental Health Research. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 

W72-07722 



WHAT THE WASTEWATER PLANT EN- 
GINEER SHOULD KNOW ABOUT CEN- 
TRIFUGES/2, 

Pennwalt Corp.. Warminster, Pa. Sharpies Cen- 
trifuges. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07763 



THE GREAT EAU SCHEME: NORTH-EAST 
LINCOLNSHntE WATER BOARD, 

North East Lincolnshire Water Board, Lincoln 

(England). 

R. V. Ash. 

Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers, Vol 

20, No 7, p 435-458. October 1966. 3 fig, append. 

Descriptors: 'Water purification, 'Water soften- 
ing, 'Sludge treatment. Aqueducts, Water quality, 
Aeration, 'Treatment facilities, 'Water treatment, 
'Design, 'Waste treatment. 
Identifiers: Intake works. Precipitators. 

Investigations and design detail are reported for 
the intake works, treatment processes, and 
aqueduct for a water supply system. The cost was 
estimated at 4.3 million pounds. Investigations 
were made of the reservoir and treatment works 
site, weirs, intakes, and size, route, piping, valv- 
ing, crossings, and surge surpression for the 
aqueduct. Quality data are presented for color, 
hardness, chlorine, and iron and manganese con- 
tent of the raw water. Proposed treatment in- 
cluded: cascade aeration; precipitators with 



mechanical flocculators and upward flow for par- 
tial or split softening and clarification; rapid gravi- 
ty filters; stabilization; and sterilization with 
breakpoint chlorination. Details are provided on 
the clear water reservoir, chemical storage and 
dosing system, and washwater recovery and 
sludge disposal. Two 40,000 gallon tanks, 
equipped with agitators, store washwater. The 
sludge from these tanks is sent to the precipitators. 
Precipitation sludge is concentrated in slow stir- 
ring thickeners with supernatant water returned to 
the precipitation inlet. Sludge is pumped to sea. 
Details are presented for relift and high-lift pump- 
ing, electrical supply and distribution, diesel 
generation plant, and structural design and 
architectural treatment. (Nardozzi-AWWA) 
W72-07764 



DIDDINGTON TREATMENT WORKS: GREAT 
USE WATER SUPPLY SCHEME, 

Binnie and Partners, London (England). 
J. H. T. Griffiths, and W. J. L. Wisdish. 
Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers, Vol 
21, No 2, p 103-126, March 1967. 8 fig, 2 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water softening, 'Water purifica- 
tion, 'Sludge treatment, Aeration, Filtration, 
Chlorination, Lagoons, Construction, Architec- 
ture, 'Treatment facilities, 'Design, 'Water treat- 
ment, 'Waste treatment. 

Design and construction aspects of a water soften- 
ing clarification facility are reviewed. The site had 
good access, nearby delivery mains, and sufficient 
area. Quality goals included: softened water with a 
constant total hardness and non-carbonate/car- 
bonate hardness ratio; and acceptable 
chloride/carbonate hardness ratio. Physical and 
chemical source water quality data are tabulated. 
Flexible treatment processes were: cascade aera- 
tion; flash mixing; reaction tanks for softening and 
clarification; rapid gravity filtration with air scour, 
low velocity wash, and surface flush provisions; 
sludge concentration; and storage and handling 
facilities for ferrous sulfate, alumina, lime, soda 
ash, sodium silicate and sulfuric acid. Preliminary 
chemical house considerations included: position- 
ing relative to reaction tanks, bunker height and 
weatherproof ing, and lorry bay size. A Candy cen- 
trifugal-balancer-proportional-speed chemical 
system was utilized. Provisions for pH correction, 
activated carbon, and controls and signalling are 
discussed. The sterilization plant provides 
chlorination at the dam pumping station, inlet to 
works following aeration, raw-water channel, and 
after filtration. Separate lagoons process wash- 
water-clarification sludge and softening waste. 
Architectural and landscaping details are provided 
with information on the initial running of the plant. 
(Nardozzi-AWWA) 
W72-07765 



DESIGN AND OPERATION OF THE CAR- 
MONEY WATER TREATMENT WORKS: 
FAUGHAN RIVER SCHEME - LONDONDERRY 
R.D.C., 

Permutit Company, Ltd., London (England). 
E. J. Wilcock, and B. A. Sard. 
Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers, Vol 
18, No 6, p 477-490, October 1964. 2 tab, 1 append. 

Descriptors: 'Water purification, 'Sludge treat- 
ment. Sedimentation, Filtration, Operations, 
Costs, 'Treatment facilities. 'Water treatment. 
'Waste treatment, Design, Settling basins, Clean- 
ing, Remedies. 
Identifiers: 'Washwater, Supernatant recovery. 

Preliminary treatment design criteria are provided 
for a water purification plant. The ultimate plant 
capacity of 15 mgd in 3 stages was to supply indus- 
trial and domestic consumers. Tabulated raw 
water quality showed seasonal variations and 
rapid changes. A flexible treatment scheme is 
needed. Proposed treatment included: alum coagu- 
lation; pH control using H2S04; provision for ; 
'weighter'; mechanical flocculation; sedimenta 



74 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 
Water Treatment and Quality Alteration — Group 5F 



tion; rapid gravity filtration; pH conditioning for 
distribution; and sterilization. The intake works 
are screened and have provisions for chlorination. 
Horizontal flow sedimentation basins with 
mechanical agitation equipment were chosen. 
These units are the least sensitive to changes in 
water quality and flow rates. Chemical handling 
facilities are described. Filtration flow rates are 
73-87 gph/sq. ft. through graded Leighton Buzzard 
sand and graded pebbles with a non-ferrous pipe 
under-drainage system. Filter washing procedures 
include air scour, upward water wash, and 
horizontal surface flush. Two washwater holding 
tanks, each of 50,000 gallon capacity, equipped 
with slow moving paddles to prevent sedimenta- 
tion, settle filter washwater. Supernatant wash- 
water is returned to the plant inlet. Sludge from the 
washwater holding tanks and sedimentation basins 
is sent to lagoons. Operational experience, remedi- 
al measures, and plant cost details are provided. 
(Nardozzi-AWWA) 
W72-07766 



DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE FIXBY 
WATER TREATMENT WORKS FOR THE 
WAKEFIELD AND DISTRICT WATER BOARD, 

Wakefield and District Water Board, Yorkshire 

(England). 

P. G. M. CoUins, and O. Gibb. 

Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers, Vol 

18, No 6, p 491-502, October 1964. 2 fig, 2 append. 

Descriptors: 'Sludge treatment, *Water purifica- 
tion, Operations, Lagoons, 'Treatment facilities, 
'Water treatment, 'Waste treatment, Filtration 
sites, 'Construction, Reservoirs, Filters, Design, 
Administration. 
Identifiers: Washwater, Supernatant. 

Site selection criteria, proposed treatment 
methods, plant operation and construction details, 
and washwater and sludge treatment processes are 
reviewed for a 7 mgd water treatment plant. The 
treatment facilities included: ferrous sulfate 
coagulation; pH conditioning; hydraulic mixing; 
mechanical flocculation; upflow sedimentation; 
breakpoint chlorination; rapid gravity filtration; 
automatic residual chlorine control; filtered water 
storage; and waste handling facilities. Filtration 
flow rates are 101-121 gallons/sq ft/hr through a 
graded quartz sand bed on graded gravel with a 
perforated asbestos cement pipe underdrainage 
system. Filter washwater is settled in duplicate 
recovery tanks of 60,000 gallons capacity. Super- 
natant is recycled to the plant inlet. Concentrated 
sludge is periodically withdrawn and pumped to 
lagoons for drying and ultimate disposal. Sludge 
lagoons are an interim treatment measure. Chemi- 
cal handling facilities are described. Building and 
general layout, and structural design details of the 
clear-water reservoir, precipitators, filters, and 
ancillaries are presented. Concrete mix and design 
data are listed. Appendices included a list of con- 
tractors and design and administration informa- 
tion. (Nardozzi-AWWA) 
W72-07767 



DESIGN OF YORKSHIRE DERW ENT HEAD- 
WORKS, 

North East Lincolnshire Water Board, Lincoln 

(England). 

F. Earnshaw. 

Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers, Vol 

16, No 2, p 139-159, March 1962. 7 fig. 

Descriptors: 'Water softening, 'Sludge treatment, 
Construction, Centrifugation, Lagoons, De water- 
ing, Design, 'Water treatment, Sites, 'Treatment 
facilities, 'Specifications, 'Waste treatment. Au- 
tomatic control. 
Identifiers: Flow records. 

Treatment plans for a 25 mgd water softening 
facility are outlined. The intake site for the tidal 
source was chosen for: minimal interference to the 
freshwater regime; ability to provide water and 
avoid heavy silting; and a foundation suitable for 



construction of a pump house and treatment 
works. Flow occurrence probability records and 
formulae are presented. Treatment included: lime 
(lime-soda) softening in upward-flow reaction 
tanks with clarification aided by a coagulant useful 
at high pH values; stabilization and chlorination in 
a baffled contact tank; rapid gravity filtration; 
dechlorination and ammoniation; treated water 
storage. The nature of the site, layout of the 
works, and preemptory specifications for the in- 
take and low-lift pumps are provided. The reaction 
tanks, flash mixer and contact tank, filters, and 
automatic controls are discussed. The controls will 
monitor raw and treated water flow, river levels, 
intake system condition, chemical handling and 
storage facilities, and filter washing. Considera- 
tion is being given to sludge dewatering by cen- 
trifugation. It is thought the sludge has agricultural 
value. Permanent sludge dump sites include 
unused gravel pits and quarries, an abandoned 
canal, and an estuary. Sludge will be lagooned on 
site for the first 12 months of operation while han- 
dling methods are evaluated. (Nardozzi-AWWA) 
W72-07768 



DESIGN OF FARMOOR TREATMENT WORKS, 
OXFORD CORPORATION WATER DEPART- 
MENT, 

Oxford Water Dept. (England). 

F. Cartwright. 

Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers, Vol 

18, No 5, p 381-412, August 1964. 4 fig, 1 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Water purification, 'Sludge treat- 
ment, Specifications, Costs, Sites, 'Treatment 
facilities, 'Water treatment, 'Design. 
Identifiers: Filter washwater. 

The problems and design considerations for the 
four stage development of a 24 mgd water purifica- 
tion plant are reviewed. A reservoir is planned to 
furnish an adequate raw water supply. Advantages 
and disadvantages of the treatment site are 
discussed. The source water is stable and non-cor- 
rosive, but prone to periodic taste and odor 
problems. Physical and chemical water charac- 
teristics are tabulated. The plant layout included: 
aerator; microstrainers; settling tanks; filters; 
pump and control housing; treated water storage 
reservoir; chemical house; administration build- 
ing; electrical substation; diesel house; garage and 
cycle shed; dirty washwater and sludge settling 
tanks; sludge settling lagoons; automatic controls; 
alarm system; and oil-fired burner. Some contract 
cost and design specification data are provided. 
These data describe the faculties enumerated 
under the plant layout. Thickened sludge is settled 
in a lagoon. Decanted supernatant is discharged to 
a nearby brook. Duplicate filter washwater tanks 
and sludge thickening tanks are provided. (Nar- 
dozzi-AWWA) 
W72-07769 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF BOUGH BEECH AS A 
SOURCE OF SUPPLY (THE EAST SURREY 
WATER COMPANY), 

East Surrey Water Co. (England). 

J. S. Shinner, and A. S. Davison. 

Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers, Vol 

25, No 5, p 243-260, July 1971. 2 fig, 5 append. 

Descriptors: 'Water softening, 'Water purifica- 
tion, Sludge treatment, Costs, 'Treatment facili- 
ties, 'Water treatment, Sites, 'Design, Water 
quality. 

Identifiers: 'Power generation, 'Distribution 
pumping, Recirculation. 

The development of a surface water supply capa- 
ble of yielding 5-6 mgd with a maximum of 10 mgd 
is reviewed. Reservoir and intake site selection 
was based on water quantity available, an abstrac- 
tion formula, water quality, and storage effects. 
The design philosophy considered average/max- 
imum yield relationships; river works; conjunctive 
use of underground chalk water and greensand 
supplies, and surface storage; plant flexibility; dis- 



tribution needs; phasing of development; power 
supply; and controls and instrumentation. The sof- 
tening-clarification facility and pumping station 
will provide water treatment, power generation, 
and pumping to supply. Treatment includes reac- 
tion tanks, equipped for softening, clarification, 
and recirculation; rapid gravity sand filtration; car- 
bon pressure filtration; treated water reservoir; 
pH correction units; chlorination and ammoniation 
equipment. The generating plant will provide flexi- 
ble operation with 3.3kV at the river works and 
250kVA at the mains. Softening and clarification 
wastes are separately handled. Sludge is concen- 
trated and the supernatant water returned to the 
settled water channel. Experimental bays are used 
to study methods to dispose concentrated sludge 
and filter washwater. Appendices summarize 
physical-chemical water quality data for the river 
and reservoir; principal technical data and con- 
sultants; and approximate costs. (Nardozzi- 
AWWA) 
W72-07770 



SOURCE CONTROL OF WATER TREATMENT 
WASTE SOLH)S, 

Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Dept. of Civil En- 
gineering. 

D. D. Adrian, and J. H. Nebiker. 
Progress Report for Federal Water Pollution Con- 
trol Administration, Report No. EVE 13- 69-1, 
March 1969. 95 p, 17 fig, 87 ref, append. Grant 
WP-01239. FWPCA Program 16080 DZS 03/69. 

Descriptors: 'Dewatering, 'Sludge treatment, 
Mathematical models, Design, 'Water treatment, 
'Waste treatment, Costs, Time, 'Drying, 'Sludge 
disposal, Sludge, 'Waste water treatment. 
Identifiers: 'Drying beds, Alum, Freeze-thaw, 
Filter pressing. 

The objective was the development of rational 
design formulations for engineers to use in the 
design of dewatering and drying beds for water 
treatment sludges. Dewatering by freeze-thaw and 
filter pressing procedures was studied. Differential 
equations for the reaction kinetics of sludge drying 
are presented. Curves are included for drying rate, 
weight, and free moisture content versus time; 
evaporation ratio versus moisture content; drying 
rate versus moisture content; critical moisture 
content versus drying solids per area; free 
moisture content versus time; and log drying rate 
versus log free moisture content for alum sludges. 
A mathematical model for drying and gravity 
drainage is constructed with initial and boundary 
conditions. Curves of applied depth versus dura- 
tion and total annual costs versus applied depth 
are shown for different specific sludge resistances. 
An objective function is made to optimize de- 
watering costs. Specific resistance and coefficient 
of compressibility were studied for freeze-thaw 
tests. Concentrated sludge cakes frozen and 
thawed showed a cake structure breakdown to a 
watery nature with crystalline solids that settle 
readily. An appendix provided definitions of 
wastewater treatment sludge disposal terms. (Nar- 
dozzi-AWWA) 
W72-07771 



UPGRADING WATER BY USE OF A SLOW 
SAND FILTER, 

North Dakota State Univ., Fargo. 

Dennis Ardean Rice. 

Master's Thesis, February 1969, 90 p, 38 fig, 17 

tab, 24 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Water treatment, 'Filtration, 
'Sands, Separation techniques, Municipal water, 
Flow rates, Temperature, Turbidity, Hydrogen ion 
concentration, Bacteria, Color, Dissolved solids, 
Suspended solids. Efficiencies, Operation and 
maintenance, Water quality control, Bentonite, 
Clays, Alfalfa. 
Identifiers: 'Sand filters. 

A mixture of ground alfalfa and bentonite clay was 
combined with municipal water for use as a 



75 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5F — Water Treatment and Quality Alteration 



synthetic waste in testing the effects of tempera- 
ture and throughput on the efficiency of a sand 
filter. Temperatures investigated were 45 degrees, 
70 degrees, and 100 degrees C. Parameters evalu- 
ated included influent and effluent total solids, 
total volatile solids, suspended solids, volatile 
suspended solids, total dissolved solids, turbidity, 
color, pH, and number of bacteria. Analysis of the 
various solids tests demonstrated that the effluent 
values changed as the influent values, but the per- 
cent removal fluctuated very little. Temperature 
variations were shown to have no detectable effect 
on filtration efficiency, but the total amount of 
suspended material that could be removed before 
the filter plugged increased as the temperature of 
the water increased. Although the effects of water 
temperature and amount of water filtered were 
demonstrated to be small, the 70 degrees run per- 
formed the most satisfactorily in the tests con- 
ducted, indicating a desired water temperature for 
slow sand filtration of 70 degrees F. (Lowry-Tex- 

W72-07813 

5G. Water Quality Control 



BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOT WASTE MANAGE- 
MENT PROGRAM, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada, 

Okla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07323 



PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND 

MICROBIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING 
THE DISCHARGE OF WATER INTO DRAIN 
TILE, 

California Univ., Davis. Water Resources Center. 
Sterling J. Richards, and James P. Martin. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 607, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. California Water Resources 
Center, Los Angeles, Report UCAL-WRC-W-217, 
February 1972, 32 p, 9 fig, 5 tab, 17 ref. OWRR A- 
029-CALU). 

Descriptors: *Tile drains, Microorganisms, 'Iron 
bacteria, 'Manganese, Bacteria, Tiles, Iron, 
Drainage, Organic matter, Organic wastes, 
Polymer, Humus, Oxidation, California, Soil fun- 
gi- 

Identifiers: Manganese bacteria, *Gallionella, 
•Organic carbon, Polysaccharides, 

'Heterotrophs, 'Imperial Valley (Calif). 

Microscopic examinations of manganese and iron 
tile line deposits from Imperial Valley California 
revealed large numbers of bacteria. The red 
deposits were largely twisted ferric hydrate rib- 
bons of Gallionella spp. The organic carbon of the 
deposits varied from 0.11 to 2.46%. Numbers of 
heterotrophs determined by plating techniques 
were generally low but varied from to 
230,000.000 per g. Thus the majority of the bacteri- 
al cells observed under the microscope were 
probably autotrophs. Fungus counts ranged from 
to 99,000 per g. In contrast to the soil which con- 
tained numerous species of fungi, deposit samples 
contained one to three species. The organic carbon 
in tile line water or soil leachates varied from 15 to 
168 ppm. Organic amendments temporarily in- 
creased soluble carbon. The ploysaccharide con- 
tent of water samples ranged from 1 to 26% and 
the C/N ratio from 6 to 13. The soluble organic- 
matter appeared to be largely small molecular 
weight (< 10,000) humic type polymers. The larger 
molecules were mostly polysaccharides. The solu- 
ble organic C could serve as an energy and C 
source for the heterotrophs which could con- 
tribute to the clogging of the drainage lines. 
Laboratory models simulating drainage discharge 
through a tile joint did not permit a decisive as- 
sessment of the processes involved in tile line 
plugging as it occurs in the field. Results from soil 
columns treated with Fe203 and Mn02 do sug- 
gest, however, that biological oxidation could be 



dominant over a chemical process. The results 
demonstrate the variability inherent to model 
building and the difficulty of reproducing field 
conditions in a laboratory environment. 

W72-07353 



EFFICIENCY OF DATA COLLECTION 
SYSTEMS IN HYDROLOGY AND WATER 
RESOURCES FOR PREDICTION AND CON- 
TROL, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Hydrology and 

Water Resources. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06A. 

W72-07357 



ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE 
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES, 

Iowa State Water Resources Research Inst., 
Ames. 

J. R. Barnard, and H. A. Lofgreen. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 611, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Iowa State Water Resources 
Research Institute, Ames, Completion Report 
ISWRRI-42, December 1971. 19 p, 11 tab. OWRR 
A-018-IA(1). 

Descriptors: 'Economics, Alternative planning, 
Water pollution control. Industrial wastes. Mu- 
nicipal wastes, Water quality, 'Costs, 'Iowa, 
Planning, Wastewater treatment. 
Identifiers: 'Treatment costs. 

The potential cost of commitments to water quali- 
ty is explored as well as ways in which that cost 
might be minimized within federal and state 
government guidelines of improved water quality. 
Cost estimates of controlling industrial and mu- 
nicipal pollution are developed from engineering 
sources for a number of treatment sequences 
which are used as proxies for varying levels of 
water quality. Estimates of costs of capital facili- 
ties, operating costs, and average costs are made 
for the United States and Iowa. The emphasis is on 
the estimation of the potential burden of water 
quality decisions as well as exploring ways in 
which that burden may be minimized. It is esti- 
mated that it would require an expenditure of 
about $8 billion in new capital facilities for waste- 
water treatment for the urban population in the 
United States, and nearly $15 billion for an exten- 
sive industrial wastewater treatment program. The 
estimated aggregate annual average cost for 1968 
is $4,519 million, or about $22.50 per capita. 
(Powell-Iowa State) 
W72-07362 



THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN POLLUTION 
AND RECREATION POLICY: A MULTI-SA- 
MPLE, FACTOR-ANALYTICAL APPROACH 
TO ATTITUDE SCALE DEVELOPMENT, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Sociology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 
W72-07363 



ECONOMICS OF WATER QUALITY MANAGE- 
MENT: EXEMPLIFIED BY SPECIFIED POLLU- 
TANTS IN AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. 

J. J. Jacobs. 

Ph.D. Thesis, 1972. 208 p, 5 fig, 58 tab, 129 ref, 2 

append. OWRR B-015-IA (2). 

Descriptors: Economics, Water quality control, 
Pollutants. 'Agricultural runoff. 'Sediments, 
'Phosphorus, Iowa, 'Water management (Ap- 
plied), Water pollution sources, 'Cost analysis, 
Cultivation. 

Identifiers: 'Nishnabotna River Basin, Minimum 
tillage. 

The role of economics in environmental quality 
management was analyzed, with particular 
reference to the optimal level of water quality in a 
selected use area. Sediment and phosphorus in 



agricultural runoff were the pollutants selected in 
depicting the role of economics in water quality 
management. The agricultural land in the Nish- 
nabotna River Basin in Southwestern Iowa was 
the study area. This land was split up according to 
six capability classes, supplied by the Conserva- 
tion Needs Inventory. These capability classes in 
combination with crop rotations, tillage methods 
and conservation practices are regarded as a 
cropping system. For each system the annual costs 
and returns in addition to sediment and 
phosphorus losses were estimated. With this infor- 
mation the minimum cost of achieving specified 
levels of water quality, i.e., sediment and 
phosphorus, were obtained. The study results 
point up the dominance of minimum tillage and 
continuous row crops in the optimal solutions. The 
results also indicate that the magnitude of the 
delivery ratio and the phosphorus constraints have 
a relatively small impact on the cost of the pro- 
gram. Furthermore, it was shown that the most 
stringent constraint could be met at an estimated 
cost of about $4.75 per acre with a delivery ratio of 
.25. While this cost does not appear to be un- 
reasonable, comparing the control cost with the 
benefits to a municipal use indicates that this level 
of quality control can only be justified economi- 
cally if there is a large reuse of the water (80-400:1) 
or substantial aesthetic benefits. (Powell-Iowa 
State) 
W72-07365 



OIL SLICK REMOVING VESSEL, 

Larry D. Price. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,630,376, 3 p, 4 fig, 5 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 893, No. 4, p 1344, December 28, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Oil spills, Equipment, 
'Pollution abatement, 'Oil pollution, Oil wastes, 
Oily water, Water pollution treatment, Water 
treatment, Oil-water interfaces, Separation 
techniques, Equipment, Water pollution control. 

A vessel is equipped to remove oil and other waste 
from the surface of water. An elongated pipe, hav- 
ing spaced slits permitting water to flow through, 
is positioned along the forward portion of the ves- 
sel. A pump provides water under pressure to the 
pipe. The water flowing out of the holes or slits 
forms a ripple or wave high enough so that a sheet 
of water carrying oil or debris goes over the top of 
a baffle plate. The oil then moves to a holding 
chamber until it is thick enough to be removed. 
(Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07367 



APPARATUS FOR CONTROLLING OIL 
SLICKS, 

Ralph L. Tuttle, and George T. Lister. 
U. S. Patent No. 3,630,033, 3 p, 7 fig, 3 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 893, No. 4, p 1254, December 28, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Patents, 'Oil spills, 'Oil pollution, 
'Pollution abatement. Equipment, Pontoons, 
Water pollution treatment. Water treatment, Oil 
wastes. Oily water, Oil-water interface. Separa- 
tion techniques. Water pollution control. 

A floating structure is positioned around an oil 
slick to confine it before removal. A series of large 
modular pontoons are fastened to one another en- 
closing a rectangular or circular area. A large sec- 
tion of a side is pivotably mounted forming a large 
gate, providing access to the enclosed area. Con- 
trol curtains extend downward from the pontoon 
system to prevent escape of oil. The oil can then 
be pumped into a barge or second storage area. A 
pumping platform is provided which consists of 
several pontoons fastened together and located ad- 
jacent to the assembly. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07369 



76 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Water Quality Control — Group 5G 



METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR 
SEPARATING OIL FROM WATER, 

Dunlop Rubber Co. Ltd., London (England). (As- 
signee). 

John E. Woolley. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,508,652, 2 p, 2 fig, 6 ref; Offi- 
cial Gazette of the United States Patent Office, 
Vol. 873, No. 4, p 1128, April 28, 1970. 

Descriptors: *Patents, *Oil pollution, "Oil spills, 
Oil wastes. Oily water, Oil- water interfaces, "Pol- 
lution abatement, Water pollution treatment, 
Water treatment, Separation techniques, Equip- 
ment, Water pollution control. 

The oil/water mixture is pumped continuously into 
one end of an elongated container in which the 
mixture separates into an upper oil layer and a 
lower water layer. The container may be an elon- 
gated flexible container or envelope capable of 
floating in water. The container and pontoon are 
towed to the spill area. As the mixture is pumped 
into the container the oil is retained and when 
nearly full, the pump is stopped. Inlet and outlet 
pipes are closed and the container is towed to 
shore where it is emptied. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07370 



PROCESS FOR CONTAINMENT AND DEFLEC- 
TION OF AQUEOUS SURFACE POLLUTANTS, 

Submersible Systems, Inc. (Assignee). 

Frank McCormick. 

U. S. Patent No. 3,491 ,023, 4 p, 3 fig, 5 ref; Patent 

Abstracts Section, Official Gazette, Vol. 870, No. 

3, p 961, January 20, 1970. 

Descriptors: *Patents, Barriers, "Oil spills, 'Flot- 
sam, "Jelly fish, "Pollution abatement, Water pol- 
lution treatment, Floating pollutants, Equipment, 
"Oil pollution, Oil wastes, Oily water. Separation 
techniques, Water pollution control. 
Identifiers: 'Bubble barriers, Air bubbles. 

Pollutants or undesirable fauna such as jelly fish 
are deflected from passage through a band of tur- 
bulence created by underwater generation of air 
from a series of longitudinally arranged gaseous 
generators. A bubble barrier is created which by 
the upward movement of the air bubbles creates 
an upwardly and outwardly moving water current 
in the nature of a welling effect on either side of 
this wall. The air generating system is composed of 
a system of flexible compartmented plastic con- 
duits. These may be laid across the mouth of a har- 
bor or along a beach area. (Sinha-OEIS) 
W72-07375 



INTERNATIONAL LAW-OIL SPILLS AND 
THEIR LEGAL RAMIFICATIONS, 

W. W. Maywhort. 

North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 49, p 996-1003, 

44 ref. August 1971. 

Descriptors: "Law of the sea, "Water pollution 
sources, "International waters, "International law, 
"Oil spills. Oil wastes. Ships, Oil industry. Trea- 
ties, Legal aspects. Oil-water interfaces. Con- 
tinental shelf, Oceans, Navigation, Regulation, 
United Nations, Navigable waters. Non-structural 
alternatives. International commissions. Oil indus- 
try. Foreign countries. 
Identifiers: Contiguous zone. Absolute liability. 

The recent oil well blowout in the Santa Barbara 
Channel and the earlier sinking of the Torrey 
Canyon off the English coast point out the extent 
of the international problem created by oil spills. 
Existing legal controls include such agreements as: 
(1) the 1954 Convention for Prevention of Pollu- 
tion of the Sea by Oil, (2) the Geneva Convention 
on the High Seas, (3) the Convention on the Terri- 
torial Sea and Contiguous Zone, and (4) the 
Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf. All 
existing controls are inadequate to deal with oil 
pollution of the sea because of the lingering con- 
cept of supremacy of the law of the flag on the 
high seas. The use of flags of convenience only ag- 



gravates the problem because there is less state 
regulation in such cases. Effective control may 
come through: (1) conferring concurrent jurisdic- 
tion on the flag state and the injured state, (2) a 
multilateral convention assigning sealanes 
between various ports plus required installation of 
more sophisticated navigational equipment, (3) im- 
position of strict liability on the discharger, or (4) 
required spillage insurance or an international spil- 
lage fund supported by shippers. An effective en- 
forcement agency would also be essential. (Grant- 
Florida) 
W72-07378 



OIL SPILL AND POLLUTION CONTROL: THE 
CONFLICT BETWEEN STATE AND 
MARITIME LAW, 

Florida Univ., Gainesville. Coll. of Law. 

F. T. McCoy. 

George Washington Law Review, Vol. 40, p 97- 

122, 159 ref. October 1971. 

Descriptors: "Florida, "Pollution abatement, 
"State jurisdiction, "Federal jurisdiction, "Oil pol- 
lution, Navigable waters, Ships, Marine fisheries, 
Sea water, Federal government, Judicial deci- 
sions, Jurisdiction, Legislation, Law of the sea, 
State governments, Interstate, Legal aspects, Oil 
spills, Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 
Identifiers: "Florida Oil Spill Prevention and Pol- 
lution Act, "Federal Water Quality Improvement 
Act. 

The Florida Oil Spill Prevention and Pollution 
Control Act of 1970 imposed exceptionally strin- 
gent requirements on shipowners for pollution 
damage occurring in Florida waters. Several 
grounds on which it has been challenged are 
discussed. The legal basis for admiralty assuming 
jurisdiction over pollution damage is explained. 
Generally, state law in the admiralty area is al- 
lowed only if it fills a gap in, or supplements, 
federal law. The Federal Water Quality Improve- 
ment Act of 1970, however, seemingly encouraged 
state legislation. The Florida Act imposed absolute 
liability for pollution damage; the Federal Act im- 
posed a modified standard of simple negligence. 
The validity of state imposed strict liability is 
analyzed. Constructional difficulties and potential 
loopholes in the Florida Act are discussed, as is 
the applicability of federal liability limitations. The 
strict financial responsibility and denial of port use 
provisions of the Florida Act are compared with 
corresponding federal provisions. The possibility 
for 'direct action' against insurors is analyzed, in- 
cluding applicability of liability limitations to insu- 
rors. If the Florida Act is upheld, needed as- 
surance of payment for oil pollution damage and 
the costs of cleanup will be provided. Such 
benefits, however, must be weighed against costs 
to the state. Broader federal legislation in this area 
would be helpful. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07379 



THE LEGAL SETTING OF NUCLEAR POWER- 
PLANT SITING DECISIONS: A NEW YORK 
STATE CONTROVERSY, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07381 



LIABILITY OF VESSEL TO STATE IN AD- 
MIRALTY ACTION IN REM FOR DAMAGES 
RESULTING FROM OIL SPILL IN NAVIGABLE 
WATERS OF STATE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07385 



LEGAL MUSCLE FOR THE FIGHT AGAINST 
POLLUTION, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07402 



LAFAYETTE LAKE, WILDCAT CREEK, 
WABASH RIVER BASIN, INDIANA (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Louisville, Ky. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 

W72-07415 



ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT GRAND 
LAGOON, FLORIDA NAVIGATION (FINAL EN- 
VIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Mobile, Ala. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 

W72-07417 



SUBSURFACE WASTE DISPOSAL CONTROL 
ACT, 

Congress, Washington, DC; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07418 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: ECOLOGICAL CON- 
SIDERATIONS IN GRANTING PERMITS 
UNDER THE RIVERS AND HARBOURS ACT, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07419 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: QUI TAM ACTIONS 
UNDER THE REFUSE ACT, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07420 



POLLUTION OF THE SEA AND INTERNA- 
TIONAL LAW: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE, 

Dalhousie Univ., Halifax (Nova Scotia). Law- 
School. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07421 



OCEAN POLLUTION AND THE 1972 UNITED 
NATIONS CONFERENCE ON THE ENVIRON- 
MENT, 

Glassie, Pewett, Beebe and Shanks, Washington, 

D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07423 



NERBC 1980 PLAN FOR CONN. R. BASIN. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07424 



POWERPLANT SITING AND ENVIRONMEN- 
TAL PROTECTION, PART 1. 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce (U.S. House). 
Subcommittee on Communications and Power. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07426 



HOUSE WATER BILL OUT-FLOOR FIGHT 
EXPECTED. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07427 



ANTI-POLLUTION FUNDS COMPRISE 1% OF 
FY 1973 BUDGET-HIGHLIGHTS OF THE 
BUDGET PROPOSALS FOR AGENCIES DEAL- 
ING WITH NATURAL RESOURCES. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06C. 
W72-07428 



A BILL TO AMEND SECTION 11 (P) (1) OF THE 
FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL 
ACT, 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and Senate, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07429 



77 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5G — Water Quality Control 



A BILL TO PROVIDE A PROGRAM OF POLLU- 
TION CONTROL IN THE RIVER BASINS AND 
WATERWAYS OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Congress, Washington, D.C.; and Senate, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07430 



U. S. ATTORNEY CALLS REFUSE ACT OF 1899 
'SUPERIOR ENFORCEMENT TOOL', 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07431 



A BILL TO CONTROL THE GENERATION 
AND TRANSMISSION OF NOISE DETRIMEN- 
TAL TO THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT, AND 
FOR OTHER PURPOSES, 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and Senate, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07433 



TREATMENT PLANT DESIGNED FOR DIF- 
FICULT WATER SOURCE, 

Wauford (J. R.) and Co., Nashville, Tenn. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07435 



ALGAE CONTROL, 

Wisconsin Committee on Water Pollution, Madis- 
on. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 

W72-07442 



CONTROL OF SEDIMENT IN THE URBAN EN- 
VIRONMENT, 

Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07491 



CASE STUDY ON DESIGN OF URBAN WATER 
DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS, 

Watermation, Inc., Saint Paul, Minn. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07492 



WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT POLLUTION., 

Arnold Arboretum, Jamica Plain, Mass. 
Gordon P. De Wolfe, Jr. 

Arnoldia (Boston). 30 (2): 33-48, 50-55, 1970. Illus. 
Identifiers; Air, Human, Legislation, Pesticides, 
Pollution, Population, Soil. 

Soil, water and air pollution, pesticides, legisla- 
tion, and taxation are discussed. Pollution can be 
reduced with sufficient expenditure, less usage of 
toxic pesticides and control of population size.-- 
Copyright 1972, Biological Abstracts, Inc. 
W72-07564 



THE CHOICE OF INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGE- 
MENTS FOR WATER RESOURCE DEVELOP- 
MENT--WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
CALIFORNIA WATER INDUSTRY, 

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07570 



WATER TEMPERATURES OF CALIFORNIA 
STREAMS, DELTA-CENTRAL SIERRA SUBRE- 
GION, 

Geological Survey, Menlo Park, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02E. 

W72-07586 



YORK RIVER BASIN COMPREHENSIVE 
WATER RESOURCES PLAN: VOLUME IV. 



WATER RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS AND 
PROBLEMS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 
W72-07598 



FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCUMULATION 
OF NITRATE IN SOIL, WATER, AND PLANTS, 

Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, 111. Soil 

and Water Conservation Research Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07610 



DISTRIBUTION OF BIOTA IN A STREAM POL- 
LUTED BY ACID MINE-DRAINAGE, 

Federal Water Quality Administration, Cincinnati, 

Ohio. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C 

W72-07613 



CHARLES RIVER: AN URBAN RIVER IN ITS 
CHANGING SOCIAL CONTEXTS, 

Massachusetts University, Amherst. Water 

Resources Research Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W72-07614 



REGIONAL PLANNING AND THE CHES- 
APEAKE BAY ENVIRONMENT: AN ECOLOGI- 
CAL APPROACH, 

Maryland Univ., Prince Frederick. Hallowing 

Point Field Station. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 

W72-07617 



SELECTION OF WATER SUPPLIES FOR NEW 
MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS, 

Black, Crow and Eidsness Inc., Wilmington, Del. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03E. 

W72-07624 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: NEW YORK CITY 
WATER-SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENT 
MANAGEMENT, 

New York State Dept. of Conservation, Albany. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 
W72-07638 



WORLD AND WATER IMPERATIVES: POLLU- 
TION EXPLOSION, 

Population Council, New York. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 

W72-07639 



WATER USES AND WASTES IN THE TEXTILE 
INDUSTRY, 

Clemson Univ., S.C 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07650 



THE P-VALUE APPROACH TO QUANTITA- 
TIVE LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF 
PESTICIDES FROM WATER. 1. OR- 
GANOPHOSPHATES: CHOICE OF PH AND 
SOLVENT, 
Drexel Univ.. Philadelphia, Pa. Dept. of Chemis- 

tf y- . 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07701 



ULTRARAPID EXTRACTION OF INSECTI- 
CIDES FROM SOIL USING A NEW UL- 
TRASONIC TECHNIQUE, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Dept. of En- 
tomology. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07702 



POSITIVE POLLUTION, 

Rand Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05C 

W72-07776 



THE OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES OF THE 
PROPOSED AIR DELIVERABLE ANTI-POLL- 
UTION TRANSFER SYSTEM (ADAPTS). 
VOLUME 1: STUDY METHOD AND RECOM- 
MENDATIONS. 
Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-731 806, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. May 1971. 60 p, 11 fig, 8 tab. 

Descriptors: *Oil spills, 'Oil pollution, *Water 
pollution control, *Ships, *Oceans, Coastal en- 
gineering, Harbors, Coast Guard regulations, 
Coasts, Operations research, Mathematical 
models, Aircraft, Transportation, Water pollution. 
Identifiers: Tankers, Shipping, Aircraft support. 

A system of aircraft deliverable equipment and 
people is being developed by the U. S. Coast 
Guard to prevent oil from being spilled from 
stranded, or distressed, tankers. The system is 
named the 'Air Deliverable Anti-Pollution 
Transfer System' (ADAPTS). The effectiveness of 
the system is measured by the amount of oil that 
can be transfered from a tanker to floatable bags in 
24 hours. This paper reports the modeling of the 
system to determine the optimal mix of resources 
needed and to measure the systems's capability. 
Modeling was accomplished using, at first, 
PERT/CPM diagram methods and later using a 
simulation model. The results of the first method 
were used to validate the simulation. Then a 
mathematical model was developed for use on the 
Coast Guard computer. When sufficient modeling 
results were obtained, they were evaluated with 
the budgetary and aircraft limitations on the sytem 
and recommendations for alternate equipment and 
procurement of ADAPTS were developed. The 
general result of the study is that the turn around 
time of the C-130 aircraft must be minimized and 
that there must be sufficient ADAPTS pumps on 
scene early in the deployment of the system. The 
procurement of cargo rails which can be installed 
rapidly on the C-130's is necessary and compatible 
airplane loaders are needed. Early deployment of 
ADAPTS pumps can be accomplished by use of 
prepositioned pump and prime mover packages 
that are scaled for helicopter delivery from ad- 
vance bases. (See also W72-07788) (Poertner) 
W72-07787 



THE OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES OF THE 
PROPOSED Am DELIVERABLE ANTI-POLL- 
UTION TRANSFER SYSTEM (ADAPTS), 
VOLUME 3: DOCUMENTATION OF THE 
MATHEMATICAL MODEL. 
Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as AD-731 808, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. June 1971. 44 p, 1 fig, 2 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Mathematical models, "Oil spills, 
•Oil pollution, *Water pollution control, "Opera- 
tions research, Oceans, Ships, Aircraft, Harbors, 
Coasts, Coast Guard regulations, Transportation, 
Water pollution, Computer models. 
Identifiers: Tankers, Shipping, Aircraft support. 

A system of aircraft deliverable equipment and 
people is being developed by the U. S. Coast 
Guard to prevent oil from being spilled from 
stranded, or distressed, tankers. The system is 
named the 'Air Deliverable Anti-Pollution 
Transfer System' (ADAPTS). The effectiveness of 
the system is measured by the amount of oil that 
can be transfered from a tanker to floatable bags in 
24 hours. A mathematical model was developed to 
determine the optimal mix of resources needed 
and to measure the system's capability. The 
mathematical model described herein was 



78 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION— Field 05 

Water Quality Control — Group 5G 



developed using mathematical notation and it is 
implemented in USASI FORTRAN 

(2.0)/MASTER used on the CDC-3300 computer. 
The desired result of the mathematical model is to 
find the maximum number of bags that can be 
filled in 24 hours subject to the numbers of C- 
130's, C-130 air crews, C-130 loaders, helicopters, 
and E pkgs. This is a model for measuring the 
operational results that can be attained with availa- 
ble resources. A prime use for the model is to 
determine the outcome of the deployment of a 
given set of resources to a distress that arises. 
Then the need for alternative measures can be 
determined. The possible combinations are nu- 
merous. In many of them the model can be used 
directly, in others the model results must be in- 
terpreted. A final use of the model is to evaluate 
the effectiveness of an equipment change. By 
using the model in simulated distresses with and 
without a proposed equipment change, the in- 
vestigator can determine the effect of the 
proposed change and it can be evaluated along 
with the cost (among other factors) of the change. 
(See also W72-07787) (Poertner) 
W72-07788 



POLLUTION MONITORING AND PREVEN- 
TION BY USE OF BIVARIATE CONTROL 
CHARTS, 

Canadian Industries Ltd., Montreal (Quebec). 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05A. 
W72-07793 



MINE SPOIL POTENTIALS FOR WATER 
QUALITY AND CONTROLLED EROSION. 

West Virginia Univ., Morgantown. Div. of Plant 
Sciences. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP2.10:14010 EJE 12/71, $1.75; microfiche from 
NTIS as PB-208 817, $0.95. Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency, Water Pollution Control Research 
Series, December 1971, 206 p, 26 fig, 38 tab, 50 
ref. EPA Program 14010 EJE 12/71. 

Descriptors: *Coal mine wastes, 'Spoil banks, 
•Acid mine water, Acidity, Iron, Hydrogen ion 
concentration, Pyrite, Neutralization, Soil proper- 
ties, Percolation, Rocks, Solubility, Depth, Ion 
exchange, Particle size, Lysimeters, Water pollu- 
tion control, 'Erosion control, Water reuse. 
Identifiers: 'Preston County (West Virginia). 

Analysis of exploratory test cores and rock chip 
samples has made available information necessary 
to the development of rational techniques for 
reclaiming coal mine spoil for useful purposes. By 
assigning an area a particular future use and 
analyzing the rock structure in advance of the sur- 
face mining, materials can be assembled and 
placed in the fill to allow the filled strip mine to 
revegetate and be developed into a useful area. 
Oxidation of pyrite materials, source of most 
acidity below 4.0 in mine spoils, can be controlled 
by: (1) using clay shales for fill; (2) controlling 
grain size in the fill; and (3) controlling accessibili- 
ty to exchange of solutes and oxygen. In miniature 
lysimeters filled with 4 ft of normal, loamy (pH 
6.7) soil, no acidity nor iron drained from the bot- 
tom from pyrite buried at 6 depths, from 1/2 to 36 
inches, during a 24 week test period. Base 
exchange by the soil neutralized the acid and 
retained the iron. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07796 



ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR RIVER 
AND STREAM REAERATION. 

JBF Scientific Corp., Burlington, Mass. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP2.10:16080FSNI0/71, $1.25; microfiche from 
NTIS as PB-208 818, $0.95. Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency, Water Pollution Control Research 
Series, October 1971, 119 p, 30 fig, 22 tab, 73 ref. 
EPA Program 16080 FSN 10/71. 



Descriptors: 'Waste assimilative capacity, 'Aera- 
tion, 'Reaeration, Oxygen sag, 'Dissolved ox- 
ygen, Bubbles, Absorption, Photosynthesis, Dif- 
fusion, Respiration, 'Oxidation, Temperature, 
Depth, Oxygen, Mixing, On-site investigations, 
Design criteria, Water quality control. 
Identifiers: 'Mechanical surface aerators, 'Ox- 
ygen transfer. 

Review of existing literature in the field of artifi- 
cial stream aeration was a preliminary step in 
developing a rational engineering approach to the 
problem. Difficulties faced by attempts at in- 
stream aeration include: (1) aerators must be 
located at the point of minimum D. O., not at the 
point of maximum D. O. deficit; (2) molecular ox- 
ygen must be used in all instances where the 
minimum D. O. level is greater than 5 ppm; and (3) 
lack of mobility and dependence on water depth 
nearly precludes the use of downflow contactors. 
The methodology for design is based on: (1 ) use of 
the D. O. profile for the 'worst conditions' an- 
ticipated; (2) tests of aerator efficiency either on 
stream or under simulated stream conditions; (3) 
analysis of natural and artificial stream reaeration 
coefficients; and (4) measurements of oxygen con- 
suming process rates. In-stream aeration, although 
of much potential benefit, should be employed 
only after secondary waste treatment has been ap- 
plied to all waste discharges and then only for use 
as a polishing step. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07797 



WATER BUDGET FOR THE CITY OF 
LARAMIE, WYOMING, 

Wyoming Univ., Laramie. Water Resources 
Research Inst. 
Paul A. Rechard. 

Copy available from GPO Sup Doc as 
EP2.10:17050 DVO 09/71, $0.50; microfiche from 
NTIS as PB-208 819, $0.95. Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency, Water Pollution Control Research 
Series, September 1971, 33 p, 2 fig, 8 tab, 42 ref. 
EPA Program 1 7050 DVO 09/7 1 . 

Descriptors: 'Hydrologic budget, 'Water utiliza- 
tion, Industrial wastes, 'Municipal wastes, Oxida- 
tion lagoons, Climatic zones, Elevation, At- 
mospheric pressure, Potable water, Population, 
Rainfall, Temperature, Wyoming, Water pollution 
control. 
Identifiers: 'Laramie (Wyo). 

The water budget for the city of Laramie, Wyom- 
ing, was calculated for the years 1966-1970 in 
order to supplement studies of the city's sewage 
lagoons and to estimate the effects of municipal 
use on the Laramie River. The municipal usage 
averaged 184 gpcd for an average population of 
22,500 during the 5 year period. Usage during the 
summer months (April-September) varied directly 
with temperature and inversely with rainfall, with 
an average of 235 gpcd. Average summer return 
flows were 105 gpcd. For winter conditions (Oc- 
tober-March) average usage was 134 gpcd, with 
140 gpcd returning to the river. The river furnished 
approximately 1/3 of the annual supply, and more 
than 1/2 of the summer supply. On an annual basis, 
however, the city returned more water to the river 
than it withdrew. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07798 



FEASIBILITY STUDY OF REGENERATIVE 
FIBERS FOR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL. 

Uniroyal, Inc.. Wayne, N.J. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07800 



SEWER MAINTENANCE COSTS, 

Santry (I. W.), Inc., Dallas, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07805 



SEPTIC TANKS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 

Illinois Inst, for Environmental Quality, Chicago. 
J. W. Patterson, R. A. Minear, and T. K. Nedved. 



Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-204 519, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. June 1971, 98 p, 4 fig, 7 tab, 
127 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Septic tanks, 'Regulation, 'Building 
codes, 'Operation and maintenance, Population, 
Domestic wastes. Percolation, Infiltration, Drain 
fields, 'Illinois, Legislation, Water pollution con- 
trol. 

A comprehensive survey of past and present 
methods of septic tank installation, operation, and 
efficiency was conducted to provide the state of Il- 
linois with a more rational basis for septic tank 
regulation practices. An estimated 13 million sep- 
tic tanks are currently serving approximately 30 
million people. Of these, less than half received 
any supervision during construction by a regulato- 
ry agency. It has also been determined that less 
than half of all the septic tanks in Illinois, Indiana, 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Ohio operate properly. 
However, land developers continue to install sep- 
tic tanks since their capital is returned more 
quickly, even though the homeowner eventually 
pays for two sewage systems. Results of the study 
have indicated that the septic tank is totally inef- 
fective for population densities greater than one 
family per acre. However, design guidelines were 
developed and assembled for isolated installations 
in sparsely populated areas, where septic tank 
usage would be least harmful, and no present alter- 
native is available. (Lowry-Texas) 
W72-07806 



PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLU- 
TONIUM SYMPOSIUM. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 
W72-07830 



REDUCTION OF TRITIUM FROM UN- 
DERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVES, 

California Univ., Livermore. Lawrence Radiation 
Lab. 

J. B. Green, Jr., and R. M. Lessler. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as UCRL-73258, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Preprint presented at ANS 
Meeting, Miami Beach, Florida, Oct. 17-21, 1971. 
Septembers, 1971. 27 p. 

Descriptors: 'Nuclear explosions, 'Radioactivity, 
'Tritium, 'Underground, 'Nuclear engineering, 
Safety, Natural gas. Water vapor. Fuels, Water 
pollution control, Industrial production, Monitor- 
ing, Regulation, Air pollution, Soil contamination. 
Identifiers: Underground containment, Stimula- 
tion, Plowshare. 

The industrial application of the Plowshare con- 
cept of current interest is the stimulation of natural 
gas. The degree of success of this and other appli- 
cations may be significantly affected by the 
amount of tritium produced by the nuclear explo- 
sion. The reduction of residual tritium has been the 
subject of continuing research and evaluation. 
Both public safety and economics are considered 
in planning this reduction. Tritium is produced 
from two major sources: the explosive itself, and 
the material and rock surrounding the explosive. 
The improved design of the low-residual-tritium 
Plowshare underground engineering explosive 
represents considerable progress in the reduction 
of the amount of tritium formed. Neutron shield- 
ing can reduce the amount of tritium formed exter- 
nal to the explosive. Achievements are considered 
significant in the development of a long-range pro- 
gram to recover untapped hydrocarbon fuel sup- 
plies. (Houser-ORNL) 
W72-07842 



WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, 

Congress, Washington, D.C.; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07848 



79 



Field 05— WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION 
Group 5G — Water Quality Control 



FIGHT ON WATER POLLUTION, 

Congress, Washington, D.C.; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07849 



AN ACT TO CONSERVE AND PROTECT THE 
WATER RESOURCES AND PROTECT THE 
PUBLIC HEALTH OF THE STATE (AND 
OTHER PURPOSES). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07850 



INTERNATIONAL LAW AND CANADA'S ANTI- 
POLLUTION LEGISLATION, 

Alberta Univ., Calgary. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07851 



GRANT ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS OF THE 
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY. 

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, 
D.C. Grants Administration Div. 

November 1971. 26 p. 

Descriptors: 'Grants, Water pollution control, 
♦Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 'Federal 
government, 'Research and development, Solid 
wastes. Waste disposal. Water pollution, Water 
quality control, Manpower, Pollution abatement, 
Administrative agencies, State governments. 
Local governments. Cost sharing, Governmental 
interrelations, Training, Scientific personnel, Edu- 
cation, Budgeting, Legislation, Waste treatment. 
Treatment facilities, Project planning. 
Identifiers: 'Environmental Protection Agency, 
'Solid Wastes Disposal Act. 

The Environmental Protection Agency funds pro- 
jects to improve water quality and waste treatment 
through research and development, demonstration 
projects, manpower development and training, 
and construction. It also provides assistance for 
state and local projects. Under the Federal Water 
Pollution Control Act projects are financed for 
research into the causes and control of water pol- 
lution, for training and increasing scientific and 
technical manpower in the study of water pollu- 
tion, for assistance to state and interstate agencies 
in establishing and maintaining water pollution 
control programs, and for the construction of 
waste treatment facilities. The Solid Wastes 
Disposal Act provides financing for research pro- 
jects into all aspects of solid wastes disposal, 
training programs in solid waste management and 
technology, and planning programs on solid waste 
disposal. Funding limitations, eligibility require- 
ments, and Agency personnel to be contacted are 
listed. (Brackins-Florida) 
W72-07854 



IMPROVING WATER QUALITY REGULATION 
IN IOWA, 

Iowa Univ., Iowa City. School of Law. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07855 



POWER SITING: A CHALLENGE TO THE 
LEGAL PROCESS, 

New York State Consumer Protection Board, Al- 
bany. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W72-07856 



ICE HARBOR ADDITIONAL GENERATING 
UNITS, (LAKE SACAJAWEA), SNAKE RIVER, 
WASHINGTON (FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IM- 
PACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Walla Walla, Wash. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08C. 

W72-07858 



PAINTSVILLE LAKE, PAINT CREEK, BIG 
SANDY RIVER BASIN, KENTUCKY (FINAL 
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Army Engineer District, Huntington, W. Va. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 08A. 
W72-07862 



A PROPOSED PILOT PLANT-FORT LEWIS, 
WASHINGTON (DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL 
IMPACT STATEMENT). 

Office of Coal Research, Washington, D.C. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB198 861-D, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. April 1971. 17 p, 5 chart. 

Descriptors: Washington, 'Environmental effects, 
'Coals, 'Water pollution sources, 'Fossil fuels, 
'Research facilities, Fuel, Air pollution, Water 
pollution treatment, Design flow, Treatment, 
Waste treatment, Waste water disposal. Design 
standards. Chemical wastes. Sites, Construction, 
Effluents, Economic feasibility, Coal mines, 
Research and development, Sulfur, Corrosion 
control, Bituminous materials. Industrial wastes, 
Pilot plant. 

Identifiers: 'Coal conversion, 'Low-sulphur 
fuels, 'Fort Lewis (Wash), 'Environmental im- 
pact statements. 

The project would ascertain the feasibility of com- 
mercially converting coal to a low-sulfur fuel for 
use in heating and electric generation. The low-sul- 
fur fuel would significantly reduce atmospheric 
pollution. A map of the proposed site and a 
process flow diagram are included. The probable 
environmental impact is analyzed in terms of: 
plant input, plant output, and waste products such 
as process water and sanitary wastes. Generally, 
all waste products will be treated so as to be suita- 
ble for discharge into the air or surrounding 
swamps in the case of water. The State of 
Washington's standards would be satisfied. Instal- 
lation of proper equipment and the small size of 
the plant make adverse environmental impact un- 
likely. Many alternative sites are available, but the 
Ft. Lewis site appears most advantageous. The 
short term use-long term productivity relationahip 
is favorable, because if successful the plant will 
make a more pollution free fuel available and help 
conserve energy supplies. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07863 



THE ILLINOIS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEC- 
TION ACT-A COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM 
FOR POLLUTION CONTROL. 

Northwestern University Law Review, Vol. 66, 
No. 3, p. 345-371, July-August, 1971. 108 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Illinois, 'Law enforcement, 'Pollu- 
tion abatement, 'Administrative agencies, 
'Legislation, Adoption of practices, Decision 
making, Legal aspects, Adjudication procedure, 
Constitutional law. State governments, Regula- 
tion, Permits, Inspection, Monitoring, Water pol- 
lution sources, Water quality control. Air pollu- 
tion, Water supply. Public health, Waste disposal, 
Nuclear wastes, Radiation. 

Identifiers: 'Illinois Environmental Protection 
Act. 

The newly enacted Illinois Environmental Protec- 
tion Act is one of the new generation of pollution 
laws which provides for effective enforcement 
and flexibility to adapt to changing conditions. The 
statute regulates six categories of pollution: (1) air 
pollution, (2) water pollution, (3) public water 
supply pollution, (4) refuse, (5) noise pollution, 
and (6) radiation discharge. The rule-making func- 
tions of the various statutory agencies are 
discussed, and their organizational scheme is 
described. Enforcement provisions are discussed 
and a recent case involving an enforcement action 
is analyzed. The Act is also examined with respect 
to: (1) emergency powers, (2) issuance of permits, 
(3) variances, (4) penalties and private rights of ac- 



tion, and (5) judicial review. The validity of the 
Act under the United States and Illinois constitu- 
tions is examined in terms of the deprivation of 
property and the extent of delegation of legislative 
authority. Case law in related areas is analogized 
to the statute. The statute is constitutional, 
although controversial. It can be expected to 
broaden the area of environmental protection and, 
if proven effective, to signal a new generation of 
laws. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07864 



INDUSTRY'S RESPONSE TO NEW ENVIRON- 
MENTAL LAW AND PROBLEMS, 

LeBoeuf , Lamb, Leiby and MacRae, Washington, 

D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07866 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW-PRESERVATION OF 
THE ESTUARINE ZONE, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07868 



ESTUARINE POLLUTION: THE DETERIORA- 
TION OF THE OYSTER INDUSTRY IN NORTH 
CAROLINA, 

T. W. Moon, and W. M. Trott. 

North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 49, p. 921-943, 

August 1971. 116 ref. 

Descriptors: 'North Carolina, 'Administrative 
agencies, 'Water quality standards, 'Commercial 
shellfish, Estuaries, Estuarine environment, Court 
decisions, Statistics, Legislation, Adjudication 
procedure, State governments, Federal govern- 
ment, Water Quality Act, Penalties (Legal), Con- 
trol, Regulation, Water pollution, Oysters, Legal 
aspects. 

Identifiers: 'Nuisance (Legal aspects), 'Standing 
(Legal), 'Proximate causation, 'Injunctions 
(Prohibitory), Injunctions (Mandatory). 

The deterioration of the North Carolina oyster in- 
dustry is correlated with the remedies available 
against those responsible for this deterioration. 
Pollution of oyster beds has created an annual 
economic loss of nearly 1,500,000 dollars. While 
several federal and state agencies have varying 
degrees of control of estuarine land, little if any 
protective action has been taken by any of these 
agencies. When an administrative agency un- 
reasonably delays, North Carolina law authorizes 
judicial intervention on petition by a party whose 
rights, duties, or privileges are affected by that 
delay. However, this only allows the judiciary to 
expedite the administrative process. Appeal from 
a final administrative decision is also possible, but 
where polluters voluntarily enter agreements with 
a state agency to diminish pollution, such agree- 
ments are binding on everyone and cannot be ap- 
pealed. Private tort actions presently offer the 
highest potential for success in legal actions 
against polluters. There are two major problems 
with such actions: (1) lack of standards to judge 
the polluter's conduct, and (2) inability to obtain 
evidence to prove causation. (Doise-Florida) 
W72-07869 



DEVELOPMENT OF PRIVATE WATERFRONT 
CANALS. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 04A. 
W72-07871 



GRAY V. SOUTHERN FACILITIES, INC. (MEA- 
SURE OF DAMAGES TO REAL PROPERTY 
FROM STREAM POLLUTION). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07874 



COX V. TOWNSHIP OF NEW SEWICKLEY 
(REGULATION OF JUNK YARDS TO PRO- 
TECT NATURAL WATERCOURSES). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 



80 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Evaluation Process — Group 6B 



W72-07877 



UNITED STATES V. GEORGETOWN UNIV. 
(ACTUAL CONTROL AS A PREREQUISITE TO 
CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY UNDER THE 
RIVERS AND HARBORS ACT). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07881 



MITCHELL V. TENNECO CHEMICALS, INC. 
(MAINTENANCE OF CIVIL QUI TAM ACTION 
NOT AUTHORIZED). 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 
W72-07882 



JURISDICTION OF DEPARTMENT OF 
HEALTH OVER WATER POLLUTION CON- 
TROL. 

New York Public Health Law, sec. 1210 (McKin- 
ney 1971). 

Descriptors: *New York, *Public health, 'Water 
pollution control, "Legislation, State govern- 
ments. State jurisdiction, Administrative agencies, 
Legal aspects, Supervisory control (Power), 
Water pollution. Pollution abatement, Regulation, 
Standards, Permits, Inspection, Water quality 
control, Industrial wastes, Sewage disposal, Treat- 
ment facilities, Project planning, Public rights. 

The New York Department of Health is vested 
with administrative jurisdiction to abate and 
prevent pollution of state waters. The Department, 
through the Commissioner, may adopt, amend, or 
cancel administrative rules and regulations 
governing procedures to be followed with respect 
to hearings, reports, permit issuance, and all other 
necessary matters relating to procedure. The Com- 
missioner is specifically authorized to: (1) hold 
public hearings to determine violations of and 
penalties under the statute; (2) make or modify or- 
ders concerning discharge of sewage, industrial 
waste, or other wastes; (3) institute court actions; 
(4) issue or modify permits; (5) conduct investiga- 
tions; and (6) settle, with the approval of the attor- 
ney general, any action for the recovery of a 
penalty. Duties and responsibilities of the Depart- 
ment are enumerated. They include: (1) encourag- 
ing voluntary cooperation in preventing water pol- 
lution; (2) encouraging the formulation of group 
anti-pollution plans by municipalities, industries, 
and others who jointly or severally pollute; (3) 
cooperate with appropriate federal and state pollu- 
tion agencies; (4) conduct studies and research 
into pollution control and abatement; and (5) ap- 
prove disposal and treatment systems. (Horwitz- 
Florida) 
W72-07884 

06. WATER RESOURCES 
PLANNING 



6A. Techniques of Planning 



A MODEL OF COMMUNITY PROBLEM SOLV- 
ING AND SELECTED EMPIRICAL APPLICA- 
TIONS, 

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Water Resources 
Center. 

R. R. Dynes, and D. E. Wenger. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 596, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Ohio Water Resources Center 
Project Completion Report No 343X, December 
31, 1971. 153 p, 39 fig, 16 ref, append. OWRR B- 
022-OHIO (2). 

Descriptors: 'Social aspects, 'Water resources 
development, 'Social function, 'Urban sociology, 
'Decision making, Local governments, Water 
management (Applied), Model studies. Systems 
analysis, Operations research. Governments, In- 
stitutional constraints, Political constraints. 



Of a number of ways in which solving water 
resource problems can be studied, one is to 
develop a general model of community problem 
solving. A proposed model includes a variety of 
community problems. The model, based largely on 
the exercise of social power, includes four sets of 
variables: (1) community structural variables, (2) 
characteristics of the leadership pool, (3) commu- 
nity problem dimensions, and (4) patterns of com- 
munity action. As a practical tool the model may 
be used for determining the problem-solving abili- 
ty and methods of the community leadership. Such 
knowledge may be of importance to anyone who 
wishes to institute ameliorative action or social 
change within a local community. Among commu- 
nity leaders interviewed in six different communi- 
ties, water-related problems were characterized by 
low salience and by low censensus. In seeking 
solutions, these leaders usually see water-related 
problems as less likely to be solved at the local 
community level. They also see water-related 
problems as requiring a relatively low level of 
community coordination and as primarily the 
responsibility of the public sector. Local govern- 
mental leaders are seen by the public as more im- 
portant in solving physical problems than they are 
in other community problems. (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-07279 



EFFICIENCY OF DATA COLLECTION 
SYSTEMS IN HYDROLOGY AND WATER 
RESOURCES FOR PREDICTION AND CON- 
TROL, 

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Dept. of Hydrology and 
Water Resources. 
C. C. Kisiel, and L. Duckstein. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 599, $3.00 in paper copy, 
S0.95 in microfiche. Technical Research Project 
Completion Report, November, 1971. 22 p. OWRR 
B-007-ARIZ(21). 

Descriptors: Streamflow, Rainfall, Aquifers, Pol- 
lutants, 'Economic efficiency, 'Data collections, 
'Social aspects, 'Hydrologic data, 'Planning, 
'Model studies, Water resources development, 
Evaluation, 'Decision making. Management, 
Water quality control, Arizona. 
Identifiers: Economic analysis, Data analysis, 
Stochastic models, Statistical inference, Space- 
time sampling. Decision theory, 'Rillito Creek 
(Ariz), 'Tucson (Ariz). 

Efficiency of hydrologic data collection systems is 
viewed in terms of the socio-economic value of the 
data for planning, design and management of 
water resources systems. Variance of parameter 
estimates is contrasted with the socio-economic 
loss functions associated with errors of overesti- 
mation and underestimation of true parameters. 
The use of economic loss functions within the 
framework of Bayesian decision theory is illus- 
trated for the design of height of flood levees and 
depth of bridge piers; annual flood data on Rillito 
Creek (Tucson, Arizona) is analyzed so as to 
determine the worth of one more year of data for 
making the design decision. Bayes decision theory 
is also applied to evaluate the relative importance 
of more data on variables entering the 1000-square 
mile digital computer model of the Tucson aquifer; 
a quadratic loss function was chosen to evaluate 
the relative importance of data on natural recharge 
in river channels, mountain front recharge, pump- 
age, transmissivity and storage coefficient. Much 
research is needed to define socio-economic loss 
functions. Other aspects of the research focused 
on error propagation in models, role of Type I and 
II errors, space-time sampling of pollutants in 
aquifers, rivers, and large lakes (eutrophication), 
errors in water budget estimates, use of secondary 
data to regionalize hydrologic parameters in Bayes 
framework and use of stochastic models of rainfall 
and runoff to reduce data requirements. 
W72-07357 



MODELING URBAN RUNOFF AS A DETER- 
MINISTIC PROCESS, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 
Civil Engineering. 



For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07486 



A GENERAL RATIONALE FOR MODELING 
URBAN RUNOFF, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07487 



DETERMINISTIC URBAN RUNOFF MODEL, 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech., Cambridge. Dept. of 

Civil Engineering. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02A. 

W72-07488 



HYBRID COMPUTER SIMULATION OF SEDI- 
MENT TRANSPORT WITH STOCHASTIC 
TRANSFER AT THE STREAM BED, 

Utah Water Research Lab., Logan. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 02J. 

W72-07609 



JOINT DISCUSSION - EXPANDING TO SERVE 
METROPOLITAN SYSTEMS: MONROE COUN- 
TY, N. Y, 

Monroe County Water Authority, Rochester, N. 
Y. 

A. E. Woodhead, Jr. 

Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 62, No. 1 , p 36-37, January 1970. 

Descriptors: 'Water supply, 'Expansion, 'City 

planning, 'Regional development. Long-term 

planning, Governments, Political aspects, New 

York. 

Identifiers: 'Regional planning, Monroe County 

(N. Y.), Underengineering, Policymaking. 

Monroe County, New York is presented as an ex- 
ample of regional planning. The hub of Monroe 
County is the City of Rochester, the home of a 
number of corporations. Rochester and Monroe 
County are served by one source of water, Lake 
Ontario. Early in the 1950's, signs of an impending 
water problem were recognized. It was realized 
that if planning were done by the towns them- 
selves, duplication of facilities, services, and man- 
power would result. Such piecemeal planning ac- 
counts for underengineering. Frequently, when 
small governmental units have geared their trans- 
mission lines and pumping stations to short-term 
planning, a new industry will move in, the popula- 
tion will increase, and the system becomes totally 
obsolete. Another factor which indicates the need 
for regional water planning is the erratic nature of 
well supplies. In New York, the Monroe County 
Water Authority was created by the state legisla- 
ture. The Authority serves as a nonprofit, non 
political, and public benefit corporation. Political 
boundaries have no function in water distribution 
planning. Regional water planning means the 
elimination of duplication, underengineering, 
short-sighted planning and policies, and the 
beginning of farsighted planning on the widest 
possible scale for water distribution. (See also 
W72-07631) (Strachan-Chicago) 
W72-07634 

6B. Evaluation Process 



A MODEL OF COMMUNITY PROBLEM SOLV- 
ING AND SELECTED EMPIRICAL APPLICA- 
TIONS, 

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Water Resources 

Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06A. 

W72-07279 



ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING CHANGE 
IN THE INTENSITY OF FLOOD PLAIN USE, 

Iowa State Water Resources Research Inst., 

Ames. 

J. R. Barnard, and D. B. Oyen. 



81 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6B — Evaluation Process 



Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 610, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Iowa State Water Resources 
Research Institute, Ames, Completion Report 
ISWRRI-45, December 1971. 10 p, 1 ref. OWRR 
A-038-IA (1). 

Descriptors: 'Agriculture, Land, *Land use, 
Economics, Flood plains, Benefits, Dams, 'Pro- 
ject benefits, Iowa, Water utilization. 
Identifiers: 'Coralville Dam (la), Iowa River. 

The extent of agricultural land use change on the 
floodplain of the Iowa River as a result of the 
building of the Coralville Dam is examined. The 
dollar values of benefits from land use change are 
estimated and compared to the original project 
study estimates prepared by the Corps of En- 
gineers. Also the factors affecting land use change 
are analyzed. (Powell-Iowa State) 
W72-07361 



THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN POLLUTION 
AND RECREATION POLICY: A MULTI-SA- 
MPLE, FACTOR-ANALYTICAL APPROACH 
TO ATTITUDE SCALE DEVELOPMENT, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Sociology. 
D. L. Burkhead. 

M.S. Thesis, 1972. 89 p, 28 tab, 64 ref, 4 append. 
OWRR A-037-IA (5). 

Descriptors: Iowa, 'Attitudes, Recreation, Water 
policy, 'Social aspects, 'Governments, Legal 
aspects, Human population, Behavior. 
Identifiers: 'Pollution policy, 'Recreation policy, 
'Factor analysis. 

Attitude scale development was the objective of 
this study. In an exploratory analysis, two dimen- 
sions were statistically generated from the data of 
several samples and their scalability demon- 
strated. Two samples were drawn from separate 
populations. Based on statistical and theoretical 
considerations, three new 'samples' were 
developed from the original samples. Thirty-one 
attitude statements were administered to both 
samples and scored by the certainty method. Sub- 
mitted to principal component factor analysis and 
varimax rotation solving for four factors and on 
the basis of consensual factor loadings in 4 of the 5 
samples, two factors were obtained which were 
suitable for scale analysis (government involve- 
ment and tax-supported, regulation-free recrea- 
tion). By using five samples as a basis for attitude 
scale development, the results can be generalized 
to more populations, and the consensual results 
statistically reflected the data better in most in- 
stances than the original results obtained for each 
sample. The samples proved to be meaningful esti- 
mators in factor determination. Based on the fac- 
tors obtained, factor analysis can generate 
meaningful dimensions from the data. Analyzed 
according to several criteria to determine the ad- 
ditivity and the validity of the dimensions, the 
scalability of the consensual factors was demon- 
strated. The multi-sample, factor-analytical ap- 
proach was demonstrated to form meaningful, 
scalable dimensions. (Powell-Iowa State) 
W72-07363 •■ 



NEW ADMINISTRATION YARDSTICK FOR 
WATER PROJECT FEASIBILITY RELEASED. 

Western Water News, Vol. 24, No. 1, p 3-4, 
December 1971 - January 1972. 1 dwg. 

Descriptors: 'Water resources development, 
'Pacific Coast Region, 'Economic justification, 
'Cost benefit analysis, 'Interest rates, Project 
planning, Feasibility studies, Rocky Mountain Re- 
gion, Long-term planning, Budgeting, Decision 
making, Multiple-purpose projects, Social func- 
tion, Federal government, State governments, En- 
vironmental effects, Recreation, Evaluation, Ir- 
rigation programs, Construction costs, Financial 
feasibility, Interest. 



The Nixon Administration's recently proposed 
seven percent interest rate yardstick for determin- 
ing the feasibility of federally financed water pro- 
jects signals the end of major new water develop- 
ment. The yardstick is unsatisfactory to water 
development groups because it will eliminate 
many projects now in the planning stage, and it is 
unsatisfactory to environmental groups because 
its grandfather clause exempts present projects. 
The yardstick discriminates against federally 
funded multiple use water projects and effectively 
curtails most federal participation in such projects. 
The yardstick applies to all levels of water 
resource project evaluation. Project evaluation 
must be made on two accounts: (1) national 
economic development, and (2) environmental 
quality. A third account, regional development, 
may also be considered. Beneficial effects must 
exceed adverse effects, but monetary benefits 
need not exceed monetary costs. Beneficial ef- 
fects include flood control, power, water supply, 
irrigation, and output value. Adverse effects in- 
clude construction costs, maintenance, and losses 
in output. Tests show that big projects with long 
delayed benefits and irrigation projects fare worst 
under the criteria. Municipal and industrial pro- 
jects fare best. The yardstick's effect on certain 
specific projects is assessed. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07432 



LOCAL WATER AGENCD2S, COMMUNICA- 
TIONS PATTERNS AND THE PLANNING 
PROCESS, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Environmental 
Resources Center. 
Duane W. Hill, and R. L. Meek. 
Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 693, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Completion Report Series No. 
27, Colorado Environmental Resources Center, 
Fort Collins, Spetember 1971, 125 p, 2 fig, 35 tab. 
OWRRB-051-COLO.(2). 

Descriptors: Administration, Decision-making, 
Formulation, 'Institutional constraints, 'Institu- 
tions, 'Local governments, Methodology, Non- 
structural alternatives, 'Planning, Rural areas, 
Long-term planning, 'Water allocation (Policy), 
Colorado, Area redevelopment, 'Water utiliza- 
tion, 'Social change, Irrigation programs, At- 
titudes, Social aspects, 'Domestic water. 
Identifiers: Communication patterns. 

The planning activities of local water distribution 
agencies are significant components of the local 
water resource system. This research examines 
these activities through the use of interviews with 
the planning agents in a sample of agency planners 
in a seven county region in Colorado. Similarly, in- 
terviews were conducted with a set of planning in- 
fluentials with whom the planners communicate. 
The data indicate that there is broad support for 
long-range, effective planning throughout the 
system. Planning activities are carried out in the 
local water agencies, but these activities tend to be 
short-range and are designed to deal with im- 
mediate problems of an operational nature. The 
typical agency planner spends a very small propor- 
tion of his time directly engaged in planning activi- 
ties. They are generally persons with little special- 
ized training in the techniques and problems of 
planning and they perform a number of other roles 
within the agency. The communication system 
which links together the different actors relevant 
to local planning efforts in seemingly quite 
adequate to diffuse necessary information 
throughout the system. However, there is little 
evidence that this system operates to effectively 
coordinate the activities of the different agencies 
within and between the sectors of the system. The 
general water resource system of the area has 
developed. 
W72-07521 



CHARLES RIVER: AN URBAN RIVER IN ITS 
CHANGING SOCIAL CONTEXTS, 

Massachusetts University, Amherst. Water 
Resources Research Center. 



J. W. Sinton. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-208 810, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. Massachusetts Water 
Resources Research Center Publication No. 23, 
(1971), 110 p, 1 fig, 12 tab, 155 ref, 3 append. 
OWRR B-015 Mass (1). 

Descriptors: 'Urban sociology, 'Planning, 'Social 
aspects, 'Attitudes, 'Rivers, 'Watershed manage- 
ment, Recreation, Waste disposal, Regional 
development, Massachusetts. 
Identifiers: 'Charles River (Mass). 

How planners can use historical, social and politi- 
cal material to make resource planning more effec- 
tive is discussed. A subjective view of the river is 
presented. Far from hindering the planning ef- 
forts, a sensitive planner's personal views can add 
new ideas and let the client know where the plan- 
ners biases he. A history of Charles River during 
the last century is presented in terms of its func- 
tions, namely flood drainage, navigation, drinking 
water, industry, waste disposal and enjoyment in- 
cluding recreation and aesthetic purposes. Both 
the change in functions and change in attitudes of 
people who live along the Charles are analyzed. 
Attitudes of present-day inhabitants of the Basin 
were gathered in a random sample questionnaire. 
The attitudes of town officials are compared with 
the feelings of the general public. The most impor- 
tant functions of Charles River are recreation and 
waste disposal. Attitudes toward these functions 
have hardly changed in the past century. These 
two functions are essentially regional problems, 
but because of the powerful cultural and political 
position of local townships in the watershed these 
regional problems must be dealt with in a local 
context. By using the methods of social science 
described, planners can gauge which aspects of 
their resource plans are socially acceptable and 
how they might implement those parts of the plan 
by using local support. 
W72-07614 



WORLD AND WATER IMPERATIVES: WATER 
SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05F. 

W72-07630 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: SCOPE OF THE 
NEWS STUDY, 

Corps of Engineers, New York. North Atlantic 

Div. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 

W72-07636 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: AWWA FACTORS 
RELATED TO THE NEWS STUDY, 

Detroit Metro Water Dept., Mich. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 

W72-07637 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: NEW YORK CITY 
WATER-SUPPLY AND ENVrRONMENT 
MANAGEMENT, 

New York State Dept. of Conservation, Albany. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 
W72-07638 



WORLD AND WATER IMPERATIVES: POLLU- 
TION EXPLOSION, 

Population Council, New York. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 

W72-07639 



REPORT OF A PRELIMINARY SOCIO- 
-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HUNTING IN SAL- 
MON RIVER BASIN SUBPROJECT, 

Idaho Univ., Moscow. Water Resources Research 
Inst. 



82 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, Pricing/Repayment — Group 6C 



3ordon. 

ailable from the National Technical Informa- 

i Service as PB-208 814, $3.00 in paper copy, 

)5 in microfiche. A Methodology Study to 

/elop Evaluation Criteria for Wild and Scenic 

ers, April 1971. 44 p, 2 fig, 23 tab, 7 ref, 1 ap- 

id.OWRRB-014-IDA(ll). 

scriptors: *Idaho, 'Hunting, 'Evaluation, 

ater resources development, 'Wild rivers, 

npeting uses, Decision making, Cost-benefit 

lysis. 

ntifiers: 'Salmon River Basin, 'Wildlife 

jurces. 

ilternate use debates concerning the utilization 
natural resources, economic evaluations and 
efit-cost analyses may form an important basis 
decision making. The results of a personal in- 
riew survey of hunters in Idaho's Salmon River 
in for the 1969 hunting season are reported and 
med useful in assessing the impact of various 
:1s of Basin development and in optimizing 
jurce allocation. The survey was conducted to 
:ss: the gross annual expenditures associated 
i Basin hunting; the distribution of hunting ef- 
: within this Basin by resident and non-resident 
iters; and the behavior preferences, and 
lions of hunters who utilized Basin wildlife 
lurces. It was concluded that hunter expendi- 
:s associated with wildlife resources are 
nomically significant to the Basin and the state, 
any development affecting these resources 
ild have an important impact on the Basin 
nomy. Hunters are attracted to the area by the 
i quality of wildlife resources and want no ad- 
onal development to take place. Future 
:arch attempts should focus on hunting pres- 
e, accessibility and game populations. (Haugh- 
iconsin) 
2-07772 



E THIRD OF THE NATION'S LAND, 

■ primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

2-07775 



NEFIT-COST RATIO OF PROJECTS: ITS 
)ST GENERAL FORM AND A NEW GRAPHI- 
L METHOD FOR ITS EVALUATION, 

st Pakistan Water and Power Development 
thority, Lahne. 
C. Asmi. 

Proceedings of the Institution of Civil En- 
eers, Vol 50, p 161-168, October 1971. 10 fig. 

icriptors: 'Cost-benefit analysis, 'Project 
sibility, Economics, Interest rate, Project 
lefits, Costs, 'Evaluation, 
ntifiers: 'Graphical analysis, 'Project evalua- 



ien projects are evaluated in terms of benefit- 
t ratios, the mathematical methods commonly 
d sometimes overlook several variables. Con- 
uently, a new graphical method which takes 
> account all variables is suggested for the 
Juation of benefit-cost ratios in the most 
leral form. In this most general form of the 
blem, the benefit-cost ratio of a project has to 
evaluated when (1) the interest rate is variable, 
investment in the project is made in an irregular 
hion, over any period, (3) annual maintenance 
I operation charges are variable, and (4) the an- 
il benefits of the project vary from year to year. 
amples are given for zero interest rate, constant 
:rest rate, and variable interest rate economies. 
; set of curves used in the analysis can be stan- 
dized for the given values of interest rates, 
ce such curves are readily available in printed 
m, all that is required is to plot the project costs 
incurred year by year and project benefits as 
ived from year to year. This method for quickly 
nputing benefit-cost ratios is applicable to all 
es of varying costs, benefits, and rates of in- 
sst. (Settle-Wisconsin) 
'2-07777 



6C. Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, 
Pricing/Repayment 



ECONOMICS OF WATER QUALITY MANAGE- 
MENT: EXEMPLD7IED BY SPECIFIED POLLU- 
TANTS IN AGRICULTURAL RUNOFF, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

W72-07365 



ANTI-POLLUTION FUNDS COMPRISE 1% OF 
FY 1973 BUDGET-HIGHLIGHTS OF THE 
BUDGET PROPOSALS FOR AGENCIES DEAL- 
ING WITH NATURAL RESOURCES. 

Conservation Report, Report No. 2, p 10-19, 
January 28, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Federal budget, 'Water pollution 
control, 'Government finance, 'Governmental in- 
terrelations, Estimated costs, Air pollution, Ad- 
ministration, Administrative agencies, Budgeting, 
Decision making, Institutions, Legislation, Ad- 
ministrative costs, Clean Air Act, Parks, Recrea- 
tion, Land resources, Navigation, Public health, 
Federal Water Pollution Control Act. 

Approximately 1% of the proposed budget for 
fiscal year 1973 is allocated to natural resources 
and the environment. As in the past year, this is 
much lower than Congress will probably 
authorize. The Environmental Protection Agency 
budget contains an increase in appropriations for 
research and development for air pollution control 
technology and regional studies on effects of air 
pollution. More research will be devoted to 
eutrophication problems. The funding level of ex- 
isting programs is unchanged. The proposed water 
pollution budget is likely to be increased by Con- 
gressional appropriations; however, the President 
is not expected to spend any increased funds. The 
budget request for implementing the Clean Air Act 
is well below authorized appropriations. The 
budget makes a fairly strong commitment to 
preserving natural and historic areas for parks and 
recreation sites. A large amount of surplus federal 
land will be transferred to states for recreational 
facilities. $3.4 billion is allocated for water 
resources and power programs, including naviga- 
tion improvement and flood control. (Grant- 
Florida) 
W72-07428 



NEW ADMINISTRATION YARDSTICK FOR 
WATER PROJECT FEASIBILITY RELEASED. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 
W72-07432 



AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD WATER 
BUDGETS AND CONSUMER DEMAND FOR 
WATER, 

New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Inst, of Natural 

and Environmental Resources. 

R. A. Andrews, and M. R. Hammond. 

KansantaloudeUinen aikakauskirja, Helsinki, Vol. 

3, p 215-224 1971. 6 tab, 16 ref. OWRR A-018-NH 

(3). 

Descriptors: 'Water utilization, 'Domestic water, 
Water consumption, Budgeting, Expenditures, 
Costs, Prices, Wages, 'Water demand, 'Cost anal- 
ysis. 

Empirical evidence is presented on the influence 
of traditional economic variables and 'laws' on 
water consumption. The analysis supports the as- 
sertion that Engels Law applies to water as well as 
to food. Further, the analysis supports the asser- 
tion that household water use is influenced by 
price and income and that water is price and in- 
come inelastic. The influence of house value (a 
proxy for assets) was also measured. Household 
population was an overriding consideration as 
measured in terms of explained variation (R prime 



2) and in quantity of water used. An additional in- 
dividual to the household added about 30 gallons 
per capita per day to household use in contrast to 
the commonly used average daily per capita figure 
of 60 gallons. The low R prime 2s obtained reflect 
the minor role of water expenditure in the 
household budget. This coupled with price and in- 
come inelasticity indicates the use of these instru- 
ments in rationing water would yield poor results 
in the short run. 
W72-07529 



COST OF DOMESTIC WELLS AND WATER 
TREATMENT IN ILLINOIS, 

Illinois State Water Survey, Urbana. 

J. P. Gibb. 

Illinois Water Survey Circular 104, 23 p, 11 fig, 4 

ref, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Water costs, 'Domestic water, 
'Water wells, 'Water treatment, 'Illinois, 
Groundwater, Economics, Construction costs, 
Operating costs. 

Cost information is given for private home ground- 
water supply systems in Illinois. With 10-gpm sub- 
mersible pumps the average cost is about $585 
with 50 percent ranging between $400 and $680. 
The costs of treating water for domestic use also 
are summarized. Two maps show the probable 
costs of domestic raw water-supply systems from 
sand and gravel wells and bedrock wells 
throughout the State. For an average installation 
and domestic use rate in Illinois, the monthly cost 
of raw water is about $11.00, softened water 
$15.40, softened water treated for iron $22.00, and 
softened water treated for iron and chlorinated 
$25.00. Similar calculations for any type and depth 
of well, water quality, and treatment can be made. 
(See also W72-02753) (Knapp-USGS) 
W72-0761 1 



UTILITY RATES FOR WASTEWATER OPERA- 
TIONS, 

Dallas Water Utilities Dept., Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07622 



UTDLITY WATER RATE STRUCTURING, 

Black and Veatch, Kansas City, Mo. 
R. F. Banker, and R. B. Benson. 
Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tion, Vol. 63, No. 4, p 203-205, April 1971. 1 fig, 1 
ref. 

Descriptors: 'Utilities, 'Water reates, 'Struc- 
tures, Economics, Costs, Cost sharing, Pricing, 
Financing, Scheduling, Planning. 
Identifiers: Implementation, Customer, Equity, 
Service costs. Block rates, Demand commodity 
rates, Billing. 

From a review of recent rate studies, there ap- 
pears to be no end in sight to the overall upward 
spiral of water-utility costs and the consequent 
periodic need of an upward adjustment of rates. 
The vast majority of water utilities will have to 
face the problem of convincing an increasingly 
sensitive public of the necessity for larger and 
more frequent increases in the price of water. The 
customer must be convinced that he is being 
treated in a reasonable and fair manner, and that 
he is only paying his fair share of the water costs. 
From the perspective, cost of service, form of rate 
structure, number of schedules, design of block 
rates, service charges, demand-commodity rates, 
outside-city rates, and billing frequency are 
discussed. Water rates should be adequate in order 
to return necessary revenue that will allow the 
utility to meet all of its financial obligations. The 
rate schedule should be designed to recover, to the 
extent practicable, the costs of providing service 
to each of the customer classes and to be accepta- 
ble to the individual customer as well. As long as 
these two key factors are properly recognized, the 
utility can work toward the implementation of new 






83 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 

Group 6C — Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, Pricing/Repayment 



rates with the assurance that it is acting with equi- 
ty and fairness and in the best interests of its 
customers. (Strachan-Chicago) 

W72-07625 



JOINT DISCUSSION - EXPANDING TO SERVE 
METROPOLITAN SYSTEMS: TACOMA, 

Tacoma Dept. of Public Utilities, Wash. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 

W72-07631 



JOINT DISCUSSION - EXPANDING TO SERVE 
METROPOLITAN AREAS: ST. PAUL, 

Saint Paul Board of Water Commissioners, Minn. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 
W72-07632 



JOINT DISCUSSION-EXPANDING TO SERVE 
METROPOLITAN SYSTEMS: MIAMI, 

Miami Dept. of Water and Sewers, Fla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 

W72-07633 



DEMAND MANAGEMENT THROUGH 

RESPONSIVE PRICING, 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md.; and George 

Washington Univ., Washington, D.C. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06D. 

W72-07779 



SEWER MAINTENANCE COSTS, 

Santry (I. W.), Inc., Dallas, Tex. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05D. 

W72-07805 



6D. Water Demand 



AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD WATER 
BUDGETS AND CONSUMER DEMAND FOR 
WATER, 

New Hampshire Univ., Durham. Inst, of Natural 

and Environmental Resources. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06C. 

W72-07529 



YORK RIVER BASIN COMPREHENSIVE 
WATER RESOURCES PLAN: VOLUME IV. 
WATER RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS AND 
PROBLEMS. 

Virginia Division of Water Resources Planning 
Bulletin 228, February 1972. 128 p, 27 plate, 29 
tab, 2 append. 

Descriptors: *Water resources development, 
*River basins, 'Virginia, 'Water demand, 
•Planning, Reviews, Water utilization. Irrigation, 
Livestock, Domestic water, Flood protection, 
Recreation facilities, Harbors, Ships, Industrial 
water, Water quality control. 
Identifiers: *York River basin (Va). 

Projections of water requirements are presented 
for domestic needs, manufacturing, electric power 
generation cooling, livestock, recreational facili- 
ties, and irrigation. Water requirements for waste 
assimiliation are shown, and the flooding problem 
is evaluated. Problems related to the water 
resources and the background data needed to un- 
derstand these problems are also discussed. The 
major prospect for future improvement of the 
York River channel is a proposal to deepen the en- 
trance channel from Chesapeake Bay to York- 
town. Its present project depth of 37 feet is insuffi- 
cient to accommodate the deep draft supertankers 
which are now being used to transport petroleum 
in world trade. (Woodard-USGS) 
W72-07598 



DESIGNING RESIDENTIAL WATER SER- 
VICES, 

Columbus Water Engineers Office, Ohio. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 
W72-07623 



UTILITY WATER RATE STRUCTURING, 

Black and Veatch, Kansas City, Mo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06C. 

W72-07625 



JOINT DISCUSSION - NORTHEASTERN US 
WATER SUPPLY STUDY: COMING WATER- 
SUPPLY CRISIS, 

Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington, 

DC. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 

W72-07635 



ECONOMIC, ENGINEERING AND SOCIAL 
PROBLEMS ARISING FROM CHANGING 
NEEDS, USES AND AVAILABILITY OF 
WATER, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06E. 

W72-07774 



DEMAND MANAGEMENT THROUGH 

RESPONSIVE PRICING, 

Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md.; and George 
Washington Univ., Washington, D.C. 
S. H. Hanke, and R. K. Davis. 
Journal of the American Water Works Associa- 
tions, Vol 63, No 9, p 555-560, September 1971. 1 
fig, 5 tab, 18ref. 

Descriptors: *Water supply, 'Economic efficien- 
cy, 'Planning, 'Pricing, 'Water demand. Time, 
Average costs, Marginal costs, Investment. 
Identifiers: 'Economic equity, 'Responsive pric- 
ing, 'Washington, D.C. 

A responsive pricing policy plus effective manage- 
ment of supply will assure more efficient use of 
the resources employed to produce and distribute 
water and more equitable distribution of water ser- 
vice costs. The technical solutions of conventional 
supply management disregard rising water supply 
costs and diminishing marginal values. A policy of 
demand management through responsive pricing 
will balance the marginal value against the mar- 
ginal cost of water utility investments. In the tem- 
poral aspect of water supply and demand, a 'peak- 
load problem' exists where peak demands guide 
water utility investments unrestrained by prices 
which reflect the peak-load marginal cost. By 
sizably reducing long-run water supply require- 
ments, the responsive pricing rule solves the peak- 
load problem more efficiently than uniform 
average cost pricing. These results are cited in a 
case study of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan 
area. The implications for this area, where the 
growth of summertime demand is leading to 
capacity expansion pressures, are that growth in 
storage facilities and system capacity can be post- 
poned possibly beyond 10 years. This will result in 
a substantial reduction in the discounted costs of 
an investment. (Haugh- Wisconsin) 
W72-07779 



TOLEDO METROPOLITAN AREA WATER 
AND WASTE WATER PLAN FOR 1990. 

Finkbeiner, Pettis and Strout, Limited, Toledo, 
Ohio. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-204 275, $3.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. The Toledo Metropolitan Area 
Council of Governments, Toledo, Ohio, 
December 1970. 1 24 p, 6 fig, 26 tab. HUD Grant. 

Descriptors: 'Planning, 'Water supply, 'Waste 
water disposal, 'Urbanization, 'Ohio, Construc- 
tion costs, Estimated costs, Water requirements, 
Water quality control, Water supply development, 



Water quality standards, Water distribution (Af. 
plied), Long term planning, Sewerage. 
Identifiers: 'Toledo (Ohio). 

A plan was prepared for the development of wate 
and wastewater improvements for the Toled 
Metropolitan Area to the year 1990, in 5-year in 
crements. The 1990 plans were based on the pre 
jections of population, land use, etc. furnished b 
the Toledo Regional Area Plan for Action and th 
Southern Wood County Land Use Studies. Th 
plans have taken into consideration the desirable 
and minimum acceptable, standards of air an 
water pollution as required by federal, state an 
local pollution control agencies. The total esti 
mated cost for recommended water supply an 
transmission improvements to the year 1990 i 
$55,200,000, based on 1971 construction costs 
The total estimated cost of recommended im 
provements to the wastewater collection system 
in the area is $130,700,000. The purpose is to pre 
vide a plan for the development of future wate 
and sewer improvements in the Toled 
Metropolitan Area through the year 1990. Th 
facilities recommended have been designed t 
meet the anticipated residential, commercial, in 
dustrial, and public needs for the supply, treat 
ment and distribution of a public water supply am 
the collection, treatment and disposal of sanitar 
and industrial wastes from the area. (Poertner) 
W72-07782 



6E. Water Law and Institutions 



BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOT WASTE MANAGE 
MENT PROGRAM, 

Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada 

Okla. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05B. 

W72-07323 



THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN POLLUTIOP 
AND RECREATION POLICY: A MULTI-SA 
MPLE, FACTOR-ANALYTICAL APPROACI 
TO ATTITUDE SCALE DEVELOPMENT, 

Iowa State Univ., Ames. Dept. of Sociology. 
For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W72-07363 



UTAH V. UNITED STATES (NAVIGABILITY A1 
THE TIME OF ADMISSION TO THE UNION Ai 
THE TEST OF STATE OWNERSHIP OF A 
LAKE BED). 

91 S.Ct. 1775-1778(1971). 

Descriptors: 'United States, 'Great Salt Lake 
'Navigable waters, 'Ownership of beds, 'Utah 
Lake shores, Legal aspects, Judicial decisions 
Lake beds. Federal government, Constitutiona 
law, Beds under water, Shores, State jurisdiction 
Federal jurisdiction. 

Plaintiff, Utah, sought to establish title to th> 
shorelands surrounding the Great Salt Lake. Plain 
tiff claimed that at the time of its admission as 
state the Lake was navigable and plaintiff, there 
fore, owned the lands in question by operation o 
the 'equal footing' principle. Defendant, Unite 
States, claimed the lake was not navigable at th 
time of plaintiff's admission. The United State 
Supreme Court held that the question of navigj 
bility was a federal question and that evidenc 
which showed that a lake was in fact used as 
highway was sufficient to sustain a finding c 
navigability. The Court also ruled that it was ur 
necessary to show that the Lake was part of an ir 
terstate commercial highway so long as it was i 
fact used as a highway. Furthermore, the Cou 
ruled it was not necessary to show that the entii 
Lake was still navigable at the time of plaintiff 
admission, so long as it still permitted navigatioi 
The Court decreed that plaintiff held title to tl 
bed of the Lake. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07376 



84 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Water Law and Institutions — Group 6E 



1 V. CHILDRESS (RIGHTS OF HOLDER 
ERVITUDE OF DRAIN TO INCREASE 

o. 

,.2d 822-825 (La. Ct. App. 1971). 

iptors: *Surface drainage, 'Drainage ef- 
'Channelization, 'Riddance (Legal 

;s), Land tenure, Adjacent landowners, 
aspects, Judicial decisions, Legislation, 
rights, Ditches, Drainage patterns (Geolog- 

)rainage engineering, Drainage systems, 

s, Flood protection. Relative rights, 

ige water, Repulsion (Legal aspects), Sur- 

inoff , Easements. 

[iers: 'Injunctions (Prohibitory). 

ff landowner sought to enjoin defendant 
vners from interfering with the natural ser- 
of drain which plaintiff contended was held 
: endants' estate in favor of plaintiff. Plain- 
and was higher in elevation than defendants' 
ind water had always drained onto the lower 
ty. Plaintiff constructed ditches which 
I the drainage to be more rapid and resulted 
lage to defendants' road. An earthen levee 
iy defendants to protect the road eventually 
id one of plaintiff's ditches causing the 
to back up. Plaintiff contended that this was 
:rference with his natural servitude of drain, 
surt of Appeal of Louisiana, Second Circuit, 
that a natural servitude of drain existed 
statutory provisions in favor of plaintiff's 
The court held that plaintiff had not caused 
rvitude to be more burdensome by concen- 
; and increasing the flow beyond the slow 
I by which it would ultimately reach the 
iestination: it would have been burdensome 
:rt the water onto the lower lands at a point 
would not be its natural destination. Thus, 
urt affirmed the lower court's permanent in- 
3n against the interference by defendants. 
on-Florida) 
7377 



{NATIONAL LAW-OIL SPILLS AND 
* LEGAL RAMIFICATIONS, 

imary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

7378 



PILL AND POLLUTION CONTROL: THE 
LICT BETWEEN STATE AND 
TIME LAW, 

a Univ., Gainesville. Coll. of Law. 
imary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 

7379 



FICTIONAL ADVENTURES AT SEA- 
J HAS JURISDICTION OVER THE NATU- 
IESOURCES OF THE SEABED, 

ridge Univ. (England). Whewell Professor of 

ational Law. 

lennings. 

al Resources Lawyer, Vol 4, p 829-840, 

nberl971. 

iptors: 'Jurisdiction, 'International waters, 
inental shelf, 'Water resources develop- 
Law of the sea, International law, Legal 
:s, Oceans, Administration, Competing uses, 
nments, Non-structural alternatives, Trea- 
'olitical aspects, Continental margin, Con- 
al slope, Contours, Structural geology, 
;n countries. Institutional constraints, 
tiers: 'Coastal waters, 'Contiguous zone, 
ed, 'Ocean floor. 

'nited States draft seabed treaty defines the 
ational Seabed Area as that area of the high 
eaward of the 200 meter isobath adjacent to 
ast of continents and islands. The drawback 
> definition is that some states claim waters 
d this isobath as territorial waters. Further- 
since international law has recognized such 
i, the continental margin would serve more 
mtly as the boundary of national jurisdiction. 
Fnited States draft treaty seeks to place the 
etween the isobath and the continental mar- 



gin in the trusteeship of the adjacent state. This 
method of interrelating jurisdiction concepts could 
result in problems both with non-recognizing 
states and with states already subject to conflict- 
ing bilateral agreement concerning recognition of 
jurisdictional limits. Any attempt to establish an 
international seabed area must relate to the in- 
creasing desire of states to expand their territorial 
waters to protect themselves. Although most 
proposals for control of seabed resources contem- 
plate use of these resources to generate grants for 
developing nations, it might be more beneficial to 
encourage direct participation of these nations in 
exploiting these resources. (Johnson-Florida) 
W72-07380 



THE LEGAL SETTING OF NUCLEAR POWER- 
PLANT SITING DECISIONS: A NEW YORK 
STATE CONTROVERSY, 

D. Nelkin, and K. R. Kupchak. 

Cornell Law Review, Vol 57, p 80-104, November 

1971. 143 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Thermal pollution, 'New York, 
'Nuclear powerplants, 'Sites, 'Decision making, 
'Institutional constraints. Water pollution 
sources, Legislation, Judicial decisions, Legal 
aspects, Environmental effects, Social aspects, 
Electric powerplants, Utilities, Heat transfer, 
Federal government, State governments, Project 
planning, Electric power demand, Standards, 
Political constraints, Effluents, Environmental 
sanitation, Public utilities. 

Identifiers: 'Cayuga Lake (N.Y.), National En- 
vironmental Policy Act, Injunctions (Prohibitory). 

The institutional and legal setting behind the deci- 
sion to construct a nuclear powerplant on New 
York's Cayuga Lake is examined to demonstrate 
the difficulty of protecting environmental interests 
associated with utility development. The major 
problem encountered with the nuclear powerplant 
was thermal pollution and the uncertainty of its ef- 
fect on the Lake's ecology. Private legal controls 
applicable to water pollution are examined, includ- 
ing injunctions by riparian landowners and con- 
demnation contests. These constituted inadequate 
remedies against possible pollution from the plant. 
State controls such as the Public Service Commis- 
sion, the Board of Health, and regulation of ef- 
fluents and drinking water standards are ex- 
amined. These remedies were also ineffective. 
Federal controls at the time also proved in- 
adequate. Recent legislation on the federal and 
state level, such as the National Environmental 
Policy Act, is examined. Recent case law is also 
considered. Recent advances are promising, but 
political constraints may prevent them from being 
effective. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07381 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW-DISPOSAL OF 
RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN THE OCEANS, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05E. 
W72-07382 



LATERAL 2-A OF JUDICIAL DITCH NO. 36 IN 
REDWOOD AND BROWN COUNTIES V. 
REDWOOD COUNTY (ALTERATION OF 
DRAINAGE DITCH PLANS). 

185 N.W. 2d 701-704 (Minn. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Minnesota, 'Drainage engineering, 
'Controlled drainage, 'Judicial decisions, Legal 
aspects, Local governments, Project planning, 
Watersheds (Basins), Drainage basins. Ditches, 
Drainage, Construction, Design, Legislation, 
Watershed management, Legal review. 

Appellant landowners petitioned for construction 
of a lateral ditch to drain certain lands. Appellee 
county board ordered a ditch constructed which 
was longer than the one specified in that petition. 
Appellant contended that the length differed so 
substantially that the drainage proceedings were 



invalid. Appellee contended that an engineering 
study indicated the changes were necessary in 
order to fully protect and drain appellants' land. 
The Minnesota Supreme Court held that while the 
engineer did not have a roving commission to plan 
drainage improvements, his special expertise was 
required to determine the extent of the watershed 
and to plan the course and methods of construct- 
ing the ditch. The engineer could modify, but not 
change, the proposed plan. The county board 
necessarily retained substantial discretion in such 
matters. The court ruled that the evidence as a 
whole did not show the changes to be so substan- 
tial as to invalidate the proceedings. The engineer 
had modified, not changed, the plan in order to ef- 
fectuate appellants' drainage objectives. (Grant- 
Florida) 
W72-07383 



RIGHT OF PUBLIC IN SHORE OF INLAND 
NAVIGABLE LAKE BETWEEN HIGH- AND 
LOW- WATER MARKS, 

A. E. Korpela. 

American Law Reports 3d, Annotated, Vol 40, p 

776-787, 1971. 19 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Navigable waters, 'Littoral, 'Lake 
shores, 'Judicial decisions, 'Public rights, Legal 
aspects, Public access. Water rights, Legal 
review, Lake beds, Recreation, Recreation facili- 
ties, Landfills, Reasonable use, Water policy, 
Structures, High water mark, Low water mark, 
Water level, Water level fluctuations, Boating, 
Fishing, Relative rights, State governments, i 

Cases are herein analyzed dealing with the right of 
the public in the strip of land between high- and 
low-water marks of an inland navigable lake. 
Cases involving disputes between littoral owners 
are not discussed. There is considerable conflict of 
opinion, but the strip of land in question is 
generally regarded differently than upland and 
submerged land. Policy decisions are influenced 
by the general availability of public waters in a 
state, state interest in expanding recreation, and 
the pressure of development. Some courts have 
held that the public has a right to travel on the strip 
of land, to use it for access to the navigable lakes, 
and to place temporary structures on the strip. The 
littoral owner's right of access, however, cannot 
be interferred with unreasonably. The public right 
to have a lake maintained at a certain level and the 
corresponding right of a littoral owner to use the 
lake bed when the water level drops are difficult 
areas. The public generally has no right to an unob- 
structed view. Numerous cases are cited in a 
discussion of prefatory matters, general comment, 
use of land, and the condition of land. (Grant- 
Florida). 
W72-07384 



LIABILITY OF VESSEL TO STATE IN AD- 
MIRALTY ACTION IN REM FOR DAMAGES 
RESULTING FROM OIL SPILL IN NAVIGABLE 
WATERS OF STATE, 

J. A. Glenn. 

American Law Reports Federal, Annotated, Vol 

10, p 956-959, 1972. 3 ref. / 

Descriptors: 'United States, 'Navigable waters, 
'State governments, 'Oil spills. Water pollution 
sources, Ships, Legal aspects, Judicial decisions, 
Water law, Law of the sea, Jurisdiction, Damages, 
Aquatic life, Public rights, Oil wastes, Oil pollu- 
tion, Federal jurisdiction, Remedies. 
Identifiers: 'Oil Pollution Act. 

A recent California federal district court decision 
held that a vessel is liable to a state in an admiralty 
in rem proceeding for damages resulting from an 
oil spill in navigable waters. The court held that 
discharge of bunker oil could constitute a maritime 
tort and that a maritime hen would arise as a 
matter of general law, without the aid of a statute. 
The court found that admiralty jurisdiction would 
not lie under the Extension of Admiralty Jurisdic- 
tion Act because the injury was not consumated 



85 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E — Water Law and Institutions 



on land: the injury was to the water itself and 
marine life. Therefore, the court ruled a lien arose 
which would support an in rem action. The injury 
to the property allegedly caused by the discharge 
was equated to a claim for an ordinary conversion 
of property, historically recognized in maritime 
law. The court stated that the fact Congress was 
proposing a similar statutory cause of action did 
not negate the existence of one in general maritime 
law. Subsequently, on the merits, the court held 
that res ipsa loquiter was applicable to make the 
defendant liable for negligence. Citations for re- 
lated articles and annotations are set forth. (Grant- 
Florida) 
W72-07385 



PROPRIETY OF INJUNCTIVE RELIEF 
AGAINST DIVERSION OF WATER BY MU- 
NICIPAL CORPORATION OR PUBLIC UTILI- 
TY, 

W. R. Habeeb. 

American Law Reports 3d, Annotated, Vol 42, p 

426-474,1972. 13ref. 

Descriptors: 'Judicial decisions, 'Public utilities, 
'Diversion losses, 'Riparian waters, Alteration of 
flow, Relative rights, Reasonable use, 
Withdrawal, Competing uses, Prescriptive rights, 
Riparian land, Prior appropriation. Municipal 
waters, Riparian rights, Trespass, Local govern- 
ments, Cities, Equity, Legal review. 
Identifiers: 'Injunctions (Prohibitory). 

Where there has been a diversion of water which 
entitles a landowner to some relief, the grant or 
denial of an injunction will depend upon 
established rules of equity. Wrongful or 
threatened diversion by a municipal corporation or 
public agency may generally be enjoined even 
where the city had a prior right. The common judi- 
cial rationale is that the diversion is a continuing 
trespass or nuisance for which there is no 
adequate remedy at law or which would otherwise 
require a multiplicity of suits. In some cases, 
prompted by public interest, courts have denied or 
granted relief in the alternative by giving the mu- 
nicipality time to acquire the owner's rights or pay 
damages. Injunctive relief is usually conditioned 
upon proof of damage, but authority exists for in- 
junctions based upon only nominal damages. Lan- 
downers injured by a public utility's diversion of 
water may be entitled to injunctive relief where 
the use of water is adverse and not merely the ex- 
ercise of a riparian right. Comparative incon- 
venience or damages and diversions for public in- 
terest are often determinative factors in actions 
against public utilities. Cases from numerous ju- 
risdictions are examined. (Blank-Florida) 
W72-07386 



CITY OF NEW YORK V. FELTMAN (CON- 
DEMNATION OF RIPARIAN LAND AND 
FORESHORE). 

230 App. Div. 299, 243 N.Y.S. 625-629 (1930). 

Descriptors: 'New York, 'Riparian land, 'Con- 
demnation, 'Submergence, High watermark, Low 
water mark, Navigable waters, Shores, Beaches, 
Coasts, Oceans, Riparian waters. Riparian rights, 
Beds, Ownership of beds, Eminent domain, Ci- 
ties, Governments, Legal aspects, Water law. Ju- 
dicial decisions, Public lands, Public rights, 
Damages, Remedies. 

Plaintiff New York city brought a condemnation 
action to acquire defendant's property for a public 
beach. New York claimed to own the beach under 
a patent to the land granted in 1845. Defendant 
based his ownership on an 1898 grant from the 
state. Defendant under this same grant claimed 
land which had become submerged. The court re- 
lied on the common law rule that excluding grants 
bounded by bays, harbors, and inlets, grants of 
land lapped by open sea carry title to high water 
mark. Consequently, plaintiff's grant extended 
only to the high water mark while the subsequent 



grant from the state had given defendant title to 
the area between the high and low water marks. 
However, plaintiff did own the submerged land, 
because the upland owner had lost proprietorship 
when the land was submerged. An upland owner 
may normally recover submerged land when the 
water is excluded by natural or artificial means, 
but here the city by resolution had obtained title to 
the land while it was submerged. (Horwitz- 
Florida) 
W72-07387 



NEDTWEG V. WALLACE (STATE'S RIGHT TO 
LEASE RELICTED LAND). 

208 N.W. 51-59 (Mich. 1926). 

Descriptors: 'Michigan, 'Accretion (Legal 
aspects), 'Beds under water, 'Lakes, 'Navigable 
waters, 'Leases, Judicial decisions, Legal aspects, 
Recreation, Riparian rights, Thalweg, Boundaries 
(Property), Public rights, Competing uses, Rela- 
tive rights, Legislation. 
Identifiers: 'Public trust doctrine. 

Plaintiff sought mandamus to compel the granting 
of a lease by defendant State Commission of Con- 
servation. Water in a navigable lake had relicted, 
rendering thousands of acres of lake bed suitable 
for development. Plaintiff was refused a lease on a 
portion of the relicted land by defendant. A 
Michigan statute provided that all unpatented 
overflowed lands and 'lake bottoms' held by the 
state in trust shall be leased. The Supreme Court 
of Michigan held that the state is the sovereign of 
navigable waters and is bound in trust to do 
nothing in hindrance of public rights of navigation, 
hunting, and fishing. The state may, however, 
separate, sell, and lease private rights in navigable 
waters and the soil underneath. Mandamus, 
requiring defendant to lease relicted land to plain- 
tiff, issued. (Barnett-Florida) 
W72-07388 



LEGAL MUSCLE FOR THE FIGHT AGAINST 
POLLUTION, 

E. G. CoUister, Jr., R. F. Hayse, and W. R. 

Sampson. 

Washburn Law Journal, Vol. 9, p. 342-371, 1970. 

153 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Pollution abatement, 'Political 
aspects, 'State governments, 'Industrial wastes, 
Water pollution control, Conservation, Federal 
government, Jurisdiction, Legal aspects, Regula- 
tion, Public rights, Legislation, Water pollution, 
Local governments, Environment, Air pollution, 
Industries, Social aspects, Kansas. 
Identifiers: 'Public nuisance. 

Environmental pollution is approaching the point 
of no return. Time is of the essence. Ecologists 
speak of a water pollution crisis within the decade, 
and population biologists are no less pessimistic. 
Pollution problems arose in the 'laissez faire' in- 
dustrial policies of the 19th Century. The condi- 
tions of our environment suggest that the present 
level of industrial commitment is insufficient. 
Regulation and guidance from government are 
needed. The role of the federal government in pol- 
lution control is examined, with emphasis placed 
upon the 1965 Water Quality Act. State and local 
attempts at regulation are also considered, espe- 
cially the problems of Kansas. A detailed com- 
parison is made between the legislation and 
procedures of Kansas and that of other states. 
Special attention is given to the role of the Kansas 
Attorney General in fighting pollution through 
powers derived from legislation and the common 
law. Public nuisance theory is an effective weapon 
which may be utilized to stop pollution. The 
public's legal officers, the attorney general, and 
county attorneys must exercise their powers. 
(Horwitz-Florida) 
W72-07402 



NORTHEASTERN PA. NAT'L. BANK A 
TRUST CO. V. SANDVICK STEEL, INC. (. 
JUNCTION TO PREVENT ALTERATION 
NATURAL FLOW). 

325 F. Supp. 651-655 (M.D. Pa. 1971). 

Descriptors: United States, 'Riparian rigl 
'Federal jurisdiction, 'Waste water dispo; 
Legal aspects, Judicial decisions, Water law, 
risdiction, Land tenure, Water rights, Indust 
water, Watersheds (Divides), Water sourc 
Riparian land, Water pollution, Competing us 
Alteration of flow, Industrial plants, Indust 
wastes, Industrial water, Water pollution sourc 
Drainage water, Pennsylvania. 
Identifiers: Injunctions (Prohibitory). 

Defendant steel company was in the process 
constructing a steel plant and plaintiff landown 
sought to restrain them from artificially divert 
the natural flow of water over its lands. The la 
quantities of water which defendant planned 
use in the operation of the plant were to 
discharged into the watershed which draii 
through plaintiffs' lands. Plaintiff also asser 
that this discharged water would contain chei 
cals and other obnoxious or dangerous substanc 
Defendant moved to dismiss the complaint, c< 
tending that: (1) the complaint failed to statt 
proper claim, (2) the court lacked subject mat 
jurisdiction, and (3) only an administrative rente 
was proper. The United States District Court : 
the Middle District of Pennsylvania held: (1) I 
jurisdictional amount should be measured by l 
plaintiffs' loss without aggregation of claims, i 
the total extent of injuries sought to be avoidi 
and (2) even though it was possible to get an ; 
ministrative remedy for any pollution effects 
the discharge, the court would not dismiss the ; 
tion because plaintiffs also sought relief for otl 
effects. The court also found sufficient facts 
overcome the motion and insufficient evidence 
show that the claims would not reach the requis 
jurisdictional level. (Johnson-Florida) 
W72-07403 



DICKSON V. SANDEFUR (OWNERSHIP ( 
OLD RIVER BED AFTER SUDDEN CHANGE 
COURSE OF RIVER). 

250 So.2d 708-721 (La. 1971). 4 photo. 

Descriptors: 'Louisiana, 'River beds, *La 
tenure, 'Boundary disputes, Legal aspects, J 
risdiction, Judicial decisions, State governmen 
Civil law, Riparian rights, Avulsion, Boundan 
(Property), Floods, Accretion (Legal aspect 
Rivers, Navigable rivers, Water law. 

Plaintiff landowner instituted a possessory acti 
against defendant landowners to acquire title 
the old bed of Red River and the land between tl 
bed and the new river bed. After a flood the R 
River altered course, cutting a completely new t 
across permanent high land belonging to plaint 
Plaintiff alleged that since the river bed chang 
suddenly, taking his land, he was entitled to ' 
old bed and attached alluvion land. Defend 
claimed the right to the old river bed because 
river had been riparian to his land. Plaintiff v 
declared both owner of the old bed in its ordin 
low water stage and owner of all alluvion 1; 
formed by accretion to that bed. In Louisia 
when a river changes its old course suddenly, 
owner of land covered by the new bed may cli 
the old bed as indemnification for loss of la 
This claim is valid no matter how far remo i 
from the new bed and whether or not plaintiff I 
been a riparian owner along the old bed. (Horw 
Florida) 
W72-07404 



SPD2GLE V. BOROUGH OF BEACH HA\< 
(OWNERSHIP OF ACCRETED LANDS OCE ■ 
WARD OF PROPERTY LINE). 

281 A.2d 377-389 (N.J. Super. 1971). 



86 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Water Law and Institutions — Group 6E 



iptors: 'New Jersey, *Dunes, 'Easements, 
lemnation value, Judicial decisions, Water 
Legal aspects, Land tenure, Legislation, 
rights, Regulation, Beaches, Erosion con- 
ermits, Vegetation establishment, Compen- 
, Water rights, Building codes, Competing 
Condemnation, Local governments, Non- 
iral alternatives, Accretion (Legal aspects). 

ff property owners sought damages for al- 
leprivation of beneficial use of their proper- 
bout compensation by defendant borough, 
jant enacted a dune ordinance in order to 
it increased encroachment by the sea. The 
of the ordinance was to prohibit construc- 
)f habitable structures seaward of a 
ated building line. Defendants contended 
aintiffs' beach had been subject to a use by 
lant which created a prescriptive easement 
ich protection activities and, moreover, that 
[fs could not make any use of the property 
lich compensation could be required. The 
ne Court of New Jersey, Appellate Divi- 
ded that: (1) use of property which does not 
: the owner of any beneficial use is 
led permissive when the property is in an 
'oved general state of nature and (2) corn- 
ion for not being able to build habitable 
res is not necessary if construction would 
safe or economically feasible from a com- 
:nse standpoint. The court found that the 
ce neither established the existence of a 
ptive easement nor demonstrated that cer- 
roposed structures were feasible while 
were not feasible. (Johnson-Florida) 
7405 



OF MCCOMB V. RODGERS, (DUTY TO 
rRUCT ROADS NOT INTERFERING 
NATURAL DRAINAGE OF ADJACENT 

5). 

2d 913-915 (Miss. 1971). 

ptors: 'Drainage systems, *Road construc- 
'Remedies, 'Land tenure, 'Mississippi, 
aspects, Public rights. State governments, 
governments, Drainage effects, Drainage, 
e drainage, Paving, Design, Damages, Sur- 
aters, Overland flow, Watershed manage- 
ludicial decisions. 

;f sought an injunction to force the defen- 
ity to cease diverting water onto his land, 
aintiff also sought damages for the harm 
jsly caused by defendant's actions. Defen- 
sconstructed a road adjacent to plaintiff's 
ly. Plaintiff alleged that the construction of 
id interrupted the natural drainage of sur- 
ater and caused water to accumulate on his 
hereby damaging the property. Defendant 
ded that there was insufficient evidence to 

these contentions. Furthermore, the city 
it subject to either a mandatory injunction 
laim for damages. However, the record 

disclosed evidence of the faulty construc- 
d drainage alteration as well as the damage 
property. The construction of public facili- 
ust be accomplished without alteration of 
>per drainage of surface water. Defendant 
is therefore ordered to reconstruct the road 
ect the drainage problem and pay plaintiff 
t damages. (Horwitz-Florida) 
M06 



HON AND ADMINISTRATION OF 
RSHED CONSERVANCY DISTRICTS. 

i. 421, Acts of Alabama, p. 822-825 (1969). 

ptors: 'Alabama, 'Watersheds (Basins), 
'shed management, 'Water conservation, 
utilization, Flood control, Flood damage, 
protection, Floodwater, Erosion, Erosion 
I, Soil conservation, Water control, Ad- 
ative agencies, Administration, Legisla- 
apervisory control (Power). 

ization is granted for formation of 
hed conservancy districts and the election 



of directors for such districts. Sub-districts of a 
soil conservation district, known as watershed 
conservancy districts, may be formed in any 
watershed area for the purpose of developing and 
executing plans and programs relating to any 
phase of water conservation, water usage, flood 
prevention, flood control, erosion prevention, ero- 
sion control, floodwater and sediment damage 
prevention. Key terms used in the act are defined. 
After creation of each watershed conservancy dis- 
trict an election shall be held to elect a board of 
directors for the district. Only landowners within 
the district are eligible to vote. Other provisions of 
the act relate to functions of the board of 
directors, including: terms of office, qualifica- 
tions, representation of landowners where the 
watershed conservancy district lies within more 
than one soil and water conservation district, and 
organization of the board of directors. (Duss- 
Florida) 
W72-07407 



CITY OF MACON V. ROY (MAINTENANCE OF 
NUISANCE BY A CITY). 

130 S.E. 700-702 (Ct. App. Ga. 1925). 

Descriptors: 'Georgia, 'Flood damage, 'Surface 
runoff, 'Drainage engineering, Cities, Damages, 
Remedies, Legal aspects, Water law, Judicial deci- 
sions, Water injury, Overflow, Floods, Flood- 
water, Overland flow, Runoff, Engineering, Civil 
engineering, Sanitary engineering, Controlled 
drainage, Drainage systems, Drainage water, 
Drains, Sewers. 

Plaintiff landowner sued defendant city and defen- 
dant construction company for property damages 
resulting from a diversion of surface water onto 
his property. New streets, curbs, and gutters were 
built, allowing surface water to accumulate in a 
sewer opening. This diverted natural drainage; the 
accumulated water subsequently overflowed onto 
plaintiff's property. The defendants argued that 
plaintiff could not apportion between water com- 
ing from the sewer and water from other sources. 
Defendants further argued that a municipal cor- 
poration is not liable for damages caused by the 
construction of a sewer since construction is a 
proper governmental function. While a nonsuit 
was granted the construction company, the jury 
rendered a verdict against the city. The Court of 
Appeals of Georgia reversed because a jury in- 
struction related to damages for a permanent 
nuisance when no evidence had been introduced to 
substantiate a permanent nuisance. However, mu- 
nicipal corporations have no right to create and 
maintain nuisances harmful to private citizens. 
(Robinson-Florida) 
W72-07408 



COLE V. CITY OF DES MOINES (CITY'S NON- 
-LIABILITY FOR DISCHARGING SURFACE 
WATER INTO NATURAL DRAINAGE). 

232 N.W. 800-804 (Iowa 1930). 

Descriptors: 'Flood damage, 'Iowa, 'Overflow, 
'Surface runoff. Judicial decisions, Legal aspects, 
Water law, Flood control, Flash floods, Floods, 
Floodwater, Water injury, Cities, Drainage water, 
Rain, Rainfall, Excessive precipitation, Runoff. 

Plaintiff landowner sued defendant city for 
damages resulting from overflows of water from a 
city street onto his property. During hard rains 
water gathered at the base of the incline of the 
street. Since the street drains could not accom- 
modate all this water, it flowed onto the plaintiff's 
land. However, plaintiff had impaired the effec- 
tiveness of these drains by partially obstructing 
the natural watercourse which formed a part of the 
drainage system. Plaintiff alleged that defendant 
negligently failed to provide adequate drainage. 
Defendant asserted plaintiff's contributory 
negligence. While the trial court found for plain- 
tiff, the Supreme Court of Iowa reversed, stating 
that the motion for a directed verdict by the defen- 
dant should have been sustained. A city has a 



limited right to precipitate surface water on 
another's land as an incident to street improve- 
ments. Where the property was subject to natural 
drainage before street improvements, the city is 
not liable if the flow is somewhat increased. When 
an owner partially obstructs natural drainage, a 
city is not liable for resulting overflows. (Robin- 
son-Florida) 
W72-07409 



BAUERLE V. BOARD OF COUNTY ROAD 
COMMISSIONERS FOR THE COUNTY OF 
CHARLEVOLX (RIPARIAN OWNER'S RIGHTS 
IN LAKE BED). 

191 N.W.2d 509-514 (Ct. App. Mich. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Michigan, 'Riparian land, 'Lakes, 
'Lake beds, Road construction, Judicial deci- 
sions, Compensation, Legal aspects, Right-of- 
way, Navigable waters, Ownership of beds, Cul- 
verts, Road design. 
Identifiers: Fill permits. 

Plaintiff reparian owners brought an action for in- 
junctive relief to require defendant road commis- 
sion to cease construction of a road through a 
pond adjacent to plaintiffs' property and to 
remove fill and debris placed in such pond. The 
Third Division Court of Appeals of Michigan held 
for plaintiffs, noting that the evidence failed to 
show that a road had either been established by 
dedication or established as a matter of law 
through a commission resolution. Michigan law 
gives title to lands under waters on one side of 
pond to plaintiff fee owners of the land bordering 
on that side. It is also settled that a part of a lake 
being navigable in fact is navigable in law. Con- 
sequently, since the lake or pond in question never 
dried up in summer or winter and was still at least 
four feet in depth at some locations, it was naviga- 
ble. Defendant's action amounted to a taking 
without due process and without compensation. 
Therefore defendant was required either to 
remove entire fill or causeway or to make an open- 
ing at least ten feet wide through the center of the 
fill and install a bridge or culvert to permit suitable 
passage. (Blank-Florida) 
W72-07410 



UNITED STATES V. JOSEPH G. MORETTI, 
INC. (LIABILITY FOR UNAUTHORIZED 
DREDGE AND FILL OPERATION). 

331 F. Supp. 151-159 (S.D. Fla. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Dredging, 'Rivers and Harbors Act, 
'Excavation, 'Permits, Navigable waters, Aquatic 
environment, Water law, High water mark, 
Ecosystems, Environmental effects. Legal 
aspects, Balance of nature, Mangrove swamps, 
Silts, Peat, Federal government, United States, 
Florida. 

Identifiers: 'Fill permits, 'Florida Bay, Injunc- 
tions (Mandatory). 

The United States sought to restrain defendant 
construction company from conducting dredge 
and fill work and to force the removal of fill al- 
ready placed in the bay. Defendant had been 
digging canals and filling in land for a trailer park. 
The United States alleged that the fill operation 
was in navigable waters, and since it was con- 
structed without the authorization required by the 
Rivers and Harbors Act, the court had authority to 
halt the operation and compel defendant to 
remove the fill already placed in the navigable 
waters. The Federal District Court for the 
Southern District of Florida held that the jurisdic- 
tion of the United States over navigable waters ex- 
tends to the ordinary high water mark and any 
work done below this line without authorization 
was illegal. Since this operation was in navigable 
waters, below the high water mark, and conducted 
without authorization, the court issued an order 
restraining defendant from further operations and 
requiring the removal of the fill already placed. 
(Brackins-Florida) 
W72-07411 



87 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E — Water Law and Institutions 



CAMP CHICOPEE V. EDEN (ADVERSE POS- 
SESSORY RIGHTS IN A LAKE BED). 

303 Pa. 150, 154 A. 305-307 (1931). 

Descriptors: 'Pennsylvania, "Lake beds, 'Ad- 
verse possession, 'Ownership of beds, 'Land 
tenure, Real property, Beds, Boundaries (Proper- 
ty), Boundary disputes, Land use. Relative rights. 
Proprietary power, Non-navigable waters, Lakes, 
Ponds, Water rights. Legal aspects, Judicial deci- 
sions. 
Identifiers: Injunctions (Prohibitory). 

Plaintiff holder of record title to a lake bed sought 
an injunction restraining defendant adverse clai- 
mant from interfering with plaintiff's use and en- 
joyment of the lake. Plaintiff's title derived from a 
reservation in defendant's chain of title. Defen- 
dant constructed a fence extending into the lake, 
paid taxes on the bed, fished and removed ice 
from the lake, and openly proclaimed ownership. 
Plaintiff contended title to lake beds can not be ob- 
tained through adverse possession. Defendant as- 
serted his possessory acts had vested title in him. 
Finding a decision of whether adverse possession 
could vest title to lake beds unnecessary, the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania held a prior con- 
veyance exempting land beneath a lake, although 
ambiguous, provides notice of a record title hol- 
der's rights sufficient to defeat adverse possessory 
claims. Stating that a record title holder does not 
have to dwell upon the water, the court rejected 
defendant's assertion that plaintiff had failed to 
exercise ownership of the bed. Defendant's pos- 
sessory actions were deemed insufficient indicia 
of adverse possession. The lower court's injunc- 
tive decree was affirmed. (Earl-Florida) 
W72-07412 



SUBSURFACE WASTE DISPOSAL CONTROL 
ACT, 

Congress, Washington, DC; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

J. F. Kemp. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 117, No. 138, H 8653- 

8656 (daily ed.) September 22, 1971. 5 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Subsurface water, 'Federal govern- 
ment, 'Well regulation, 'Injection wells, 'Waste 
disposal wells. Deep-well pumping. Waste 
disposal, Legal aspects, Legislation, Standards, 
Administrative agencies, Water pollution control, 
Well permits. Brine disposal, Waste water 
disposal, Groundwater, Subsurface investigations, 
Underground waste disposal, Waste storage, Ulti- 
mate disposal. Industrial wastes, Oil industry, 
Agricultural wastes. 

The subsurface environment must be protected so 
as to yield the maximum environmental benefits to 
man. To accomplish this goal, Representative 
Kemp introduced the Subsurface Waste Disposal 
Control Act. The Act would give the Environmen- 
tal Protection Agency exclusive authority to deter- 
mine which subsurface areas and stratigraphic 
zones are suitable for subsurface waste disposal or 
storage, which wastes are suitable for such 
disposal, and criteria for construction and opera- 
tion of waste disposal or storage wells. The Act 
will place rigid controls over subsurface injection 
of wastes resulting from any process of industry, 
manufacture, trade, business, or agriculture. Brine 
injection by the oil industry will not, however, be 
prohibited. Injecting wastes is not really a solu- 
tion, and it is not a substitute for adequate treat- 
ment. However, because of pressure on industry 
the use of subsurface waste injunction has in- 
creased. The Subsurface Waste Disposal Control 
Act would help protect our subsurface environ- 
ment. The Act's text and a statement concerning 
the proposed operation of a disposal well by 
Bethlehem Steel are set forth. (Horw itz-Florida) 
W72-07418 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: ECOLOGICAL CON- 
SIDERATIONS IN GRANTING PERMITS 
UNDER THE RIVERS AND HARBOURS ACT, 

M. A. Lettieri. 



Loyola Law Review, Vol. 17, p. 749-757, 1970- 
1971. 25 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Rivers and Harbors Act, 'Water 
resources development, 'Environmental effects, 
•Judicial decisions, Governmental interrelation- 
ships. Constitutional law, Legal aspects, Water 
law, Administrative agencies, Federal govern- 
ment, Jurisdiction, Legislation, Permits, Regula- 
tion, Navigable waters, Navigation, Fisheries, 
Water pollution control. Supervisory control 
(Power). 

Identifiers: 'Fill permits, 'National Environmen- 
tal Policy Act, Navigational servitude. 

The case of Zabel v. Tabb, where landowners 
were denied a dredge and fill permit by the Secre- 
tary of the Army, is examined in this comment. 
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth 
Circuit held in Zabel that the denial was justified. 
The court found that the Secretary was not com- 
pelled by the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 to 
disregard ecological factors; he was not limited to 
considering only possible obstructions to naviga- 
tion. Two prior decisions indicated that permits 
could be denied on grounds other than naviga- 
tional considerations, and the Fish and Wildlife 
Coordination Act of 1959 inferred that the Secreta- 
ry should take into account conservation and wil- 
dlife resources when issuing permits. The National 
Environmental Policy Act of 1969 required the 
consideration of ecological factors by all federal 
agencies when dealing with activities which might 
affect the environment. Using this background, 
the court found that the Secretary did have the 
authority to deny a dredge and fill permit because 
of the environmental consequences and that such 
authority was a reasonable exercise of the com- 
merce power. Decisions such as Zabel evidence a 
judicial awakening to the menace of pollution and 
destruction ravaging our natural resources. (John- 
son-Florida) 
W72-07419 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: QUI TAM ACTIONS 
UNDER THE REFUSE ACT, 

H. P. Lambert. 

Loyola Law Review, Vol. 17, p 757-767, 1970- 

1971. 43 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Law enforcement, 'Federal govern- 
ment, 'Rivers and Harbors Act, 'Public rights, 
Common law, Water pollution control, Judicial 
decisions, Legal aspects. Environmental sanita- 
tion, Legislation, Public health. Effluents, Water 
law, Waste water (Pollution), Remedies, Penalties 
(Legal), Administrative decisions. 
Identifiers: 'Qui tarn actions, 'Refuse Act. 

At common law qui tarn actions were a familiar 
means for a private person to enforce a criminal 
statute by suing for the penalty as a common in- 
former. The qui tarn action has not been widely ac- 
cepted as part of American common law. In a 
recent case an individual concerned citizen at- 
tempted to enforce the Refuse Act against a pol- 
luter. The action was based on section 411 of the 
Rivers and Harbors Act, which permits a court to 
award an informer one-half the penalty recovered 
by the sovereign. The suit was dismissed on 
grounds section 41 1 would not support it. Case law 
relating to qui tarn actions is analyzed. Generally, 
under federal law a civil remedy must be statutori- 
ly provided or express authority for the plaintiff to 
sue must be provided. One case inferred that a 
one-half penalty provision in a statute authorized a 
qui tarn action. Under recent cases, however, a qui 
tarn action probably can not be maintained under 
the Refuse Act. Legislative intent, in providing a 
reward under the Refuse Act, was to promote in- 
dividual enforcement. A policy which blocks 
prosecution is opposed to that objective. (Grant- 
Florida) 
W72-07420 



POLLUTION OF THE SEA AND INTERNA- 
TIONAL LAW: A CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE, 

Dalhousie Univ., Halifax (Nova Scotia). Law 
School. 



E. Gold. 

Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, Vol 

No. l,p 13-44, October 1971. 185 ref. 

Descriptors: 'International law, 'Jurisdicti 
'Oil spills, 'Water pollution sources, Oil was 
Boating regulations, Oil, Penalties (Legal), L( 
aspects, Internationa] waters, Treaties, Law of 
sea, Water law, Governments, Legislation, Re 
lation, Oil industry, Oily water, Fuels, Sh 
Transportation, Foreign countries. 
Identifiers: 'Canada, Absolute liability, C 
tiguous zone, Territorial waters. 

The major international instrument in fc 
against oil pollution of the sea is the amended L 
don Convention of 1954. It prohibits discharge; 
oil within certain zones, but leaves the job of 
forcement to the flag state of the offending ves 
The latter provision resulted from the strong 
fluence of oil shipping interests and gre; 
weakened the Convention. International meeti 
resulting from the Torrey Canyon disaster endl< 
ly argued, with little result, the question of w 
form of liability should be imposed for oil sp 
Canada felt that the developing international 
governing oil spills was inadequate and acted i 
laterally to protect itself from marine oil polluti 
Canada established pollution-free zones of u[ 
100 miles from any point on its coastline in An 
areas where it would have wide powers to con 
shipping in order to prevent pollution. Canada £ 
provided for absolute liability. This action [ 
vides a model to prevent pollution in the face of 
adequate navigation rules, tanker construct 
problems, and future increases in oil shippi 
Only massive and urgent international action i 
alleviate the steadily deteriorating situation. 1 
answer lies in one international body to com 
and prevent marine pollution. (Johnson-Florida 
W72-07421 



THE UNITED NATIONS TREATY BANNI 
NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND OTHER WEAPO 
OF MASS DESTRUCTION ON THE OCE 
FLOOR, 

Indianapolis Law School, Ind. 

W. W. Krieger, Jr. 

Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, Vol 

No. l.p 107-128, October 1971. 69 ref, 1 append 

Descriptors: 'Continental shelf, 'Treaties, *1 
ploitation, 'International law, 'Military aspet 
'Beds under water, Law of the sea, Technolo 
Coasts, Legal aspects, Oceans, Littoral, Uni 
Nations, Nuclear energy, International wate 
Boundary disputes, Regulation, Foreign countri 
Beds. 

Identifiers: 'Contiguous zone, 'Territorial wate 
'Nuclear weapons, 'Seabed. 

Only since modern technology enabled man to 
ploit ocean beds has there been any real cone 
with the ocean floor. Developments leading to 
Nuclear Weapons Treaty are outlined. Act 
problems which arose in the course of working 
the Treaty's prohibitions are discussed. 1 
prohibitions extend seaward from the maxima 
contiguous zone provided by convention. Dispt' 
over the extent of territorial waters are, there 
avoided. Similar language was also used to id 
the problem of states claiming territorial wal 
beyond 12 miles. Provisions were made to ins: 
that no foreign state could encroach on the c- 
tiguous zone of a coastal state, since ordinari!' 
coastal state has only limited rights in its * 
tiguous zone. Generally, prohibited activity 
limited to nuclear weapons for a variety of pra- 
cal reasons. Treaty verification provisions : 
discussed. Verification is normally conducted' 
observation. Many problems were encountei 
due to fears of invasions of coastal sovereign tt- 
tory. A nuclear arms race on the ocean floor 1 
be curtailed by the Treaty. The text of the Trt. 
is presented. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07422 



88 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Water Law and Institutions — Group 6E 



AN POLLUTION AND THE 1972 UNITED 
IONS CONFERENCE ON THE ENVIRON- 
IV, 

iie, Pewett, Beebe and Shanks, Washington, 

Mendelsohn. 

lal of Maritime Law and Commerce, Vol. 3, 

;,p 385-398, January 1972. 

riptors: 'Law of the sea, 'International law, 
ities, *Water resources planning. Legal 
:ts, Administration, Administrative agencies, 
rnments, United States, Negotiations, Per- 
Water allocation (Policy), International 
-s, Water resources development, Institu- 
, Waste disposal, Water pollution control, 
r pollution sources, Adjudication procedure, 
led Nations. 

Jnited States has proposed a draft convention 
ean dumping for consideration by the United 
ins Conference on the Human Environment. 
re the draft is submitted, however, the federal 

nment should determine the extent to which 
ts to combat marine pollution should be cen- 
ed and in which forum should this effort be 
led. The proposed draft utilizes several dif- 
t fora to treat marine pollution. This method 
i end in a proliferation of governing bodies 
i dispersal of the expertise which should be 
mtrated in order to control pollution. In 
ssing the possibilities for future control of 
le pollution, the upcoming international con- 
ces should consider adoption of a treaty 
ding for the drafting of specific rules and 
amended practices in specific areas and for 
lational enforcement of the treaty. Such a 
m has functioned effectively in the field of in- 
tional air transport and has been suggested 
se in the area of seabed resources develop- 
While multilateral action would be 
rred, unilateral state action to control marine 
tion can be useful to emphasize the need for 

action and it may lead to an internation 
inse to this need. (Johnson-Florida) 
07423 



BC 1980 PLAN FOR CONN. R. BASIN. 

England River Basin Commission, 
iletter, Vol. 3, No. 5, p 1-3, February 1972. 

riptors: 'New England, *Water resources 
lopment, 'River basin development, 'Multi- 
urpose projects, 'Connecticut River, Project 
ling. Long-term planning, River basin com- 
ons. Interstate commissions, Conservation, 
redevelopment. Water pollution treatment, 
r policy. Structures, Engineering structures, 
ronmental effects. Fish management. Diver- 
structures, Electric powerplants. Waste water 
ment. Water conservation. Water supply, 
:ment facilities. 

ifiers: 'Connecticut River Basin, National 
ronmental Policy Act. 

New England River Basins Commission 
nmended a one billion dollar program for the 
lecticut River Basin. The following aspects 
icluded in the 1980 plan: (1) preservation of 
Basin's most valuable ecological, cultural, 
c, and recreational assets; (2) construction of 
idary wastewater treatment facilities; (3) ex- 
ion of municipal and industrial water supplies 
:et in-basin needs, with a mechanism for giv- 
ownstream states a voice; (4) restoration of 
itic salmon and shad fisheries; and (5) various 
ational, cultural, and structural improvement 
ds. All project evaluations are subject to 
iletion of environmental impact studies under 
Jnal Environmental Policy Act criteria. With 
major exception, all major multiple-purpose 
:cts have been withdrawn for further study. 
Is are included for construction and modifica- 
af flood management structures. Basin power 
:cts will be separately considered in a New 
and bulk power plant siting study. The Con- 
cut River Basin Plan is the first element in the 
mission's coordinated joint plan for water and 



related land resources in New England. The 
Basin's primary economic asset is assumed to be 
environmental quality. Sound management of 
economic growth is required for efficient imple- 
mentation. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07424 



THE PREPARATION OF ARTICLE 1 OF THE 
CONVENTION ON THE CONTINENTAL 
SHELF, 

Department of State, Washington, D.C. Ocean Af- 
fairs. 

B. H. Oxman. 

Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, Vol. 3, 
No. 2, p 245-305, January 1972. 193 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Continental shelf, 'Continental 
slope, 'International law, 'Exploitation, 
'Negotiations, Exploration, Technology, Coasts, 
Geology, International commissions. Legal 
aspects, Oceans, Littoral, Law of the sea, Beds 
under water, International waters, Boundary 
disputes, Regulation. 

Identifiers: 'Contiguous zone, 'Coastal waters, 
'Convention on the Continental Shelf, Sovereign- 
ty- 

The discussion and debate underlying the prepara- 
tion of Article 1 of the Convention is explored. 
The principal debate centered around the choice of 
the term 'continental shelf' and its corresponding 
definition. Retention of the term was considered 
significant by its proponents. Selection of the term 
'adjacent' was also debated, particularly with 
respect to whether it modified the entire article or 
only the part relating to the 200 meter depth. 
Another debated area was the 200 meter criterion 
for determining the extent of the continental shelf. 
This debate was sharpened by the fact that some 
coastal states, such as Chile, have an extremely 
steep shelf, making this depth requirement un- 
desirable. The 'depth of exploitabUity' criterion 
for superadjacent waters was also controverted 
because of its uncertainty and dependence on each 
state's technology. However, this criterion was re- 
garded as desirable by lawyers because it allowed 
flexibility. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07425 



POWERPLANT SITING AND ENVIRONMEN- 
TAL PROTECTION, PART 1. 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce (U.S. House). 
Subcommittee on Communications and Power. 

Hearings, 92d Cong, 1st Sess, May 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 
13, 25, 26, 27, 1971. Part 1 , 373 p, 3 tab. 

Descriptors: 'Electric powerplants, 'Sites, 'En- 
vironmental effects, 'Decision making. Project 
planning. Federal government, Legislation, State 
governments. Regional analysis. Adoption of 
practices. Administrative decisions. Political 
aspects. Social aspects, Economic impact, Stan- 
dards, Water pollution sources. Electric power de- 
mand. Public utilities, Federal jurisdiction, State 
jurisdiction, Federal Power Act, Governmental in- 
terrelations. 

Identifiers: Electric power consumption, Power 
Plant Siting Act of 1971. 

The full text of numerous bills relating to electric 
power plant siting is presented. Generally, a 
balance is sought between the need for electric 
power and the need to preserve air, land, and 
water resources. The Nixon administration 
proposed a bill to create a national system of coor- 
dinated regional, state and federal certifying agen- 
cies to assure that all environmental protection 
requirements are met before plant construction is 
begun. Also delineated are administrative review 
procedures and requirements for long range 
planning and advance public notice of proposed 
sites. Other bills deal with such problems as: ar- 
bitration of siting disputes; expediting the decision 
making process within the Federal Power Com- 
mission; coordination of environmental planning 



and advice from all levels of government; 
establishment of an independent national environ- 
mental council to study technical environmental 
problems and land use impacts; and creation of al- 
ternative environmental review and certification 
procedures. Also included are comments on the 
adequacy of the bills by various executive depart- 
ments and administrative agencies and position 
statements by government, industry, consumer, 
and public interest representatives. (Grant- 
Florida) 
W72-07426 



HOUSE WATER BILL OUT--FLOOR FIGHT 
EXPECTED. 

Conservation Report, Report No. 9, p 86-89, 
March 17, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Federal Water Pollution Control 
Act, 'Political aspects, 'Legislation, 'Water pol- 
lution control, Water pollution, Regulation, Stan- 
dards, Permits, Administration, Project planning, 
Government, Finance, Legal aspects, Grants, 
Loans, Treatment facilities, Pollution abatement, 
Water quality standards, Remedies, Federal 
government. 

Identifiers: 'National Environmental Policy Act, 
Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act. 

The House Water Pollution Control bill represents 
an improvement over the present Federal Water 
Pollution Control Act. The factors deemed benefi- 
cial to a sound anti-pollution program are 
delineated. However, several aspects of the bill 
are considered unacceptable. Consequently, an 
amendment will be offered to enable the 1981 and 
1985 zero discharge goals to be implemented 
without requiring further Congressional action. 
Another amendment proposes the EPA. be given 
authority to reject individual permits rather than 
the entire state program. A third, proposes em- 
ployee protection programs be instituted by 
requiring: (1) national effluent standards to 
prevent industries from shopping for less strict 
state pollution requirements, and (2) by establish- 
ing an equitable system of economic assistance to 
those workers and communities affected by plant 
closures due to environmental regulations. Addi- 
tional amendments include proposals that: restric- 
tions placed on the rights of citizens to sue pollu- 
ters will be eliminated, modifications weakening 
the National Environmental Policy Act will be 
eliminated, and the Fish and Wildlife Coordination 
Act not be weakened. (Horwitz-Florida) 
W72-07427 



A BILL TO AMEND SECTION 11 (P) (1) OF THE 
FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL 
ACT, 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and Senate, 

Washington, D.C. 

W. G. Magnuson. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 117, No. 144, S 15455- 

15456 (daily ed.) September 30, 1971 . 

Descriptors: 'Federal Water Pollution Control 
Act, 'Legislation, 'Penalties (Legal), 'Ships, 
Federal government, Regulation, Administration, 
Legal aspects, Law enforcement. Water pollution 
sources, Political aspects, Navigable waters, 
Navigation, Water policy, Water pollution control. 
Damages. 

Senator Magnuson introduced a bill to amend the 
Federal Water Pollution Control Act to include 
specific enforcement provisions for violation of 
the financial responsibility provisions of section 1 1 
(p). The law currently requires all vessels over 300 
gross tons using the navigable waters of the United 
States to establish and maintain evidence of finan- 
cial responsibility of up to $14,000,000. This finan- 
cial responsibility is required to meet potential lia- 
bility to the United States for the cost of removing 
oil discharged into navigable waters adjoining the 
shoreline or contiguous zone. Since enforcement 
procedures under the present law are not effec- 



89 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E — Water Law and Institutions 



tive, this bill establishes the authority to: (1) deny 
clearance from United States ports to any vessel 
failing to establish proper financial responsibility; 
(2) deny entry to any port or waters to any vessel 
failing to establish such financial responsibility; 
and (3) authorize detention of any vessel about to 
depart from any port to any other United States 
port when such vessel fails to establish financial 
responsibility. A civil penalty of up to $10,000 for 
each day a violation continues is also proposed. 
(Horwitz-Florida) 
W72-07429 



A BILL TO PROVIDE A PROGRAM OF POLLU- 
TION CONTROL IN THE RIVER BASINS AND 
WATERWAYS OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Congress, Washington, D.C.; and Senate, 

Washington, D.C. 

W. Proxmire. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 117, No. 154, S 16306- 

16310 (daily ed.) October 15, 1971. 

Descriptors: *Pollution taxes (Charges), 'Legisla- 
tion, 'Industrial wastes, 'Pollution abatement, 
Political aspects, Water pollution, Water pollution 
control, Treatment facilities, Regulation, Water 
quality standards. Federal government, Legal 
aspects, Economic impact, Industrial production, 
Water pollution sources, Water quality control, 
Federal government. 

Senator Proxmire introduced a bill to provide a 
program of pollution control through comprehen- 
sive planning and financial assistance to mu- 
nicipalities and regional water basin management 
associations for the construction of waste treat- 
ment facilities. Existing pollution control law is 
not working. The standards and the enforcement 
methods used are ineffective in curbing industrial 
pollution: the major source of environmental pol- 
lution. Industry is capable of curbing pollution at 
an average cost of 1% of total industrial output. An 
additional tool is needed to force industry to abate 
pollution. The method chosen for this task is an ef- 
fluent tax or charge placed on industrial polluters 
in direct proportion to the amount of waste 
discharged. The bill specifies that the charge be 
levied on the biochemical oxygen demand of 
discharges at a rate of not less than 10 cents a 
pound. Charges are to be established and enforced 
through regional water basin authorities. Ad- 
vantages of an effluent charge system are set 
forth, as is the text of the bill. The impact of waste 
water treatment costs on selected industries is 
detailed in a table. (Horwitz-Florida) 
W72-07430 



U. S. ATTORNEY CALLS REFUSE ACT OF 1899 
'SUPERIOR ENFORCEMENT TOOL', 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

H.S.Reuss. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 118, No. 26, E 1632- 

1633 (daily ed.) February 24, 1972. 

Descriptors: 'Rivers and Harbors Act, 'Pollution 
abatement, 'Federal government, 'Industrial 
wastes, 'Law enforcement, Remedies, Damages, 
Water pollution, Political aspects, Legislation, In- 
spection, Standards, Judicial decisions. State 
governments, Local governments, Navigable 
waters, Penalties (Legal), Non-structural alterna- 
tives. 

Identifiers: 'Refuse Act, Injunctions (Prohibito- 
ry). 

Representative Reuss introduced a statement of 
Mr. Sandler, chief, environmental protection unit, 
U.S. attorney's office for the southern district of 
New York. The Refuse Act of 1899 states that no 
one may discharge refuse into the navigable 
waters of the United States. While legislative his- 
tory shows the original purpose was to control 
discharges impeding navigation, the Act has been 
utilized for pollution control through judicial in- 
terpretation. The Act appears to contain a simple 
misdemeanor penalty, with fines from $500 to 



$2,500. Actual punishment, however, is quite 
severe. Each day of continued pollution may be 
considered a separate offense, and fines have 
ranged from $25,000 to $200,000. Civil relief 
through injunction has also been granted. The 
Act's lack of definite standards is overcome by a 
pragmatic standard: maximum feasible abatement 
under present technology. The Refuse Act is 
credited with two major achievements by creating 
a climate in which: (1) industry feels that it can no 
longer pollute with impunity, and (2) local and 
state agencies can follow sterner enforcement pol- 
icies. Much remains to be done, but there could be 
no more explicit mandate than that in the Refuse 
Act. (Horwitz-Florida) 
W72-07431 



A BILL TO CONTROL THE GENERATION 
AND TRANSMISSION OF NOISE DETRIMEN- 
TAL TO THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT, AND 
FOR OTHER PURPOSES, 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and Senate, 

Washington, D.C. 

J. S. Cooper. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 117, No. 24, p S 2075- 

2079 (daily ed.) February 26, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Waste treatment, 'Government 
finance, 'Water pollution control, 'Airports, En- 
vironmental sanitation, Environmental effects, 
Treatment facilities, Construction costs, Waste 
disposal, Water quality control, Standards, 
Federal government, Navigable waters, Ground- 
water, Estuaries, Aircraft, Equipment, Runways, 
Air pollution, Public health. Administrative agen- 
cies, Technology, Legislation, State governments, 
Local governments. Federal Water Pollution Con- 
trol Act. 
Identifiers: 'Noise pollution. 

Five of six proposed bills announced in President 
Nixon's environmental message to Congress are 
reviewed. Three proposed amendments improve 
and broaden the 1965 Federal Water Pollution 
Control Act by providing for: (1) the enhancement 
of quality of state water pollution control pro- 
grams by increasing federal assistance and provid- 
ing the Environmental Protection Agency with 
more efficacious means to implement state pro- 
grams; (2) an increased authorization of federal 
funds to provide $12 billion for new municipal 
waste treatment system construction in the next 
three years; and (3) the improvement of water 
quality standards and their extension to all naviga- 
ble waterways and groundwaters. New enforce- 
ment procedures, including citizen suits, would be 
provided to enforce the requirements of the Act. 
The fourth bill proposes an Environmental Financ- 
ing Authority to purchase unsold bonds from mu- 
nicipalities with poor credit ratings. The fifth bill 
would authorize the Environmental Protection 
Agency to establish noise control standards and 
labeling requirements for some products and to 
study the problem of aircraft noise emissions and 
environmental effects of airports. (Rees-Florida) 
W72-07433 



LOCAL WATER AGENCIES, COMMUNICA- 
TIONS PATTERNS AND THE PLANNING 
PROCESS, 

Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins. Environmental 

Resources Center. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06B. 

W72-07521 



THE CHOICE OF INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGE- 
MENTS FOR WATER RESOURCE DEVELOP- 
MENT--WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
CALIFORNIA WATER INDUSTRY, 

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. 
Vincent Ostrom. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as PB-207 314. $6.00 in paper copy, 
$0.95 in microfiche. National Water Commission 
Report no SBS-71-009, Dec. 1971, 596 p. NWC- 
SBS-71-009. 



Descriptors: 'Water policy, 'Water resource: 
development, 'Water services, 'Water supply 
'Institutional arrangements, 'Decision making 
'Water allocation (Policy), 'Public participation 
'Pricing, 'Regions, 'California, 'Social costs 
'Interagency cooperation. 

Identifiers: Institutional choice, Economic effi 
ciency, Social efficiency, Democratic choice, In 
formation generation, Information utilization. 

The structural elements that have entered into th< 
development of the American water industry ar< 
examined, with special reference to the Californi 
water industry. A variety of public and private en 
terprises engaged in water resource developmen 
and the rendering of water services are analyze! 
and evaluated in terms of the theory of organiza 
tion used by public administration and administra 
tive analysts, and the concepts of politica 
economists. The level of productivity of the Amer 
ican water industry is examined as a consequenci 
of opportunities for public entrepreneurship af 
forded by a system of overlapping jurisdiction! 
and fragmentation of authority. The report set 
forth problems in the assessment of organizations 
arrangements, examines the terms and condition: 
of politica] choice and reviews the choice of in 
stitutional arrangements in the development of thi 
California water industry. An assessment i: 
presented of alternative approaches to polic; 
problems in water resource development. 
W72-07570 



THE POLITICS OF PASSING PIPELINE! 
THROUGH CITIES, 

Beuttner (Carl F.) and Associates, Inc., St. Louis 

Mo. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 03D. 

W72-07626 



AFTER SIX YEARS-THE STATE 01 
WASHINGTON WATER RESEARCH CENTER, 

Washington State Water Research Center, Pull 

man. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 09A. 

W72-07641 



WATER RIGHTS-FUNDAMENTAL CON 
CEPTS, 

H. Loble. 

In: Symposium on Water Law and Its Relationshij 
to the Economic Development of Montana': 
Water Resources, June, 1971, Montana University 
Joint Water Resources Research Center 
Bozeman, p4-12. 

Descriptors: 'Water law, 'Beneficial use, *Sur 
face waters. Water users, Legal aspects, *Mon 
tana. 

Considerable dissatisfaction exists about th< 
legally established methods of appropriation am 
regulations of surface water in Montana. Many be 
lieve that Montana's historically established law i: 
inadequate and not able to provide for th< 
economic development expected to occur in the 
future. Montana's water law can be characterize! 
as firstly, 'beneficial use' and secondly, 'first ii 
time, first in right.' Water rights do not relate !■ 
ownership of land on a stream's bank but rather I 
whether one is making beneficial use of the watei 
In order to make a valid appropriation of wate 
one must make beneficial use of it. The secon 
fundamental concept is that he who made the firs 
beneficial use of this water has the first righ 
Water rights are established only as a result of ac 
judication. However, litigation may continue eve 
after the initial adjudication. Thus, a substantia 
degree of uncertainty is introduced into th 
economic environment surrounding the usage < 
surface waters. Changes are certainly needed i 
Montana's water law, but such changes should t 
considered carefully. At a minimum, propose 
changes should be referred to a panel of, sa: 
water lawyers, judges, hydrologists, and ei 
gineers. (See also W72-00634) (Settle- Wisconsin) 
W72-07773 



90 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Water Law and Institutions — Group 6E 



ECONOMIC, ENGINEERING AND SOCIAL 
PROBLEMS ARISING FROM CHANGING 
NEEDS, USES AND AVAILABIXITY OF 
WATER, 

D. Eck, E. Darlinton, R. McConnen, C. C. 
Bowman, and D. Aldrich. 

tn: Symposium on Water Law and Its Relationship 
to the Economic Development of Montana's 
Water Resources, June 1971, Montana University 
loint Water Resources Research Center, 
Bozeman, p 19-32. 

Descriptors: 'Water law, 'Water demand, *Water 
supply. Social impact, Water resources develop- 
ment, Management, Planning, 'Montana. 

Five panelists discussed many of the problems 
Montana now faces and will face in the future 
because of changing needs for and supplies of 
Aater. The agencies and organizations represented 
ncluded the League of Women Voters; the 
Planning and Economic Development Agency; the 
Departments of Agricultural Economics and 
Agricultural Engineering, Montana State Universi- 
:y; and the Montana Wildlife Federation. The need 
:or changing Montana's water law was 
:mphasized. Proposed changes included (1) requir- 
ng a water user to make, in addition to beneficial 
jse of appropriated water, financial contributions 
:o projects which will supply the needed water; (2) 
:stablishing a Modern Water Code wherein all 
■vater rights are centrally filed and administered by 
Jie state; and (3) modifying the law to permit the 
maintenance of minimum stream flow during 
periods of normal precipitation and the realloca- 
jon of water during periods of extreme and 
jnusual drought. Other proposed solutions to 
Vfontana's water problems included (1) managing 
*ater resources on a river basin or regional basis, 
2) financing water development federally, (3) im- 
proving coordination between agencies and de- 
partments, and (4) improving citizen participation 
n water development. (See also W72-00634) (Set- 
Je-Wisconsin) 
W72-07774 



ONE THIRD OF THE NATION'S LAND, 

r. Schwinden. 

In: Symposium on Water Law and Its Relationship 
:o the Economic Development of Montana's 
Water Resources, June 1971, Montana University 
[oint Water Resources Research Center, 
Bozeman, p 75-77. 

Descriptors: 'Water law, 'Reservation doctrine, 

'Water policy, Public lands, Management, *Mon- 

ana. 

Identifiers: 'Public Land Law Review Commis- 

iion, 'Dominant use. Public domain. 

rhe report of the Public Land Law Review Com- 
mission is briefly summarized. The Commission 
*as charged by Congress to examine the federal 
)ublic domain with this question in mind: Should 
he public lands be retained and managed or 
should they be disposed of. Whatever the answer, 
he Commission was charged with determining 
*hich alternative would secure the maximum 
jenefit to the general public. The study method 
:hosen by the Commission was a commodity ap- 
jroach. Thus, the study is broken down into vari- 
)us commodity values that exist on the public 
and, such as recreation, timber, minerals, and 
*ater resources. One important aspect of the 
study is that it introduces a new concept called the 
Joiminant use concept. This is a recognition by the 
Commission that some uses of land may be more 
mportant than others. Consequently, Congress 
ihould direct its land managing agencies to deter- 
mine the dominant use and then make this a key 
factor in management decisions from that time 
: orth. One important aspect of the Commission's 
study was its consideration of the Reservation 
Doctrine. The Commission concluded that this 
■vater doctrine for federally reserved land should 
3e clarified and limited. (See also W72-00634) (Set- 
Je-Wisconsin) 
W72-07775 



COURSES OF ACTION TO ENCOURAGE 
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARKANSAS RIVER 
NAVIGATION SYSTEM. 

Story (John) Co., Tulsa, Okla. 

Available from the National Technical Informa- 
tion Service as COM-7 1-00976, $3.00 in paper 
copy, $0.95 in microfiche. Ozarks Regional Com- 
mission, Little Rock, Arkansas, September 1971. 
43p.TA70-20(NEG)-03. 

Descriptors: 'River basin development, 'River 
regulation, 'Arkansas, 'Multiple-purpose pro- 
jects, 'River basin commissions, River systems, 
Flood control, Flood protection, Navigation, 
Recreation, Transportation, Water resources 
development, Oklahoma. 
Identifiers: 'Arkansas River, Ozarks. 

Recommendations were developed concerning the 
planning and development of the 440 mile Arkan- 
sas River Navigation System, which extends from 
the Mississippi River across Arkansas into 
Oklahoma. Eight major research reports are sum- 
marized that present alternative courses of action 
pertinent to the development of the Arkansas 
River Basin. In addition to savings in transporta- 
tion costs, the multi-purpose project will provide 
flood protection, water supply, low cost power, 
and a great potential for recreational and industrial 
development for the valley region. Navigation fea- 
tures of the $1.2 billion multi-purpose call for a 9- 
foot deep channel canalized and stairstepped 
through a series of 17 locks and dams. Stan- 
dardization of lock sizes (110 feet x 600 feet) ena- 
bles a make-up barge tow to travel the entire 
distance of the system without the problems en- 
countered on other rivers that have locks of vari- 
ous sizes. Ample bridge clearances (when finally 
completed), and a full 9-foot channel depth (when 
finally completed) will provide a most efficient 
channel for modern barge transportation. Recom- 
mendations are presented for implementing the 
formation and operation of a single organization 
for coordinating all aspects of the Arkansas River 
Basin development. (Poertner) 
W72-07783 



A BILL TO ESTABLISH POLICY AND PRINCI- 
PLES FOR PLANNING THE USE OF THE 
WATER AND RELATED LAND RESOURCES 
OF THE UNITED STATES, 

Congress, Washington, D.C.; and Senate, 

Washington, D.C. 

J. Randolph. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 117, No. 143, S15290- 

15294 (daily ed.) September 29, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Water policy, 'Water resources, 
'Water resources development, 'Legislation, 
Land resources. Institutional constraints, Op- 
timum development plans, Political aspects, Social 
aspects, River basin development, Decision mak- 
ing, Costs, Cost comparisons, Prices, Cost-benefit 
analysis, Project planning, Federal jurisdiction, 
State jurisdiction, Federal project policy. 

The policy proposed is that water resources 
development be undertaken and coordinated to 
achieve national objectives of economic develop- 
ment, environmental quality, social well-being, 
and regional development. This policy would be 
effectuated by the Water Resources Council. The 
benefits and costs of this policy are defined in 
terms of the stated objectives. General evaluation 
principles include: general setting of the plan; 
measurement of benefits and costs; price relation- 
ships; consideration and comparison of alterna- 
tives; analysis period; scheduling; risks and uncer- 
tainty; and sensitivity analysis. Formulation of al- 
ternative plans is required in order to identify 
trade-offs among significant conflicting objec- 
tives. A national program for federally assisted ac- 
tivities will be formulated to establish priorities 
between regions. The scope and extent of pro- 
grams and activities covered by the bill are 
defined. Provisions for coordination of federal and 
state programs are included. The effect on existing 
law is defined. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07846 



ON THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF NORTH 
CAROLINA COASTAL PROBLEMS, 

North Carolina Attorney Generals Office, Raleigh. 
R. Morgan. 

North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 49, p. 857-865, 
August 1971. 12ref. 

Descriptors: 'North Carolina, 'Estuarine environ- 
ment, 'Administrative agencies, 'Coastal 
marshes, Estuaries, Navigable waters, Ownership 
of beds, Coasts, Tidal marshes, Shoals, Shores, 
Coastal plains, Wetlands, Court decisions, 
Statistics, Water policy, Legislation, Permits, Ad- 
judication procedure, State governments, Federal 
government, Dunes. 

Identifiers: 'National Environmental Policy Act, 
'Fill permits, 'Coastal waters. 

The value of the estuarine areas of North Carolina 
and the concomitant need for their protection is 
discussed. Between sixty-six and ninety-eight per- 
cent of commercially harvested fish and shellfish 
spend some part of their life cycle in marshlands. 
Destruction of such areas logically has an adverse 
effect on the total available species. Therefore, ex- 
cavation or fill projects in such areas cannot begin 
until a permit is obtained from the North Carolian 
Department of Conservation and Development. 
Permits are issued when deemed in the public in- 
terest. Two problems related to permits are 
discussed: (1) mandatory individual consideration 
of all permit applications, and (2) whether the 
marshlands are privately or publicly owned. A 
recent Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals case has 
construed the National Environmental Policy Act 
of 1969 as authorizing denial of dredge and fill per- 
mits by the Corps of Engineers on the basis of 
ecological factors. It is suggested that, in the 
absence of appropriate state action, the federal 
government will be taking action to protect the 
coastal wetlands. Possible adverse consequences 
of sand dune destruction within the state are 
discussed. (Doise-Florida) 
W72-07847 



WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, 

Congress, Washington, D.C; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

G. Vander Jagt. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 117, No. 145, E10303- 

10314 (daily ed.) October 1, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Rivers and Harbors Act, 'Federal 
Water Pollution Control Act, 'Water pollution 
sources, 'Administrative agencies, 'Law enforce- 
ment, Legal aspects, Legislation, Federal govern- 
ment, Federal jurisdiction, River regulation, 
Waste water (Pollution), Industrial wastes, Mu- 
nicipal wastes, Navigable waters, Adoption of 
practices, Political aspects, Permits, Water quality 
standards, Governmental interrelations. 
Identifiers: 'Refuse Act, Corps of Engineers, En- 
vironmental Protection Agency. 

The Refuse Act of 1899 is a simple and concise 
statute prohibiting pollution discharges into 
navigable waters. It has proven to be an effective 
anti-pollution tool and administration attempts 
either to amend or integrate it with the Water Pol- 
lution Control Act should be resisted. Industry 
representatives have urged that the Refuse Act be 
amended to limit it to considerations of anchorage 
and navigation. This should not be done because 
the present act has judicial gloss and its meaning is 
clear. Its simple language makes administration 
easy. It also encourages citizen participation 
through the 'one half fine' provision. Integration 
of the Act with the Water Pollution Control Act 
has already been accomplished since the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency reviews permits under 
the Refuse Act prior to issuance by the Corps of 
Engineers. Attempts to have each state issue 
discharge permits should be resisted because the 
problem is national in scope. The existing permit 
system is just beginning to work and should not be 
hampered by another change. Furthermore, en- 
forcement of the Refuse Act should remain with 
the Corps of Engineers. (Grant- Florida) 
W72-07848 



91 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E — Water Law and Institutions 



FIGHT ON WATER POLLUTION, 

Congress, Washington, D.C.; and House, 

Washington, D.C. 

G. Vander Jagt. 

Congressional Record, Vol. 117, No. 184, E 12786- 

12789 (daily ed.) November 30, 1971. 

Descriptors: 'Federal Water Pollution Control 
Act, *Waste disposal, "Treatment facilities, 
♦Political aspects, Legal aspects, Project planning, 
Federal government, Economic efficiency, 
Economic impact. Government finance, Research 
and development, Waste treatment, Septic tanks, 
Sewage treatment, Industrial wastes, Waste as- 
similative capacity, Ultimate disposal, Water pol- 
lution control, Water quality control. 

We must clean up our waters in order to survive as 
a species. Man has attempted to get rid of his 
wastes. In reality this is impossible because the 
earth is a closed system. The traditional meaning 
of 'getting rid of wastes' has simply been to trans- 
port wastes to sites where it is not visually evident. 
Waste does not thereby cease to exist. At best, it 
merely undergoes a change in form. The long- 
range solution requires recycling of pollutants. To 
achieve this goal, strong legislation will be 
required. The Senate plan for zero discharge of 
pollutants by 1985 contains many worthwhile 
provisions. Representative Vander Jagt puts forth 
his views on what action the House should follow 
and takes issue with the Administration's theory 
that zero discharge by 1985 will be too expensive. 
The new Muskegon waste disposal system is 
described and shown to be an economically effi- 
cient approach to sewage treatment that accom- 
plishes the desired goal of recycling waste with 
zero discharge. (Horwitz-Florida) 
W72-07849 



AN ACT TO CONSERVE AND PROTECT THE 
WATER RESOURCES AND PROTECT THE 
PUBLIC HEALTH OF THE STATE (AND 
OTHER PURPOSES). 

Act 21 1 , Acts of Arkansas, p. 470-475 (1971). 

Descriptors: "Arkansas, "Legislation, "Treatment 
facilities, "Administrative agencies, "Engineering 
personnel, Training, Waste water treatment, Sani- 
tary engineering, Environmental sanitation. Waste 
treatment, Legal aspects, Regulation, Public 
health, Water pollution, Water pollution control, 
Waste disposal, State governments, Penalties 
(Legal), Supervisory control (Power), Permits, 
Training. 

Operators in charge of public wastewater treat- 
ment plants shall be licensed and certified as com- 
petent by the Arkansas Pollution Control Commis- 
sion. A licensing committee will be established, 
composed of technicians and plant operators, to 
assist and advise the Commission in examining 
and licensing operators. The Commission shall 
adopt rules and regulations for the administration 
and enforcement of licensing requirements. All 
wastewater treatment plants shall be classified. 
Such classification shall take into account size, 
type, complexity, and other factors the Commis- 
sion deems appropriate. The Commission shall 
license persons as to qualifications to supervise 
proper operation of plants based on the recom- 
mendations of the licensing committee. After six 
months it shall be unlawful to operate a treatment 
plant unless the operator is duly licensed. Viola- 
tions shall be punished as misdemeanors and be 
subject to injunction proceedings. (Brackins- 
Florida) 
W72-07850 



INTERNATIONAL LAW AND CANADA'S ANTI- 
POLLUTION LEGISLATION, 

Alberta Univ., Calgary. 

L. C. Green. 

Oregon Law Review, Vol. 50, p. 462-490, Spring 

1971. 112ref. 

Descriptors: "International law, "Canada, "Inter- 
national waters, "Pollution abatement, "Oil spills, 



"Penalties (Legal), Oceans, Water pollution, Oil 
pollution, Legal aspects, International commis- 
sions, Oil industry, Treaties, Legislation, Law of 
the sea, Judicial decisions, Navigable waters, 
Negligence, Coasts, Seashores, United Nations, 
Foreign countries, Law enforcement. 
Identifiers: 1954 London Convention on the 
Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil. 

Attempts to achieve internationally uniform penal- 
ties and enforcement against polluters of the 
oceans have been made through international con- 
ventions and conferences such as the 1954 London 
Convention on the Prevention of Pollution of the 
Sea by Oil. Canada has abstained or voted against 
most of the more recent proposals because they 
failed to go far enough and they did not provide 
preventive measures. The measures provided 
could only be applied after the incident causing the 
pollution had occurred. As a result, Canada 
promulgated its own legislation to protect its 
coasts and oceans. The Canadian legislation was 
made broad in terms of both its scope, applying to 
vessels of any nation, and its liability provisions. 
Furthermore, pollution-prevention officers are 
authorized to board a ship and inspect it upon a 
reasonable belief that required standards are not 
satisfied. Although the traditional freedom of 
foreign shipping is infringed upon, there are ample 
precedents in international law to sustain the inter- 
vention. (Brackins-Florida) 
W72-07851 



PRIVATE FILLS IN NAVIGABLE WATERS: A 
COMMON LAW APPROACH, 

R. Perschbacher. 

California Law Review, Vol. 60, p. 225-258, Janua- 
ry 1972. 213 ref. 

Descriptors: "Navigable waters, "Public rights, 
"Riparian land, "Navigation, "Beds under water, 
California, Ownership of beds, Judicial decisions. 
Public benefits, Condemnation, Easements, Over- 
lying proprietor, Prescriptive rights, Riparian 
waters, State governments, Non-navigable waters, 
Legislation. 

Identifiers: "Public trust doctrine, "Obstruction to 
navigation. Private fills. Fill permits. 

Public navigation rights, established under the 
common law, have been accepted in the United 
States and expanded to include public recreational 
rights. Legal difficulties in determining that 
private fills in navigable waters constitute obstruc- 
tions to public navigation are examined. The ob- 
struction to navigation concept enables courts to 
halt purely private fills and require owners to seek 
state approval. This in turn requires that allowance 
be made for the public interest. The major 
problem, however, comes from state conveyances 
of major areas of land under navigable water to 
private parties for nonpublic purposes. Such ac- 
tion apparently terminated public rights. Addi- 
tionally, public navigation rights may be inap- 
propriate for some navigable waters due to the 
physical nature of the submerged land. Also, 
estoppel may arise against the state in attempting 
to assert public rights if the state has acquiesced in 
the fill. Forceful judicial action is needed both to 
protect existing rights from piecemeal erosion by 
state action and to force legislative action. One 
possible legislative solution, adopted in California, 
is a state coastal commission which would operate 
until the state can prepare a master plan that coor- 
dinates development while preserving public 
rights. (Blank-Florida) 
W72-07852 



WEST V. BAUMGARTNER (IMPLIED RIGHTS 
IN CONVEYANCE OF TIDELANDS). 

184 S.E.2d 213-224 (Ga. Ct. App. 1971). 

Descriptors: "Tidal waters, "Public rights, "Fish- 
ing, "Boundaries (Property), Beds, Adjacent lan- 
downer, Common law, Law enforcement, 
Trespass, Water law, Legal aspects, State govern- 



ments, Judicial decisions, Land tenure, Water 
rights, Legislation, Estuaries, Water utilization, 
Non-navigable waters, Shellfish. 
Identifiers: "Coastal waters. 

Plaintiff fishermen sought to recover for damages 
for an alleged false imprisonment and malicious 
prosecution by defendant landowners. Defendants 
had prosecuted plaintiffs for fishing in the tidal 
waters of their island. Defendants contended that 
the state had conveyed to them the exclusive title 
to the tidal waters and the beds under these 
waters. The Court of Appeals of Georgia found 
that under the common law in Georgia the right to 
the soil was in the state and the public had a right 
of common fishery in all tidal waters. The owner 
of the abutting soil had no exclusive right of 
fishery therein. The court also found that a grant 
of beds of non-navigable tidal waters to private in- 
dividuals did not convey the rights of fishery un- 
less this intent was clearly expressed in the con- 
veyance. The court construed the legislative con- 
veyance of title to the beds as excluding the rights 
of fishery to defendants, except as to oysters, 
clams, and other shellfish. (Johnson-Florida) 
W72-07853 



IMPROVING WATER QUALITY REGULATION 
IN IOWA, 

Iowa Univ., Iowa City. School of Law. 

N. W. Hines, and M. D. Schantz. 

Iowa Law Review, Vol. 57, No. 2, p. 231-375, 

December 1971. 473 ref. 

Descriptors: "Pollution abatement, "Iowa, "Water 
quality standards, "Water pollution control, "Law 
enforcement, "Legal review, Water quality con- 
trol, Permits, Administrative decisions, Adminis- 
trative agencies, Judicial decisions, Regulation, 
Legislation, Water pollution, State governments, 
Local governments, Water pollution sources, 
Pesticides, Silting, Penalties (Legal), State ju- 
risdiction, Institutional constraints, Evaluation. 
Identifiers: "Iowa Water Pollution Control Act. 

The operation and impact of Iowa's water pollu- 
tion control program is examined in an attempt to 
identify and evaluate the key elements affecting 
state regulatory performance. Statutory and ad- 
ministrative strategies are suggested for improving 
state water quality protection. Problems encoun- 
tered in the development and implementation of 
Iowa's water quality standards are discussed. The 
operation and effect of Iowa's permit system for 
regulating waste treatment facilities are discussed. 
Information gathering programs which center on 
surveillance of pollution activities are evaluated. A 
detailed examination is made of the enforcement 
of the water pollution control program. Each step 
in the abatement process, from violation detection 
through follow-up procedures to assure abatement 
order compliance, is studied. Special problems 
unique to agricultural pollution control are con- 
sidered. Positive and negative factors affecting 
Iowa's water quality are discussed. Administrative 
reorganization is suggested, and five statutory 
changes are proposed for the attainment of a com- 
prehensive water quality management program. 
(Doise-Florida) 
W72-07855 



POWER SITING: A CHALLENGE TO THE 
LEGAL PROCESS, 

New York State Consumer Protection Board, Al- 
bany. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 06G. 
W72-07856 



THE ILLINOIS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEC- 
TION ACT--A COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM 
FOR POLLUTION CONTROL. 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W72-07864 



92 



WATER RESOURCES PLANNING— Field 06 
Water Law and Institutions — Group 6E 



UNITED STATES V. SEVERSON (OWNERSHIP 
OF ISLANDS IN NAVIGABLE WATERS). 

447 F.2d 631-635 (7th Cir. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Wisconsin, "Federal-state water 
rights conflicts, 'Federal jurisdiction, 'Islands, 
Land forming, Patents, Mississippi River, Naviga- 
ble waters, State jurisdiction. Legal aspects, Judi- 
cial decisions, Federal government. Riparian 
rights, Boundaries (Property), Boundary disputes, 
Accretion (Legal aspects), Ownership of beds, 
Water rights, Riparian land. 
Identifiers: 'Federal land patents. 

Plaintiff United States sought to quiet title to por- 
tions of an existing island and a former island in 
the Mississippi River. Plaintiff contended that 
these islands existed at the time of Wisconsin 
statehood and therefore did not pass to the state 
like the river bed. Plaintiff also contended that the 
federal patent granting defendant's land did not in- 
clude the islands. Defendant contended that the 
islands did not exist at the time of statehood and 
that under Wisconsin law a patent of riparian land 
conveyed title to all islands located within the ex- 
tent of the riparian rights. The United States 
Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals held that 
evidence of formation before statehood and a plat 
showing the islands at the time of statehood was 
sufficient to establish that the land was two islands 
at the time of statehood. The court also held that 
construction of federal land patents was a federal 
question and that this patent did not convey title to 
unsurveyed islands existing at the time of 
statehood. Wisconsin law did convey title to the 
river bed to the patentees. (Grant-Florida) 
W72-07865 



INDUSTRY'S RESPONSE TO NEW ENVIRON- 
MENTAL LAW AND PROBLEMS, 

LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby and MacRae, Washington, 
DC. 

L. M. Trosten. 

In: Environmental Law, The Institute of Continu- 
ing Legal Education, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1971, 
p. 99-122. 

Descriptors: 'Electric powerplants, 'Legislation, 
'Water quality standards, 'Electric power indus- 
try, Legal aspects, Rivers and Harbors Act, 
Federal Power Act, Water quality control, Federal 
Water Pollution Control Act, Thermal pollution, 
Effluents, Governmental interrelations. State 
governments, Federal government, Navigable 
waters, Nuclear power-plants, Clean Air Act, Per- 
mits, Environmental engineering. 
Identifiers: Atomic Energy Act, Fish and Wildlife 
Act, National Environmental Policy Act, Corps of 
Engineers. 

The electric utility industry is subject to federal 
environmental control through licensing require- 
ments under the Rivers and Harbors Act, the 
Federal Power Act, and the Atomic Energy Act. 
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act 
establishes procedures whereby states adopt water 
quality standards to which power plants must con- 
form. Furthermore, the National Environmental 
Policy Act imposes environmental consciousness 
upon all agencies of the federal government. Fossil 
fuel and nuclear powerplants must be situated near 
water sources which usually are navigable and 
thus subject to regulation by the Corps of En- 
gineers. Present administrative review of con- 
struction and operation of powerplants is too frag- 
mented and consequently too slow and costly to 
achieve the intended results. What is needed is the 
establishment of a single regulatory body to con- 
sider and approve all aspects of each powerplant, 
including its environmental impact. (Brackins- 
Florida) 
W72-07866 



INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE DELIMITA- 
TION OF BAYS, 

Virginia Univ., Charlottesville. School of Law. 
G. T. Yates, III. 



North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 49, p. 943-963, 
August 1971. 80 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Bays, 'International law, 'Interna- 
tional waters, Law of the sea, Treaties, Foreign 
waters, Estuaries, Foreign countries, Navigable 
waters, Relative rights, International commis- 
sions, United States, Legal aspects, Judicial deci- 
sions, Legal review, Ships, Fisheries, Fishing. 
Identifiers: 'Territorial waters, Coastal waters, In- 
ternational conventions. 

Recently, some success has been achieved in 
delimiting bays from territorial waters and the high 
seas. However, the existence of a loophole con- 
cerning the definition of 'historic bay' has 
prevented this apparent international agreement 
from becoming effective. Territorial waters are 
measured from an imaginary line drawn at the low- 
water mark and following the coast. This is the 
normal base line to which there are several excep- 
tions. The normal baseline is allowed to vary to in- 
clude marginal waters. Another exception is al- 
lowed to draw a straight base line across a bay 
from one shore to the other creating a closing line. 
The maximum length of the closing line has been a 
point of great controversy, but it is now set at 
twenty-four miles. Delimiting historic bays is the 
greatest problem presented. Several theories for 
claiming such waters- special interest, immemori- 
al usage, geographical relationship, and prescrip- 
tion-are discussed. The international community, 
however, has failed to agree on a definition of 
'historic bay'. This has led to endless conflicts. In- 
ternational agreement on the subject is needed. 
(Nielsen-Florida) 
W72-07867 



ENVIRONMENTAL LAW-PRESERVATION OF 
THE ESTUARINE ZONE, 

K. W. Parsons. 

North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 49, p 964-973, 

1971. 39 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Estuarine environment, 'Ecology, 
'Estuarine fisheries, 'Pollution taxes (charges), 
Law enforcement, Water quality standards, 
Estuaries, Aquatic habitats, Intertidal areas, Ther- 
mal pollution, Environmental effects, Aesthetics, 
Flood control. Silting, Legal aspects, Legislation, 
Water pollution control, Competing uses, 
Economics, State governments, Permits, Regula- 
tion, Planning, Water pollution sources, Coasts, 
Continental margin, Seashores. 
Identifiers: 'Fill permits. 

The estuarine environment is a highly productive 
area and needs to be protected from pollution and 
physical disruption by man. A growing threat to 
the estuarine environment is oil pollution from 
ships transporting oil. Several states have imposed 
strict liability for damages caused by oil pollution. 
Effective legislation is needed in most states to 
control the municipal and industrial waste pollu- 
tion which often causes eutrophication of estua- 
ries. Vermont has established a system of effluent 
charges to control this pollution. The charges are 
based on the nature and amount of the effluent 
discharged, the frequency of discharges, and the 
effect the discharges have on established water 
quality standards. Washington recently vested a 
state agency with authority over location of 
powerplants in order to control thermal pollution. 
Similarly, state controls should also be established 
over estuarine areas to prevent unreasonable 
dredging and filling, channelization, beach erosion 
projects, and hurricane protection activities. Pro- 
tection of estuarine areas would be greatly sim- 
plified if it was brought under total state or federal 
control and was subject to knowledgeable 
planning activities. (Johnson-Florida) 
W72-07868 



ESTUARINE POLLUTION: THE DETERIORA- 
TION OF THE OYSTER INDUSTRY IN NORTH 
CAROLINA, 

For primary bibliographic entry see Field 05G. 
W72-07869 



DEFINING NAVIGABLE WATERS AND THE 
APPLICATION OF THE PUBLIC-TRUST DOC- 
TRINE IN NORTH CAROLINA: A HISTORY 
AND ANALYSIS, 

T. W. Earnhardt. 

North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 49, p 888-920, 

August 1971. 164 ref. 

Descriptors: 'North Carolina, 'Ownership of 
beds, 'Estuaries, 'Navigable waters, Estuarine 
environment, Tides, Coastal marshes, Coasts, 
Tidal marshes, Shoals, Shores, Coastal plains, 
Wetlands, Judicial decisions, History, Statistics, 
Legal aspects. 
Identifiers: 'Public trust doctrine. 

The future of estuarine lands is considered, par- 
ticularly regarding possible application of the 
public trust doctrine. The United States Supreme 
Court has indicated state governments cannot ab- 
dicate their authority as trustee of navigable 
waterbottoms through conveyance unless these 
grants will either benefit the public or will not sig- 
nificantly impair public rights. North Carolina 
courts have consistently affirmed application of 
the public trust doctrine using the mean high tide 
line as the point beyond which no lands can be 
granted. However, there are three possible tests in 
North Carolina for land-title and navigation cases: 
(1) the ebb-and-flow test only in land-title owner- 
ship problems; (2) the sea- vessel test in non-tidal 
waters for land-title determination; and (3) the any 
craft test in obstruction-of-navigation cases. The 
traditional methods used to pass navigable water- 
bottoms into private hands are discussed. The 
ecological importance of marshlands and shoal 
waters requires courts to either declare them 
navigable in fact or apply the ebb-and-flow test of 
the common law jus publicum lands. (Doise- 
Florida) 
W72-07870 



COASTAL LAND USE DEVELOPMENT: A 
PROPOSAL FOR CUMULATIVE AREA-WIDE 
ZONING, 

J. C. Fuller, Jr. 

North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 49, p. 866-888, 

1971. 128 ref. 

Descriptors: 'Zoning, 'Non-structural alterna- 
tives, 'Constitutional law, 'Governmental inter- 
relations. Legal aspects. Public rights, Administra- 
tion, Competing uses, Condemnation, Economics, 
Governments, Jurisdiction, Land tenure, Legisla- 
tion, Regulation, Water resources development, 
Land use, Planning, Long-term planning. 
Economic justification, Political aspects. Coasts, 
Continental margin, Seashores. 

Proper development of coastal regions will require 
legislation controlling the planning, regulation, 
acquisition, and development of these areas. The 
appropriate level of governemental authority to 
regulate this development appears to be the state. 
Prior state environmental control has been exer- 
cised either through a single agency or depart- 
ment, an interagency council, or an agency spe- 
cially created for a particular problem. A total pro- 
gram of comprehensive planning, including 
strategic guidelines for action and planning 
review, is needed to support the regulation of 
coastal areas. This may be accomplished through 
cumulative area-wide zoning. Such zoning allows 
development in any manner allowed by the local 
authorities which is more restrictive than the zon- 
ing designation established by the state govern- 
ment for that area. This use of the power to zone is 
constitutional because cumulative area-wide zon- 
ing bears a substantial relation to the public wel- 
fare and thus would not be a taking of property 
even if it caused a reduction in land values. (John- 
son-Florida) 
W72-07872 



NEW YORK STATE WATER RESOURCES 
COMM'N. V. LIBERMAN (RIGHT OF STATE 
TO REQUIRE RIPARIAN TO OBTAIN PERMIT 
TO FILL LAKE BED). 

326 N.Y.S.2d 284-289 (Sup. Ct. 1971). 



93 



Field 06— WATER RESOURCES PLANNING 
Group 6E — Water Law and Institutions 



Descriptors: 'New York, 'Riparian waters, 
•Riparian land, 'Judicial decisions, 'Lake beds, 
Navigable waters, Ownership of beds, Pollution 
abatement, Waste disposal, Domestic wastes, 
State governments, Public rights, Public benefits, 
Constitutional law, Environmental effects, Law 
enforcement, Beds under water, Real property, 
Riparian rights, Relative rights, Regulation, 
Aministrative agencies. 

Identifiers: 'Fill permits. Public trust doctrine, In- 
junctions (Prohibitory). 

Plaintiff State Water Resources Commission 
brought an action against defendant riparian 
owner: (1) to enjoin defendant from placing fill in 
navigable waters of Cayuga Lake, (2) to require 
defendant to remove illegally placed fill, and (3) to 
invoke statutory civil penalties. Defendant 
pleaded general denial and asserted: (1) the statute 
of limitations, (2) laches, (3) the unconstitutionali- 
ty of the statute requiring a fill permit as a taking 
of private property without just compensation, 
and (4) that plaintiff had an ineffective claim. The 
New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 
held that: (1) Cayuga Lake is navigable and that 
ownership of land under its waters is held by New 
York in trust for its citizens, and (2) enforcement 
of the permit procedures of a New York statute is 
a proper method for regulating property rights 
under the state's police power to regulate and con- 
trol navigable waters. The court dismissed defen- 
dant's statute of limitations defense and held that 
laches should not apply against the state's right to 
recover and protect property held in trust for the 
people. (Bland-Florida) 
W72-07873 



GRAY V. SOUTHERN FACILITIES, INC. (MEA- 
SURE OF DAMAGES TO REAL PROPERTY 
FROM STREAM POLLUTION). 

183 S.E.2d 438-444 (S.C. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'South Carolina, 'Damages, 'Judi- 
cial decisions, 'Negligence, Water pollution ef- 
fects, Water pollution sources, Gasoline, Water 
pollution, Adjudication procedure, Legal aspects, 
Value, Real property, Oil industry. 

Plaintiff property owner brought suit against de- 
fendant petroleum plant for damages resulting 
from the negligent operation of gasoline storage 
tank. Plaintiff alleged that defendant allowed 
gasoline to be pumped into a creek adjacent to 
plaintiff's property and that this resulted in a fire 
which caused damage to plaintiff's property and 
great depreciation in property value. The Supreme 
Court of South Carolina found for defendant, af- 
firming the trial court's determination that 
testimony failed to show that plaintiff's duplex or 
property was damaged by fire, smoke, or fumes 
emitted from the creek. The court noted that for 
permanent injury to real property from stream pol- 
lution the proper measure of damages is the dif- 
ference between the value of the land before and 
after the injury. The court held, however, that 
plaintiff's claim for damages based upon injury to 
the property's reputation was too speculative, not 
only as to amount but also to the portion directly 
resulting from defendant's negligent pollution of 
the stream. Moreover, the court ruled that defen- 
dant's single, isolated act of negligence was not 
sufficient to establish a nuisance. (Blank-Florida) 
W72-07874 



PIERCE V. RILEY (CANAL CONSTRUCTION 
TO PROVIDE ACCESS TO LAKE FOR NON- 
RIPARIANS). 

192 N.W.2d 366-369 (Ct. App. Mich. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Michigan, 'Reasonable use, 'Ease- 
ments, 'Public access, 'Lakes, 'Canal construc- 
tion, Artificial use, Right-of-way, Water law, 
Water rights, Legal aspects, Judicial decisions, 
Recreation, Riparian rights, Canals, Adjacent lan- 
downers, Riparian waters, Riparian land. Relative 
rights, Real property. 
Identifiers: 'Injunctions (Prohibitory). 



Plaintiff lakefront property owners brought an ac- 
tion for a declaration of rights and an injunction 
against defendant lakefront property owners who 
intended to grant right-of-way easements for lake 
access to nonriparian owners. Defendants 
proposed to dig a canal through their lot fronting 
the lake, thus providing lake access for ninety 
more lots and increasing by 66% the number of 
families having lake access. Plaintiffs contended 
that defendants' use was an artificial use governed 
by the reasonable use rule, and they asserted that 
defendants' use was an unreasonable use. Defen- 
dants denied the unreasonableness of their use and 
pointed to already existing public access to the 
lake via a public park. The Michigan Court of Ap- 
peals, Division Three, held that public access was 
irrelevant and that increasing the number of fami- 
lies having access to a lake by 66% by the con- 
struction of a canal was an unreasonable use. The 
court, therefore, reversed the trial court and en- 
joined defendants from granting the right-of-way 
easements. (Brackins-Florida) 
W72-07875 



DISCON V. SARAY, INC. (CANAL OWNER'S 
RIGHT TO FILL IN CANAL). 

255 So.2d 489-492 (1st Ct. App. La. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Louisiana, 'Canals, 'Navigation, 
'Judicial decisions, Tidal waters, Canal construc- 
tion, Lake stages, Right-of-way, Open channels, 
Lateral conveyance structures, Legal aspects, 
Transportation, Water conveyance. 
Identifiers: 'Injunctions (Prohibitory), 'Naviga- 
tional servitude. 

Plaintiff canal users brought suit to preliminarily 
enjoin defendant from filling in a canal and 
thereby depriving plaintiffs of access to Lake 
Pontchartrain. Defendant responded, alleging title 
to the canal and claiming plaintiffs had access to 
Lake Pontchartrain through an alternate canal on 
defendant's property. The First Circuit Court of 
Appeal of Louisiana held that although the canal in 
question was a 'navigable waterway' the evidence 
established defendant's private ownership. Addi- 
tionally, since the canal was not affected by a 
regular ebb and flow of the tide, defendant could 
legally fill it in as a matter of convenience, pro- 
vided he afforded plaintiffs access to the lake by 
an alternate canal. Since no stipulation was made 
that the trial on the rule for preliminary injunction 
would also constitute the trial on the merits seek- 
ing a permanent injunction, the suit was not 
dismissed but remanded to the trial court. (Blank- 
Florida) 
W72-07876 



COX V. TOWNSHIP OF NEW SEWICKLEY 
(REGULATION OF JUNK YARDS TO PRO- 
TECT NATURAL WATERCOURSES). 

284 A.2d 829-834 (Commonwealth Ct. Pa. 1971). 

Descriptors: 'Pennsylvania, 'Regula